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THE DYING CHILD.
(Continued from page 172.) We watch'd him while the moonlight, Some little token give me,
ON THE COMMUNICATION or Heat.
Which I may kiss in sleep
12. CONDUCTION.-If the ends of a common poker and a rod of And all the woods were still.
And bless you, though I weep.
glass, be placed in a fire, and allowed to remain in it for about The brother of two sisters My sisters say I'm better
half an hour, a very different temperature will be found to exist in Drew painfully his breath :
But, then, their heads they shake : A strange fear had conie o'er him,
the other extremity of the iron poker from that of the glass rod. O Mother ! give me something For Jove was strong in death.
To cherish for your sake.
Heat will be rapidly conducted along the iron, and slowly along The fire of fatal fever Why can't I see the poplar,
the glass. Iron is said to be a good conductor of heat, glass on Burnt darkly on his cheek,
'The nioonlit stream and hill,
the contrary a bad one. Among the best conductors of heat are And often to his niother
Where Fanny says good angels He spoke, or tried to speak :
Dream, wliet the woods are still ?
| the metals, and dense compuct bodies generally. Among the "I felt, as if from slumber
worst, the natural covering of animals, as feathers, hair, wool, down, Why can't I see you, Mother? I never could awake :
I surely am awake:
and all very porous bodies. O Mother ! give me something
Oh! haste and give me something
13. A simple experiment can be made to exhibit, in a striking
manner the difference between good and bad conductors of beat. A cold dead weight is on me,
His little bosom heaves not: A heavy weight, like lead
The tire hath left his ebeek :
Take a gun barrel or any cylinder of iron ; and also a cylinder of My bands and feet seem sinking
The fine chord-is it broken ! Quite through my little bed :
wood of equal dimensions. Cover the cylinders neatly with a piece of T'he strong chord-could it break!
writing paper—and hold them before a good fire, or, what is better, I am so tired, so weary
Ah! yes: the loving spirit With weariness I ache:
Hath wing'd his flight away:
over a spirit lamp. The paper surrounding the iron, may remain O Mother! give ine something A mother and two sisters
for many minutes without being scorched, while that about the To cherish for your sake!
Look down on lifelcss clay.
wooden cylinder will soon be burned. The heat passes through
the paper in both instances, but it is rapidly diffused through the COMPRESSION IN ORATORY, -Eloquence, we are persuaded, will
substance of the iron, and slowly through the bad conducting wood, never flourish in America or at home, so long as the public taste is
80 that it soon accumulates in one spot, in sufficient quantity to infantile enough to measure the value of a speech by the hours it
burn the paper. occupies, and to exalt copiousness and fertility, to the absolute dis
14. The bad conducting power of feathers, hair, wool and down, regard of conciseness. The efficacy and value of compression can
is due to the air they contain among the parts of which they are scarcely be overrated. The common air we bent aside with our composed. It is thus that snow, a very porous body, prevents the breath, compressed, has the force of gunpowder, and will rend the
passage of the heat of the earth, and serves as a warm covering solid 'rock, and so it is with language. A gentle stream of per
for vegetables in winter. Sand is a very bad conductor of heat, suasiveness may flow through the mind, and leave no sediment: | hence it is used to surround furnaces and boilers. A layer of perlet it come at a blow, as a cataract, and it sweeps all before it. It | fectly dry sand, spread upon the palm of the hand, will effectually is by this, magnificent Cicero consounds Cataline, and Demosthenes prevent, for some minutes, the heat of a red hot ball of iron laid overwhelms Æschines ; by this that Marc Antony, as Sbakspeare upon it from penetrating to the skin. The boilers of locomotive makes him speak, carries the heart away with a bad cause ;-by this
engines are clothed with felt, a bad conductor, for the purpose of that Lady Macbeth makes us for ihe moment sympathize with mur
confining the heat of the steam, as much as possible. For the der. The language of strong passion is always terse and com same reason we clothe ourselves in flannels or furs, which prevent pressed; genuine conviction uses few words ; there is something
the escape of the heat of the body. When iron and wood are exof artifice and dishonesty in a long speech. No argument is worth
posed to a very low temperature during a winter's night, they prousing, because none can make a deep impression, that does not bear
duce very different effects upon the finger when applied to them. to be stated in a single sentence. Our marshalling of speeches,
The iron feels much colder than the wood, although there may be essays, and books, according to their length, deeming that a great
no difference in the temperature. Iron being a good conductor, work which covers a great space this “inordinate appetite for
rapidly conveys the heat of the finger away, whereas the wood abprinted paper," which devours so much and so indiscriminately that
stracts it slowly. For exactly the same reason, an iron roof in sumit has no leisure for fairly tasting anything—is pernicious to all
Iner seems much hotter than one constructed of shingles, the former kinds of literature, but fatal to oratory.
imparting its heat more rapidly than the latter.
15. Fluids are bad conductors of heat downwards ; water, in
deed, may be made to boil near the upper part of a glass vessel, STUDY OF LOGIC.--The Asiatic Journal, 1827, records the following instance of acuteness in a young Brahmin.
without communicating much of its heat to the lower portions of
After the introduction of juries into Ceylon, a wealthy Brahmin, whose unpo
the fluid. Into two small tubes, as represented in figures 3 and 4, pular character had rendered him obnoxious to many, was accused
introduce some water coloured with red cabbage, and carefully fill
the tube with colourless water. Place a spirit lamp at the botof murdering his nephew, and put upon trial. He chose a jury of
tom of one tube, and near the surface of the water in the other. The his own caste ; but so strong was the evidence against him, that
arrrows in Fig 3 indicate the direction of the current of heated and twelve out of thirteen of the jury were thoroughly convinced of his
cold water, which will continue until the liquid boils and is uniguilt. The dissentient juror, a young Brahmin of Camisseram,
formly coloured. The tube, as shown in Fig 4, may be held in stood up, declared his conviction that the prisoner was the victim
the hand, without inconvenience, immediately underneath the boiling of a conspiracy, and desired that all the witnesses should be recallod. He examined them with astonishing dexterity and acuteness, and
liquid ; the coloured portions remaining at the bottom undisturbed. succeeded in extorting from them such proofs of their perjury that
Fig. 3. the jury, instead of consigning him to an ignominious death, pronounced him innocent. The affair made much noise in the island, and the Chief Justice, Sir Alexander Johnson, sent for the juror who had so distinguished himself, and complimented him on the talents he had displayed. The Brahmin attributed his skill to his study of a book, which he called "Strengthener of the Mind." He had obtained it from Persia, and had translated it from the Sanscrit, into which it had been rendered from the Persian. Sir Alexander Johnson expressing a curiosity to see the book, the Brahmin brought a Tamul MS. on palm leaves, which Sir Alexander sound, to his infinite surprise, to be the “Dialectics of Aris. totle."
Education is the cheap defence of Nations.-(Burke.
16. In the change which takes place in the natural clothing of apinals at the approach of winter, we observe a beautiful provision against the severity of the season. Hair is changed into wool, feathers interspersed with a thick lining of down, and furs thickened by • dense mass of short hairs.
17. Brittle bodies are liable to be cracked or broken upon the sudden application of heat. Hot water poured into glass decanters, tumblers, &c., frequently breaks them. The glass, being a bad conductor of heat, has one surface suddenly expanded, whilst the other remains nearly in the same state as before. The unequal expansion causes a disruption of the substance of the glass. This effect is most observed when the glass is thick, and presents an obstacle to the passage of heat, and a uniform expansion of its parts. Plates of heated cast iron are also often broken when cold water is poured upon them. One side is suddenly contracted by cold, while the other suffers little diminution in its temperature. The unequal contraction disarranges the particles of the brittle iron,and forcibly separates them.
18. Many extensive and highly important natural phenomena depend upon the expansion of air and water by heat, and the current induced by that effect. The heat which proceeds from the sun imparts very little of its effect to the transparent air through which it passes. It is received by the earth, which in many parts of the world would become intolerably hot, but for the air which envelopes it. The layer of air next to the earth becomes warm by its contact with the heated surface of that body, it is immediately expanded, and rendered lighter than the colder air above it. It rises in consequence, and gives place to a supply of cold air from the colder regions, which is warmed in turn, and ascends to make room for fresh additions from the vast reservoir from above and around. It is thus that the earth is cooled and the air warned. In the islands of tropical seas, this phenomenon is of vast importance to the inhabitants. The cool and refreshing breezes sweeping over the surface of the waters, convey away the heat of the hot soil, re-animate all orders of animal life, and revive the drooping forms of the vegetable world. The trade winds spring from the same cause. The core rents established in an unequally beated vessel of water will afford an apt illustration of the mode in which these greut Fig. 5" operations of nature are silently and imperceptibly going on. Dissolve some sugar in a glass of cold water, which, when at rest, place over a spirit lamp, and observe the course of the currents immediately formed. Fig. 5 represents the glass vessel and lamp-the arrows show the direction of the currents, the warmed water ascends by the sides of the vessel, the cold fluid from above descends and occupies its place, until it receives that accession of heat which renders it lighter than particles above it ; it then ascends by the sides.
19. RADIATION.- A hot body gives off a portion of its heat in straight lines, and in all directions. Heat thus given off, is said to be radiated, like rays of light. It moves with inconceivable rapidity, and does not always affect the body through which i: passes. Heat from the sun is altogether radiated. It proceeds to the earth and icto the planetary spaces in straight lines at the rate of eleven millions of miles in one minute. It produces very little effect upon the atmosphere before it reaches the earth. Whenever heat is transmitted from one body to another without affecting intervening matter, it consists of radiant heat. If, when standing before a bot fire, we suddenly interpose a screen, the effect is felt instantaneously; showing that the warmth came directly from the fire in straight lines, without increasing the temperature of the intervening air to any great degree.
20. The power of radiating heat, or giving it off in straight lines scems to depend upon the nature of the surfaces of the radiating bodies. Thin, however, is not the case ; it has been ascertained that the radiatiog power of the same body is in the ratio of its density. The discussion of this question is of too scientific a character to be introduced into a popular view of the subject.
21. Radiant heat is absorbed by bodies possessing rough or dark surfaces, such as stones, dark woods, bricks, soils, animal and vegetable substances, &c., their temperature being increased by the hear absorbed. Polished and white surfaces reflect heat, that is, they throw it back again in straight lines.
22. Hold a piece of poliebed tin before a fire, or in the rays of
the sun, it will reflect the greater portion of the radiant heat falling upon it, and its temperature will increase very slowly. If its polished surface be roughened, scratched, or painted, it will absorb heat rapidly, and 'eflect but little, consequently its temperature will soon be heightened. The best absorbing surfaces are the best radiators. If a painted and a polished tin plate be heated to the same temperature, and then exposed to air on a cloudless night, tho painted surface will give off its heat inuch more rapidly than that which has its suriace polished. If hot water be poured into two glass or tin vessels, one being smeared on the outside with lamp black, the other wiped dry and clean, the water will cool much more rapidly in the painted than in the polished vessel. It follows from these singular properties, that whenever heat is required to be retained for a length of time in any vessel, the sides of the vessel should be highly polished. We observe this principle introduced into practice, in the construction of various utensils, as tea-pots, tea-urne, &c., their bright metallic surfaces retarding the radiation of heat. We blackes the outside of stoves and stove pipes for a contrary purpose, namely, to induce them to radiate the heat they contain as much as possible, so that their warmth may be imparted to the objects in the room. In cooking vessels, such as builers, kettles, pans, &c., that part exposed to the fire should be black and rough, in order that it may absorb heat with rapidity, whereas those parts not immediately exposed to the fire, should be highly polished, that they may radiate the heat received through the bottom from the fira as little as possible.
23. Colors affect the absorption and radiation of heat to a great degree. Dark colors when exposed to radiant heat soon become warm, and they give off their absorbed heat with equal rapidity. A dark soil will be hotter during the day time than a light coloured one, it will also cool more rapidly when the sun sets.
24. The deposition of dew upon the stalks and leaves of vegetables is due to the power they posee83 of radiating heat, which passes off into the planetary spaces. The quantity of moisture which air can contain in the state of invisible vapour is dependent upon its temperature. Air at 80° will dissolve more va pour of
water than air at 50°. If a substance cooler than ajr is brought To in contact with it, a portion of the heat of a thin stratum of air
passes into the body it envelopes, its temperature is consequently lessened, and it cannot continue to hold in solution the vapour of water it may have previously dissolved. A portion of such vapour will immediately assume the fluid form, and be deposited upon the surface of the cool body. Leaves radiate heat with great facility: on clear nights they become cooler than the surrounding air. A thin stratum of air above them gives off its heat to the leaves, and loses the power of retaining all the moisture it had previously dissolved. A portion is therefore deposited upon the surfaces of the leaves in the form of dew.
25. Pour cold water from a well into a glass vessel in a warm room, the outside will soon become moist with dew. On a clear evening place a board about a foot above the grass, radiation will be prevented, and if the night is calm, no dew will be deposited upon the leaves of the covered grass. A thin fleecy covering of clouds obstructs the radiation of heat from leaves of trees into the planetary spaces. Clouds, atmosphere, and leaves preserve a nearly uoiform temperature under such circumstances; hence dew is not secn on cloudy nights.
26. A beautiful instance of the effects of radiation is observed on a large scale during a Canadian winter. It is invariably found that snow which lies near the fences, trunks of trees, logs, and tusts of grass, melts much more rapidly than at a distance from them. The snow, in fact, receives radiated heat not only from the sun but also from the bodies it surrounds. A tree or log becomes warm by the absorption of heat from the sun ; it radiates the heat it has received in all directions, and it is found that beat thus radiated by terrestrial bodies is more rapidly absorbed by snow than the direct heat from the sun, the greater portion of the latter being reflected. Cattle find the bush much warmer than the open fields, during the cold days and nights of the winter season. Radiation of heat from the earth is much retarded by the covering of forest trees ; the trunks and branches of the trees themselves also radiate the heat they have absorbed from the sun's rays during the day'. time, these causes unite with the protection afforded from cold winds, in elevating the temperature of the bush far above that of the open unprotected plains.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION.
tional Societies above mentioned, for the purpose of establishing and
supporting Normal Schools, for the training of Teachers; and re༢༢ ༣ ༤ ན ཀུང ཤ ར ར བ ཆ ༢ ག ག ད ན ༢ ... ང་ ཀཀ ར ང ར ད ར ། ག ཀ་
gulations making Inspection' a necessary condition in all schools TORONTO, DECEMBER, 1850.
where pecuniary assistance was given. No objection was, of course, wwwxna
"WXwmv made by either of the Societies concerned to the grants for their - EDITORIAL CORRESPONDENCE OF THE Rev. Du. RYERSON.
Normal Schools ; but considerable opposition was made to the pro.
posed system of inspection, and the mode of appointing inspectors. .. . For the Journal of Education.
The rights of the established Church were arrayed on the one side,
and those of a voluntary association on the other, against this inter. London, November 22nd, 1850.
ference on the part of Government. They could accept of any What has been done and is now doing by the Brlish Government amount of public money from Government, but they objected to the for the elementary education of the hitherto neg.ected masses of Government's seeing, by means of publie officers, whether that mothe people in Great Britain and Ireland, deserves special notice and ney was accomplishing the objects of its appropriation. The differhigh admiration. I will give a summary view of it, as I find it in
find itinences were at length adjusted, by the Government agreeing not to official and other papers which I have procured and examined dur
appoint any inspector of the National Society Schools assisted by
Parliamentary grant who should not be approved of by the Archbishop ing the last few days.
of Canterbury, and no inspector of the British and Foreign Society The national system of education in Ireland has been so frequently | Schools aided by the grant who should not be approved of by the and largely referred to in the Journal of Educatior, that I shall not
Managing Committee of that Society. From 1839 to 1847 the ef
forts of the Committee of Council, on Education were unceasingly notice it here, except to remark that, commencing in 1832, by au
directed to devise and establish some general and comprehensive thority of a short despatch, and under the management of a liberal
system of elementary education, based on Christian principles, but and judicious Board of Education in Dublin, it has accomplished not exclusively sectarian. Its proceedings and inquiries into the more for Ireland than all the agitators and associations that have state of education among the poor, and the best means of promotever'existed there. It has spread over the country thousands of
ing its general views on the subject, are presented in successive well-trained teachers; it has aided and prompted the erection of
volumes, two a-year, which reflect the highest credit on the zeal and
ability of the Secretary (who was, in fact, the main spring of the many hundreds of schoolhouses ; it has prepared and published a whole movement), and on the Christian liberality and patriotism of series of school books which for excellence and cheapness have no enlightened statesmen. But the differences and opposition of the rivals in this country ; its pupils are upwards of half a million ;* its
several religious persuasions presented insuperable obstacles in the
way of establishing by legislative enactment any national system system of school inspection is efficient and admirable for the purposes
of elementary education. The Committee, therefore, determined contemplated ; its spirit and its publications are soundly Christian,
to promote, as far as possible, by means of its own regulations, unpoisoned by sectarian bigotry, and undiluted by infidel indiffer- t adapted to existing circumstances, this great object of national ence ; the net work of its operations is spread over every county in honour and common humanity. The conclusions suggested by their Ireland ; 'its books are used in the schools of every county both of
years of experience and deliberation were embodied in a series of
Regulations in the form of Minutes of Council, in 1846, containing, England and Scotland, as well as Ireland ; its resources from Parlia
as an able and liberal writer (Rev. Richard Dawes, Dean of Herementary liberality alone now amount to the magnificent sum of
ford) has remarked, “ the only plan the present generation is likely £125,000 per annum ; and the chief impediments to its wider diffu- to have the opportunity of trying; and, moreover, in itself a comsion and greater usefulness, are religious bigotry and ecclesiastical
prehensive system, which, if taken up and worked in a proper spirit, fanaticism—the two great modern antagonistic powers against true
by those who take a lead in the education of the country, is likely .
to be attended with the happiest results." civilization and real liberty.
The objects embraced in these Minutes of Council,finally adopted. It was in 1833 that the public attention began to be particularly in 1846, are the following: attracted to the subject of popular education in Great Britain ; and 1. Grants in aid of buildings, and carrying on the Normal.. it was in that year, under the government of Lord Grey, that the Schools for the training and instruction of Teachers. first practical step was taken on the part of the House of Commons 2. Grants for building Schools and masters' houses in aid of local by a grant of £20,000--a sum which was continued by an annual and voluntary efforts. vote, until 1839. This sum was administered by the Lords of the
3. Grants for the augmentation of salary to schoolmasters and Treasury, and was given in aid of private efforts, through the agency schoolmistresses who have obtained certificates of merit, according of two great Societies—the one exclusively Church of England, to the class of certificate, varying in amount from £10 to £30 per called the National School Society--the other embracing friends of annum for the masters, and from £10 to £20 per annum for the education of different religious persuasions, called the British and mistresses. Foreign School Society.
4. Gratuities to schoolmasters and' schoolmistresses for the inIn the year, 1839, the Parliamentary anpual school grant was in s truction of the pupil-teachers; £5 per annum for the first, £4 for croased to £30,000 sterling; in 1844, to £40,000; in 1845, to £75,- the second, and £3 for every additional one. 000 ; and at the present time it amounts to £120,000 per annum for 1 5. Stipends to pupil-teachers, from £10 in the first year to £20 England and Scotland, exclusive of £125,000 for Ireland. | in the last--the period of apprenticeship being five years.
When the grant was first increased in 1839, a special Board of 1 6. Payments to monitors, in such schools às want assistance in management was created by the appointment of a Committee of teaching; but where the teachers are not competent to instruct pupilHer Majesty's Privy Council on Education ; and the administration | teachers to the extent required, one half that of pupil-teachers. of the Parliamentary School Grant was transferred from the Lords 7. Grants to aid in the purchase of books, maps, and apparatus. of the Treasury to that Committee of Council on Education. The Such are the main objects to which the parliamentary grant is office of a salaried Secretary was created, and a very able and most 1. devoted ; and the way in which the Minutes of Council propose to earnest educationist, Sir James P. K. Shuttleworth, was selected. accomplish these objects, and to guard the public funds against School inspectors were also appointed, and steps were taken to es abuse, is as follows: tablish some definite plan for administering the parliamentary school 1. The inspection of both the elementary and normal schools, at grant, and for establishing a system of elementary education among least once a-year, by Government Inspectors. the poor, for it was to the education of tho poor that all these efforts 2. Examination, by the samo inspectors, of apprenticed pupil. were and are still directed. . . ...
i teachers, and of paid monitors, before the stipend is paid, and at the Among the first measures taken by this newCommittee of Council on rend, of cach year of apprenticeship. At the same time, examination Education, were grants of £5,000 to catch of the two great Educa- 1 of the master or mistress, if not certified, as to fitness for instruct
ting the apprentices the flowing voar. * For summary of Nauonal School Statistics for 1849. see page 186. ' ' . : +3. Examination of each school by the same inspectors, before the
master or mistress can receive the augmentation of salary, and pass muslin dresses, chiniz, embroidery, table-covers, damask hangings, ing of the pupil teachers before the gratuity for instruction is paid. paper hangings, hearth-rugs, carpets, metal work, stone carving, &c.
The inspectors are all University graduates, and persons who &c. A fair proportion of these designs for which prizes have been have in some way distinguished themselves as educators. Their awarded, are the productions of Female Students, who attend the salaries are from £800 to £1,000 per annum cach. The annual sa day classes only. These designs are eagerly purchased by manulary of the present Secretary of the Committee of Council on Edu facturers; and several of the students from this school have been cation (R. R. W. Lingen, Esq.) is, I believe, £1000.
permanently engaged by manufacturers in various parts of the kingWhenever assistance is given toward the ereotion of a school dom. Means and increased facilities of livelihood have been exhouse, the Committee of Council requires the settlement of the site tended to great numbers of intelligent and industrious persons, both on which it stands according to a certain prescribed form, which male and female, through the instrumentality of this noble instilucontains clauses providing for the fulfilment of all the obligations tion, and it is confidently anticipated that English manufactures will, required by the regulations of the Committee of Council. There at no distant day, rival those of France in what is ornamental, as is one form of deed for schools of the National Church School So they now excel thern in what is solid and durable. ciety; another for those of the British and Foreign School Society; The School of Design forms no part of the system under the a third for those of the Wesleyan body :* and a fourth for schools management of the Committee of the Privy Council on Education ; established by benevolent individuals or associations of individuals | it has been established and is conducted “ under the Directive auin direct connexion with the Comınittee of Council, and unconnected thority of the Lords of the Committee of the Privy Council for with any religious persuasion. The forms of deeds for school Trade." houses are the result of long negotiations between the Committee Such is an epitome of the governmental system of elementary eduof Council and the authorities or représentatives of the several cation in this country; or rather of the means adopted by the Gorparties concerned.
ernment for the promotion of elementary education for it can hardly The sum of £15,000 per annum is expended in support of a School be called a system. There is no uniformity, no unity, no nationality of Design, consisting of a Head School in London, and eight Branch in it. The Local Municipalities which unite the people in corporate schools established in the principal manufacturing towns of Eng action in the various counties, cities, and towns throughout the land, Scotland, and Ireland. The average attendance of students | kingdom, have nothing to do with popular education, and contribute at the Head School in London is nearly 500: the average attend nothing to its diffusion among the untaught multitudes within their ance in the several Branch Schools exceeds 3,000. The object of respective jurisdictions. All that is done is the result of isolated this Government School of Design is, to offer at small individual
individual and denominational effort, encouraged and aided by a expense, instruction to all who desire to obtain a knowledge of parliamentary grant. The opposition which Government has met Ornamental Art, and to supply a complete and systematic course with is almost incredible, and from quarters whence it should have of education, in relation to every kind of decorative work; more been least expected. Yet great progress has been made ; and the especially to such persons as are, or intend to be engaged in the efforts of the Committee of Council on Education are untiring. Not preparation of designs for the various manufactures of this coun a statesman or public man with whom I have conversed on the subtry. Drawing, Painting, and Modelling are therefore taught, with ject who does not lament the obstacles which denominational jealousy a view to the acquisition of knowledge and skill in ornamental De and hostility have raised against the establishment of a national syssign, and Decoration. This forms the essential and characteristic tem of elementary education. All upite in congratulations at such a business of the schools, by which it is distinguished from all other state of society as exists in Upper Canada, and in some other parts schools of art; and, accordingly all the exercises of the students of North America, where denominationalism is unknown in a system are required to have reference immediately or remotely to the pur of popular education, where all persuasions and classes and parties poses and requirements of ornamental art. The course of instruc- | unite in the common duty and interest of educating the whole people. tion comprises, elementary freehand drawing, from the flat and from There is no indisposition on the part of any portion of the British the round ; shading from the flat and the round ; geometrical draw | public to contribute to educational purposes. Even Joseph Hume ing, and perspective ; figure drawing from the flat, from the round, has never objected to the Parliamentary grant for elementary schools; and from the life, including anatomical studies, and crapery ; mo- and I am told that Parliament would readily increase the grant if delling of ornament, and of the figure as applied to ornament; paint-'| asked by Government. The English people, in advance of the civing in water colour, tempera, fresco, oil, and encaustic, from exam ilized world in the number and amount of their religious charities, ples of ornamental art, and from nature ; landscape, animals, foliage, are equally generous in voluntary contributions to edncational purflowers, fruit, &c.; exercises in composition, and original designs, | poses. I am assured by the Secretary of the Committee of Council for decorations and manufactures ; lectures on the history, princi on Education, that the £125,000 annual grant by Parliament, repreples, and practice of ornamental art.
sents at least, a rillion sterling raised by voluntary contributions for It will be seen that the course of instruction is limited to orna the same objects, and expended under the regulations of the Commental art, and does not embrace any of the branches of Practical mittee of Council, besides the large sums which are raised in the Mechanics, which should form a prominent feature of a correspond
samo way and expended in support of Ragged and Poor Schools of ing School of Art and Design, in Upper Canada. The attendance | various kinds. I have also been assured by the best authority, that in the evening at the Head School of Design, in London, Somerset were the sums now 'raised and expended in these isolated efforts, and, House, is very large-consisting mostly of clerks and young trades to a very great extent, in support of rival schools, conibined in one'genmen, and artists. I devoted one evening to this school ; received eral fund, and in support of one system of schools uniting all religious erery attention and information from the officers; and witnessed the denominations, (as we have in Canada) the amount would be adeexercises of the students in each class, and in each branch of the quate to educate every child in the land ! But an immensity of good course of instruction. I admired the ability and skill of the mas- | has been done, and is doing under existing circumstances. Tho ters, and evident application and industry of the students. The change which has taken place in the number and character of elecollection of model figures is large. Paintings are provided from mentary schools, of the character and position of teachers, of the the Royal Gallery at Hampton Court ; for the study of flowers and variety and quality and cheapness of school books, maps, &c., sincó other appropriate subjects, specimens of plants and flowers are my first visit to England in 1833, appears rather like an illusion than" supplied from the Royal gardens at Kew; the managers of the a reality, and brightens the prospect of the future. . .'.' Royal Zoological Societies grant free admission to students of the ad- The Committeo of Council has not only provided a series of plans vanced classes to sketch in their rardens ; and every well conducted for school houses and the residence of school masters, but has also student is allowed to take to his home books from a lending Library, 1 latterly selected and recommended a series of text-books and maps consisting of upwards of 1,000 volumes of works of art and instruct- for the schools, and for teachers, and has arranged with the several ive literature Premiums and prizes are also periodically awarded publishers of them to procure these books and maps at an average of for the best productions of students. I examined as many of these forty three por cent. below the ordinary prices at which they aro productions as my time would permit. They includod models for sold to the public. Thus these publications are supplied to 'manavarious articles of furniture, from a salt-collar up to the architectus gers of schools, and to teachers for their own use, through the Comral decorations of an apartment: beautiful designs for lace shawls, mittco of Council, upon the most advantageous terms to the purchas.. .
Ters; in addition to which the Committee of Council makcs a frce See pago 156...
grant of about twenty five per cent. of the amount purchased upon other educational matters.” In the performance of this important these low terms.
duty, we would respectfully direct the attention of the members of I cannot enter into statistical details as to the number of schools
each County Council to the Circular of the Chief Superintendent established and the amount of money both collected and received by the several denominations and other parties acting in concert with
of Schools, published in the August number of this Journal, in the Committee of Council ; nor can I advert to the character and which he refers particularly to the spirit in which these appointtopics of the very able reports of Inspectors. This general summary ments should be made. view must suffice for the present, and shows that the measures of the Committee of Council are a well devised and gigantic scheme to
The Chief SUPERINTENDENT'S ANNUAL SCHOOL REPORT FOR develop individual effort and reward individual merit, but very far short of a national system of elementary education, and vastly below
1849.-A number of copies of this Report having been retained the grandeur of England in every other element of national great
by the Clerk of the House of Assembly for the use of Members,
out of those ordered for distribution to the local School Officers of E. RYERSON. Upper Canada, as great a number of copies as was originally
designed was not sent out from the Education Office to supply SchooL ELECTIONS ON THE 8TH JANUARY, 1851.—By the 2nd
Trusteee, local Superintendents, and Municipal Corporations. The Section of the School Law it is enacted, “That the Annual Meet
School Trustees in the different Townships can, however, in case ing for the elections of School Trustees shall be held in all the
of a deficiency, lend each other any copies that may have been Villages, Towns, (as well as in Amherstburgh, Chatham, Guelph,
received. Perth, Simcoe, and Woodstock,] Cities, and Townships (School Sections of Upper Canada on the second Wednesday in January, in
PROSPECTUS OF THE FOURTH VOLUME OF THE each year, commencing at the hour of ten of the clock in the forenoon "
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION. In each School Section but one Trustee is to be elected, as usual.
(CIRCULAR.) The mode of conducting the Annual Meeting is prescribed by the 6th Section of the Act. It will be seen by this Section that Trus
To Municipal Councils, Local Superintendents, Boards of tees are required to read their Annual Report at this meeting ;
School Trustees, Teachers, and all others interested in the proand in case of any objection to it, arbitrators can be appointed to
gress of Education in Canada. decide upon the matter in dispute. Six days' notice of the meet GENTLEMEN, ing is required to be given by the Trustees.
The Conductors of the Journal of Education for Upper In each City and Town, one person is to be elected in each Ward Canada respectfully solicit your cordial co-operation in the to succeed the Trustee who retires. See 22nd Section of the publication of the Journal for another year--the fourth year of its School Act. Notice of the meeting to be given by the Trustees. existence.
In each of the incorporated Villages [i. e. "Towns with muni Our School Law having lately undergone a thorough revision and cipalities only"] referred to above, “ six fit and proper persons, from re-enactment, and facilities far more satisfactory and complete than among the resident freeholders or householders shall be elected ever before existed for the promotion of the educational interests School Trustees for such incorporated Village." The Reeve of 1 of the Province, having been provided, the extension of them the Township or Townships, in which any of these Towns is situ facilities, with suggestions as to the best means of carrying them ated, to give six days' notice of the meeting, to be posted in "at into effective operation will occupy a prominent place in the Journal least six public places." Intimation to this effect has been sent to for the ensuing year. the parties concerned. In each of tha Villages, with Municipalities Very generous provision having been made in the School Act ·already organized, the Reeve of such Village gives the required for the establishment of Libraries in every part of Upper Canada notice.
where the local authorities may feel disposed to avail themselves of The law definitely fixes the time, place, and objects of each An the liberality of the Legislature, “It will afford us” (as intimated nual School Meeting in Upper Canada ; and distinctly points out in the Prospectus of last year) “ peculiar satisfaction to give every the mode of conducting these meetings. It is to be hoped, there information in our power on the mode of establishing and manafore, that there will be no failure on the part of the people in any | ging Libraries, characteristic notices of the Books selected for locality to elect their School Trustees, as they alone can give orders them, and directions as to the best and cheapest method of obtain in favour of School Teachers, and perform other important duties
| ing them.” pointed out in the Act.
Arrangements of a satisfactory nature having been effected for
procuring engravings illustrative of the various interesting departANNUAL APPOINTMENT or LOCAL SUPRRINTENDENTS. — The 3rd ments of Science, the Practical Arts, and other subjects connected clause of the 26th Section of the School Act makes it the duty of with literary and scientific pursuits, the fourth volume will contain each County Municipality in Upper Canada:_" To appoint annually, several valuable contributions in connection with each of these dea Local Superintendent of Schools for the whole County, or for partments of Practical Knowledge. any one or more Townships in such County, as it shall judge expe The summaries of Educational," “Literary, and Scientific Inteldient ; to fix (which the limits prescribed by the thirtieth section ligence," will continue to form an attractive feature of the Journal. of this Act), and provide for the salary or salaries of such Local Additional facilities now exist for making these departments of the Superintendent or Superintendents: Provided always, that no such Publication still more important, as well as interesting and instructLocal Superintendent shall have the oversight of more than one ive-thus increasing its value as an Educational and Literary hundred Schools ; and provided also, that the County Clerk shall Journal. forthwith notify the Chief Superintendent of Schools of the appoint
The anxiety to afford full and satisfactory information to the seyment and aduress of each such Local Superintendent, and of the
eral officers charged with the administration of the new School law County Treasurer: and shall likewise furnish him with a copy of
prevented the Editor of the Journal from giving effect, in the third all proceedings of suci Council, relating to School assessments and
volume, to his intention of contributing short and comprohensive ro