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the semi-annual exhibition at the College, where we found a large third of that time consumed in vacations) and under the instruction audience assembled, and the students in the midst of their perform of only some four Professors in the undergraduate course, attain the ances. Mr. EVERETT was also present. He is a most amiable solid and extended University education to which their sacrifices man, and is loved with the strongest affection by young and old. and enterprize entitle them, and which is required by the interests The students who took part in the performances wore gowns; and of sound learning and of the country at large ? I suggest the questhey, in general, recited their dialogues and orations with great tion as one worthy of careful consideration by the Commission of spirit and much natural grace of manner. The concluding oration the Toronto University. was on the “CHARACTER OF Sir ROBERT PEEL"-written and de
A second remark is, that the Faculties of Theology, Law, and livered by a young man of Pittsfield, New Ilampshire. It evinced, Medicine, which, with the Faculty of Harvard College (the College upon the whole, a very correct appreciation of the character and
proper), compose the Cambridge University, are each established principal public acts of the great English Statesman, and (what is
and sustained by separate endowments, and derive no part of their very rare, even among educated Americans,) a clear perception of the
support from the funds by which HARVARD COLLEGE was established, genius and working of free constitutional government in England-a
and from which, together with the fees of tuition, the salaries of system which only requires to be understood to be honoured and its officers are now paid, and its other current expenses defrayed. admired by all enlightened men-a system which comprehends
It is a maxim in the New England States, that the Professions all the elements of responsibility and freedom in republican govern should educate themselves--pursued as they primarily are by indiment without those which are irresponsible and despotic.
viduals for their own advantage, or for the benefit of sections of the The performances ended, Dr. Sears introduced me to the Profes- | community. The Collegiate course of instruction is considered sors present; and as this was one of the two days in the year on common to all professions, and to all the intellectual and many of which they are accustomed to dine together, they invited us to dine the material interests of the whole country. Therefore the State with them. The dinner was served at the hotel ; it was sumptu provides for it; but the subsequent or distinct course of instruction Jus'and prepared in the best style, but there was no wine nor intox- | peculiar to each profession ought not to be sustained by the divericating drink on the table. The conversation was varied, social, ' sion of funds designed for liberal education generally, without and intellectual--such as became personal friends, and the most regard to particular professions. To what extent this principle learned body of men in America. The larger proportion of the should be acted upon in husbanding the remaining funds of the Professors are Unitarians; bui some of them are Episcopalians and Toronto University, is a matter worthy of grave deliberation by the Congregationalists. Dr. WALKER (presiding in the absence of authorities concerned. President SPARKS), the Professor of Intellectual and Moral Philo Another remark is, that the examinations in Harvard and all sophy, is said to be a man of great talent and learning, and second
other American Colleges, as far as I know, are public, and are cononly to Dr. SPARKS for the office of President of the University.
ducted, not by the Professors, but by Committees in each departHe is a most agreeable and entertaining man in conversation. I ment or subject, and for each class, consisting of educated men, and found that in one branch of his department, he adopts STEWART,
appointed a year in advance. Each of these Committees of Ex(accompanied with references to Rbid, BROWN, &c., *) as the basis of
aminers makes a written report of the result of their examination his course of instruction ; and in the other branch, the Elements of in each subject, and the reports thus made to the corporate authoriMorality, by Professor WuEwell, of Cambridge, England. Francis
ties of the College are generally published. Thus there is the test Bowen, A.M., Professor of Modern History and Political Economy,
and evidence of a public examination, and then that of a formal (and Editor of the North American Review) is a most pleasing man report by special Examiners, as to the efficiency of the instruction in conversation. He adopts as the basis of his course of instruction
and the progress of the students in each department and subjectin Modern History, the Historical Lectures of the late Dr. SMYTH, which is more satisfactory, if not more beneficial, than the entire Professor of Modern History in the English University of Cam- exclusion of the public from witnessing any examination, and the bridge ; and in Political Economy, the massive volumes of JOHN annual naked testimony of each professor as to the efficiency and Stuart Mills--the modernizer and practical expounder of Adam
results of his own labours. It would be very unsatisfactory for a Smith's Wealth of Nutions. The Classical Professor Felton,
Master of a Common or Grammar School to exclude every indivilooks not only a “ Grecian, but a veritable Greek," as his classical
dual of the community from witnessing any of the school exercises works evince. But I must desist from further personal allusions of
or the periodical examinations of the pupils, and then to come this kind, although there were several other Professors and Scholars
forward on the occasion of a public exhibition, and announce to the present, whose works and fame are widely known on both sides of
listening audience the great progress and vast attainments of his the Atlantic, and whose appearance and conversation made a deep boys. The importance of public examinations, and of their faciliimpression upon my mind.
ties for ascertaining the nature and modes of daily instruction, After visiting the noble library of the University, in a new and appears to me to increase with the elevation and public character of most magnificent building, we were conducted by Mr. E. N. Hors the institution concerned. FORD, the Rumford Professor, through the various parts of the Law My last remark is, the conviction expressed by Professors of four rence Scientific School, a building erected for his Lectures, on the American Colleges, and of three religious denominations, as to the application of the Sciences to the Useful Arts," and the experimen- | injury to sound learning and literature, which the establishment of tal manipulations of his students. The arrangements, laboratories, a great number of feeble Colleges, instead of one or two well furnaces, the various apparatus, and all the furniture of this building endowed and efficient ones, has occasioned. This was their unaniare on the most extensive scale. The Scientific School has been mous and strongly expressed opinion in reply to my inquiries. It recently founded by Mr. LAWRENCE, by an appropriation as an was their conviction that no endowment less than that which a endowment of $50,000; and the building has been erected and fur State alone can afford, is sufficient to place an University College nished at his sole expense, at a cost of about $30,000. Would upon an efficient footing ; that there should be such a College that we had some such Lawrences in Canada !
established and conducted on broad Christian principles in each The hour being late when we called at the residence of Ex
large State, in connexion with which individuals or religious denoPresident EVERETT, we regretted to learn that he had gone into minations might advantageously endow professorships for particular town.
purposes. There are two or three things connected with this most ancient In conclusion, I beg to state, that what I have written is not to and wealthy American University, on which I desire to make a
be regarded as official, but merely as my individual observations and remark or two. The first is, that a higher standard of qualifica suggestions on subjects in which, as a Canadian, I feel a deep tions is required for the matriculation of students than in any similar interest in common with my fellow-countrymen. The latter part institution in Canada ; that the Collegiate course extends over a of the foregoing remarks I had intended to make the subject of period of four years, under the instruction of a large number of
another communication ; but fearing that I might hereafter be able and industrious Professors, and with less than three months otherwise occupied, and that fresh materials might accumulate in vacations in each year. Can young men in Canada, with only a | my hands, I have thought it best to compress and transmit, without three years' course of Collegiate instruction (and more than one
further delay, the whole of my American observations on educa
tional men and measures. * Dr. W. has edited an American edition of Reid's Intellectual Powers.
THOUGHTS ON THE CAUSES AND RESULTS OF IN such intelligence to a class or grade produces invariably two conDIVIDUAL AND NATIONAL ENLIGIITENMENT.
sequences: namely, on the one hand a total ignorance, of their
true position and rights; and on the part of the favoured body a (By a Correspondeni.)
most overweaning estimate of the privileges to which they conAmong the questions connected directly or indirectly with the
sider themselves entitled. And this is not the less true, because general advance of knowledge in the world since the earliest period,
countries may be pointed out, wherein popular opinion on this suba very, cursory examination will discover numerous details worthy
ject is reasonably enlightened, though a large proportion of the of note ; among such subjects, the nature and effects of the intel
people are utterly untaught; in such instances it will be found, lectual and moral progress of every country afford matter desery
that a large and jufluential middle class, eminent for wealth and ing of grave consideration.
steady energy of character, have also become eminent for ingeIn contemplating the ancient empires, that successively ruled the
nuity and enlightenment. Such a body is sufficiently part and world, the Assyrian, Babylonian, Persian, Macedonian, and Roman,
parcel of the people to carry with it in its upward course, the great
mass of unintelligent ignorance, exercising, in favour of all, that one element at least is exhibited of a nature producing a course of action peculiar to such states, and of which, comparatively few
jealous supervision over law and government so necessary for the traces can be now discerned. In those early periods of the world's
preservation of true liberty. history, the existing power, that ruled mankind, might be said to
The species of intelligence thus forming the popular mind of a be without competition ; the balance of power was unknown; poli
nation or a portion thereof is the result of various causes; the tical economy, as applied either to a single state, or to the inter
practical acquaintance with life acquired by experience and intercourse of a number of states, was unthought of; popular opinion
course with other individuals and nations, a circumstance which was unfelt, or where it had a sensible existence, it lacked the aid
must materially affect the condition and character of a highly comof the press, that mighty engine, that has since rendered it the
mercial people, by which opportunity is afforded of noticing the remaster of free nations, and the ruler even of despots. Thus the
sults of various courses of action in other states ; the unavoidable world's tyrants of the olden days possessed, in deed and in truth, the
operation of the character and policy of different nations on those reality of absolute power. They, if any, acted by their own will,
in contact with them ;-these and other circumstances independuntrammelled by law, unvexed by popular agitation, and affected
ently of direct instruction necessarily produce a powerful effect on only by some traditionary custom hallowed in their own or their the formation of principles and opinions. people's eyes by the superstition of a venerable antiquity. Thus Thus there are two great principles or modes by which general the Persian despot spread his effeminate hordes over the fields of intelligence is imparted and character formed: namely, the operation Grecian freedom : thus the tyrant delighted Rome with the groans of the external circumstances among which we live, and direct inand screams of Christian captives, careless of a world's curses, and struction, received through the medium of the pulpit, the school, fearless of a neighbour's wrath. Now complete absolutism is dead. or other regulated means. The mighty Czar, that wields a fierce dominion over his fifty mil
These two mighty agents produce vhat may be termed education lions of serfs, knows a limit to his power; he dares not call forth
in its widest sense. From the former of them no individual, no to its utmost extent the embittered hostility of outraged humanity, nation, can possibly be free; this education of fate and nature or force a contest with a world's civilization. The butcher, that
all must undergo ; no isolation of position can relieve us from its thinks it glory to score with stripes the flesh of defenceless women, effects: this very isolation is one of its most powerful instruments, writhing under the scourges of an untutured mob and branded with and the hermit, who, in the early ages of Christianity, to escape the hatred and contempt of a dozen nations, no longer finds a shield in
from persecution or avoid the pollution of sin, hid himself in the the tyrant edicts of a weak despot, but is forced to flee from the African desert, submitted to its action, as completely as he, who trod scorn of civilized freedom, one among a thousand proofs, that a
the crowded paths of ambition, or sacrificed himself in the pursuit power has sprung up in the world, since the existence of the hoary of fame, or the absorbing thirst of wealth. The Hindoo widow monarchies of ancient times, that curbs with a giant hand, the men throws herself on her husband's pyre, the worshipper of Juggeraces alike of imperial barbarism and the wild licentiousness of un naut flings binisell beneath the wheels of his idol's triumphant car, lettered fory.
the wretched fakir endures through years of misery the unceasing The jealousy of power, the clash of nations, the very competition torture of upstirring anguish, the red Indian at the stake smiles of commercial interests, have forced on all a regard for the wrongs with defiant eye and unawed brow at the futile efforts of his foe, and rights of men and states, in some instances trifling enough, and the child of civilization sacrifices his mental and physical but in its spirit almost unknown to antiquity.
powers in the race of vain ambition, or his health in the pursuit of It is true that this course of action is still branded with the curse
miscalled pleasure ;-all and each trained and educated by external of selfishness, and degraded by cringing meanness, and that those
circumstances, from which there is no escape, exhibit the correwho pursue it are oftener operated on by fear of power, than by love
sponding tendencies, and pursue the course to which they guide of justice. Still it has its bases on solid grounds, and advances
him. These are the more powerful, in that they operate at every “passibus æquis” with the lengthened strides of modern civilization.
period of our lives ; the untutored mind of infancy, the plastic spirit The general advancement of intellectuality, the comparative freedom
of youth, the matured intellect of the ripe man are alike swayed from mental thraldom, the superior enlightenment on all points af
and moulded by their power. This is emphatically the education fecting social polity, have admitted of, and even urged on, enthusi
of habit and circumstance equally unceasing and unavoidable in its astic efforts after originality and improvement in all branches of
action. science and art, that have cleared away many of the ancient myths
The various considerations connected with this mode or means and fables by which our social philosophy has been so long over of social progress, if philosophically viewed, would lead to a disquishadowed. This has called forth that spirit of competition, which sition, highly interesting, no doubt, in its nature, but unsuited to causes one nation to watch with a jealous eye the outstretched our present views. How, for instance, are these external circumgrasp of every other; this has caused all to be more jealous of stances modified by natural dispositions ? Are these dispositions their rights, to examine with eagerness aught affecting the general innate, or are they the immediate product ? And to what exinterests of man, to discuss with keenness the regulations guiding tent, of the external agencies alluded to, can these agencies commercial intercourse, and finally, has wrought it sablest achieve be resisted, or does any power whatever exist, by which that warpments by that first and mightiest product of general enlightenment, ing of the mental vision, that overruling of the judgment, so often popular opinion.
the result of a long subjection to such external influences, can be A very slight examination is sufficient to show, that these results,
altogether obviated ? These and many other inquiries of a similar many of them altogether unknown to the ancient world, spring
character, are most important to the educator ; nor can that man prefrom that greater general spread of intelligence, by which all be
sume to organize a mighty system of national instruction, who does come more intimately acquainted with their rights, personal, social, not weigh them with the deepest care. political, and national. And this intelligence must be generally I am the more willing to dwell on this branch of the subject, bespread to produce any valuable effect; a very superficial inquiry cause, notwithstanding its extreme importance, it is too generally into the history of former ages will show, that the restriction of l altogether overlooked both in private and public education. The
child encounters a teacher not merely in his regularly appointed I have no intention at the present moment of considering any of instructors, but in his parents and in his companions ; in the exam the numerous deductions regarding national progress which may ples offered to his imitation, the books he studies, and even in the legitimately result from this view alone. I am only seeking to disfamiliar operations of nature and the external objects he habitually cuss in a very general way some of the means and consequences of contemplates, particularly if of a marked and startling character. popular education and enlightenment as evidenced in the character, To what an extent are the tone and character of the youthful mind conduct, and opinions of different nations at different periods ; comwarped and strained by peculiar local circumstances of an engross paring, as it were in the rough, one or two of the most marked feaing nature! These may or may not operate through physical tures of popular character in periods of barbarism and despotism, agencies ; no matter-they mould character, they produce a sensi with those brought to light in these times of comparative knowble result. Witness the warm, passionate, excitable, but usually ledge and freedom. No great course of action can be selected from nerveless and unsteady inhabitant of the tropics, and the active, history, no great manifestation of national feeling or opinion can be bold, and energetic nature of the native of a more temperate clime. brought under view, without detecting an immediate and intimate Nay, in the same country and with the same amount of actual in connexion between such subjects and the intellectual condition of struction, but in contact with natural phenomena of a more impres the people to which they refer, whence the transaction is easy to sive character, how much more superstitious is the inhabitant of the the causes of that condition, the means then or afterwards adopted mountains than of the plains; he who “ visits the sea in ships" thao to alter it, and the due adaptation of similar efforts to our own case. he who spends his life in comparative calm on land. The human In the foregoing remarks, I have alluded to that source of the mind naturally seeks an explanation of aught strange or wonderful, formation of character, which, depending on the unceasing action of and when unlettered ignorance fails to afford a clue, we need not be external circumstances we must all undergo; should your space permit surprised that it should attribute an unexplained wonder to some I trust to be able to avail myself of some other opportunity of discussportentous and mysterious agency of unrevealed power.
ing the other great department of education so powerful in its In individual instances, in extreme cases at least, we unhesitat. | operation on national character, namely, a regulated system of poingly seek for counteracting remedies against mischievous external pular instruction. These departments should never be'separated ; agencies, or at all events we usually endeavour to avoid the appli unhappily, however, the latter is so frequently mistaken for educacation of mental treatment likely to aggravate a prominent existing tion, that it is rendered a means of actual injury by a vicious neglect evil of personal character. The judicious parent who otherwise of the proper modes of applying it.
“X.” would retain at home a favourite son, of contemplative, studioos habits, observes a decay of active childlike vivacity and an undue precocity of mental power, and he forth with places him in circum
POPULAR SCIENCE. stances to repress the too early expansion of intellect and call forth the active energies of physical existence. The child is saved, the By H. Y. Hind, Esq., Mathematical Master, 8.c, Provincial body strengthened, and the intellect expanding afterwards at the
Normal School. natural period, produces the expecied fruit. What is the result of the opposite course? With decaying health and dwarfed and
The design of the present and succeeding chapters on Popular stunted growth, the wretched victim dies, an intellectual prodigy:
Science, will be to inform the general reader of the most important or worse still ; should the physical powers survive the wear and
and striking effects produced upon animate and inanimate matter, tear of mental precocity, he lingers on with weakened intellect
by the great agents, Heat, Electricity, Light, and the Chemical sometimes even totally obscured, and at best a melancholy contrast
Forces ; as well as to offer some familiar and practical illustrations to the vaunted efforts of his childish powers. Why is this? The
of the dependence of animal and vegetable life, upon that universal one parent knew what education is, the other did not. To the
harmony of action which is found to distinguish the complicated merely imaginative mind with weak or immature judgment, we offer
and ever changing influences these agents exercise over the foruns not food of an exciting and disturbing character ; and on the merely
which people the world we live in. logical enquirer, incapable almost of even the slightest tinge of
HEAT. poetic feeling, we force a mental diet of a totally opposite tendency;
1. The lifeless appearance of a Canadian forest during the Winand where opportunity exists, the nature and effect of external cir
ter months, presents a striking contrast to its beauty when arrayed cumstances operating on the feelings are carefully considered.
in the gay colours of summer attire, and enlivened by numberless Thus in the management of individuals, as I have said, the un
insert tribes. Tó what powerful agent may we attribute this avoidable education imparted by nature is sometimes acknowledged,
wonderful change,-& change which seems to awaken all vegetathough rarely called by its right name. In the instruction of the
ble and insect forms from a liseless repose, to the excitement masses, however, it is too frequently altogether overlooked, both by
and enjoyment of vigorous life? We cannot hesitate a moment in the framers of systems, and the operators in the work.
attributing this transforination to the genial inftuence of Heat. Among the most prominent and unceasing engines in the educa
2. In the forests of tropical countries where the heat is very tion of a nation, is example, the more powerful in proportion to the
uniform and intense, the most luxuriant vegetation presents a brilinfluence of the person affording it; a melancholy fact, from which
Jiant diversity of appearance from the commencement to the close it often happens, that superior abilities and information only afford
of the year, and affords nourishment and shelter to multitudes of increased opportunity of mischief. We never deny the power of
quadrupeds, birds, insects and reptiles. Intemperate climate, such example, day, we readily quote proverbs on the subject; and it
as that of Canada, the trees loose their leaves and cease to grow might thence be supposed, that we could be trusted to watch its
during the winter season, birds migrate to warmer countries, insects working, at least in important cases. But can we? Do we ac
bury themselves in the earth, or in decayed trunks of fallen trees, tually apply the principle in the great work of national enlighten
and bears, squirrels, snakes, frogs, lizarde, mice, and bats, are ment, not merely with regard to the public school teacher but to
plunged into a cold, senseless, motionless torpor. In the Arctic others, the minister, the physician, the lawyer, whose professions
regions, a scanty growth of mosses and microscopic plants, a few are all more or less of a teaching character; some pre-eminently
animals and birds, especially adapted to resist the effects of intense 80, and the others to the extent of being appealed to for advice and
cold, represent the living kingdoms of nature in those dreary wastes. guidance in difficult cases? Ignorant often of the real meaning
Without the invigorating influence of the great agent heat, contiand scope of education, and confounding it with instruction, which
nents would become uninhabited, oceans solid masses of ice, and is only a means, we forget that all such persons, but more particu
the whole world a scene of desolation and solitude. larly parents and school teachers, are actually educating, not only during the daily period of time specially devoted to the duties of 3. Respecting the true nature of heat little or nothing satisfacinstruction, but during every waking hour of their lives ; nay, so
tory is known. We can judge of it, as yet only by the effects it completely and undoubtedly is this the case, that, as instruction is
produces. Bodies acquire and loose heat without any change in commonly imparted, a far more decided effect is usually produced
weight. Not so however, with reference to their appearance and on the character of youth by the unconscious teaching of the school
properties. When iron, tin, lead, receive a certain amount of teacher's example in after hours than by the regulated efforts of his heat, they melt; that is, assume the fluid state. When water professional labours.
acquires heat it assumes the form of steam, which, when confined,
is capable of exerting a most astonishing force, sufficient to break the and water at 40° descends to the bottom of rivers, lakes and oceans, strongest vessels. The transmission of heat through space from the being then heavier than at any other temperature. In this sinsun to the earth, from burning bodies to those in their neighbor- gular exception of water to the law of expansion by heat, we dishood-seems to imply the capability of its being endued with the cover a sublime provision for the preservatien of the world as the power of rapid motion. It is thus that heat is considered as a fluid, abode of happy and intelligent beings. If ice did not float, it destitute of weight, of an exceedingly subtle and elastic nature, would fall to the bottom as soon as formed, and there find shelter whose particles mutally repel each other, and are attracted by parti- | from the heat of the sun ; thus layer after layer of ice subsiding cles of matter.
to the bottom, would soon convert streams, seas and lakes into solid 4. The general effect produced upon bodies by the acquisition
and immoveable masses, changing the climate and rendering upinof heat, is expansion. There are some singular exceptions to this
habitable the most fertile and delightful regions of the globe. law, of much interest and importance, which will be mentioned in
ed in ON THE MODE OF Measuring Degrees of Heat. the sequel.
10. The expansion and contraction of bodies, when submitted 4. Take a common Florence flask, and sup
to a change of temperature, offer a simple means of measuring the port it in a basin of water, as represented in
quantity or degree of that change. Such an instrument is called the cut ; pour boiling water upon it. The
a Thermometer or measurer of heat. It consists of a long and heat will expand the air and drive it out of
very narrow perforated tube of glass, terminating in a Fig. 2. the flask. When cool, the water will rise
small bulb. (See Fig. 2.) The bulb and a part of the tube by the pressure of the atmosphere to supply
are filled with quicksilver or alcohol. The instrument is the place of the air driven off by the heat. 9
then plunged into water containing melting ice, and a mark 5. The Blacksmith makes the tire smaller
made upon the wooden support of the glass tube, indicathan the circumference of the wooden part of the wheel ; before ting the height of the quicksilver. The temperature of potting it on he expands it by heat ; when suddenly cooled, the | melting ice is called the freezing point. The instrument parts of the wheel are bound together with great force by its con is then plunged into boiling water, and the height of traction. The walls of buildings which are liable to be thrust the quicksilver again recorded on the wooden support ; outwards by the weight of the roof, may be drawn into their per this is called the boiling point. The space between pend cular position and preserved in that situation, by bars of iron the freezing and boiling points is divided into 180 parts. passed through the side walls of the building, and provided 'with It was at one time supposed that the greatest degree of screws and nuts at their extremities. The bars are lengthened cold was produced by the mixture of snow and salt. Into by means of the heat of lamps, and when thus expanded the nuts this mixture. Fahrenheit, the inventor of this scale, are screwed tight up to the wall; when the bars cool, they con plunged his thermometer and marked the position of the tract with irresistible force and draw the walls together. The quicksilver by 0, or zero, and found it to be 32 parts below iron plates employed in the construction of large boilers, are riveted the freezing point of water. It is now known that a much together by means of red hot rivets. As the rivets cool :hey draw greater degree of cold than that represented by 0, or zero, the seams of the plates still closer together.
is experienced in various countries. It is usual to express
low temperatures in the following manner: -10° -12°,6. Early in the Spring the fresh shoots of trees and smaller ve
50°, &c., which are read 10 degrees ; 120 degrees, 50? getables are often “ dipped by the frost." The death of the shoot is frequently due to the sudden expansion of gasses contained in
degrees below zero, and signify that the temperature is
429,529, 820, sc. below the freezing point of water. the sap, by the warm rays of the sun falling upon them, tearing open the minute vessels in which the sap is enclosed. If the sky
The following table points out the effect of heat upon is clouded early in the morning, the shoot is not destroyed, because various substances, according to the scales of Fahrenheit's the gasses contained in the sap, expanding slowly, are enabled to thermometer, the one universally used in England and escape gradually through the pores of the bark or leaves.
America : 7. When different bodies receive accessions of heat, they do not Water boils at 212 degrees.
Ice melts at 32". increase in bulk in the same ratio. Three hundred and fifty cubic
Alcoh l boils, 174o.
Milk freezes at 30°.
Vinegar freezes about 280 inches of lead, at the temperature of melting ice, become three Ether boils, 980.
Mixture of weak oil of vitriol and hundred and fifty-one cubic inches at the temperature of boiliog Heat of the human blood. 98". I Snow,--78°. water. 800 cnbic inches of iron, and 1000 cubic inches of glass,
Medium temp're of the globe, 50%. ! Temp. of frozen Carb. Acid, -151o. become respectively 801 and 1001 cubic inches, under similar 11. Quicksilver boils at a temperature of 660 degrees : It cancircumstances. The same change in temperature cause
not therefore be used for measuring very high degrees of tempera1000 parts of water to become 1046
ture. Various instruments have been proposed for estimating the 1000 % alcohol ? 1110
temperature of bodies hotter than boiling quicksilver. Such instru1000 " air (and all gasses) 1373
ments are called Pyrometers, or measurers of fire. The Register 8. When a bar of iron is increased in length by heat to the
Pyrometer, invented by Daniell, is probably the most accurate. It extent of one inch, it exerts a force of expansion against any obsta
depends upon the expansion of bars of metal, connected with an index. ele opposing it, equal to the mechanical power required to draw it
The melting point of cast iron is thus ascertained to be 2786o ; out the same length-which is, as ean be easily imagined, enor
the highest temperature of a good furnace 3300°. mous. Engineers, therefore, in constructing bridges or buildings
To be continued. of iron, never attempt to control this force, but always give it free play. The tubular bridges over the Straits of Menai increase
Educational Intelligence, about three inches in length during a hot summer's day : allowance is made for this expansion in the masonry upon which their extre
CANADA mities rest. During the changeable weather in spring and autumn, they may be said to be continually in motion, constantly expanding and contracting with every change of temperature.
Educational Items from Various Sources.-Mr. Johnston of 9. The most remarkable exception to the alınost universal law
Port Hope has been selected as Master of the Port Dover Grammar School.
Ten candidates competed but the real contest was between Messrs Johnston, of the expansion of bodies by heat, and their contraction by cold,
R. Robinson, and Bogue- The Rt. Rev. Dr. Strachan has returned from occurs in water. Water not only expands with irresistible force
England, having realized £16,000 in aid of the new Church University. when changed into ice, but it increases in volume during the act of
It is stated that he has purchased 20 acres near Toronto as the site of Tricooling, long before its temperature is reduced so low as that of
nity College. The buildings will likely be ready next October. Two or more the freezing point. (See modes of measuring heat.) Water is
Professors from England have been engaged. The Medical Department of most dense, and consequently heaviest at 40°; it then begins to
the College was opened on on the 7th inst. -The first B. C. L. degree expand until it assumes the solid state of ice. Hence ice floats, ever granted in Lower Canada has been conferred by McGill College on Mr. C.C. Abbott --Drs. Arnoldi and Sewell have been appointed to fill the Act, provision is made for the division of the County, into what are called chairs vacated in McGill College hy Drs. Badgely and McDonnell who “ School Circuits," with the power of appointing a Local Superintendent have removed to Toronto--- The chair of Practical Anatomy in the to each Circuit. It is further provided in the same Section, that such University of Toronto, vacant by the death of Dr. Sullivan, has been filled divisions shall be made to correspond, with the number of County Gramby the appointment of J. H. Richardson, M. B. The Professorship of | mar Schools in the County. In order to assist your investigations upon Agriculture is also about being filled and land procured for experiments, this subject, I have to inform you, that our County Grammar Schools, are &c.--The following is a list of the successful competitors, for exhibitions four in number ; namely, Brockville and Gananoque in the County of in the University of Toronto : Brown, Jas., University Classical Scholar Leeds, and Prescott and Kemp ville in the County of Grenville ; and that Bayley, Richard, University Mathematical Scholar : Blake, D. E., U. C. of course, your circuits will have to correspond in number with the GramCollege Scholar: Freeland, Wm., U. C. College Scholar: Marling, S.A. mar Schools. Home District Scholar---The School riots at St. Michel d’Yamaska, L. C., have been quelled, and a better spirit seems to manisest itself-- The Rev. Dr. Cramp, late President of the Baptist College, Montreal, is about
3Literary and Scientific Antelligence. to assume the Presidency of Acadia College, Nova Scotia. £2,000 towards paying off the debt of the College have been realized ----Examination of the following Common Schools in U. C. have been reported in local Literary and Scientific Items from Various Sources.—“ Canada, papers, viz.: Junction School, Township of Westminster, Mr. D. Watson, | Past, Present, and Future" is the title of an elaborate work by W. H. Teacher ; S. Section, No. 17, Township of London, Jas. Wood, Teacher; Smith, author. of the “Canadian Gazetteer,” just published in Toronto Union Central School, Town of London ; S. Section, No. 2, Simcoe, | by Mr. Maclear-" Rig Veda Sanhita, or Sacred Hymns of the Mr. D. Haskins, Teacher- The Teachers' Institute of the County of Brahman's," is the title of a magnificent work lately issued from the UniRenfrew has issued an address to the Teachers of U. C. It is a well written
Teachers of U. C. It is a well written | versity Press, Oxford, England, towards the publication of which the Hon. document ---The examination of the Prescott Grammar School on the 24th
East India Company contributed $10,000. The hymns are more than 1,500 ult., is highly eulogized by the leading persons of that Town in a written
years old, and are the most ancient and most important of the literary address— The other day, after dinner, an artisan in town put sixteen dollars monuments of the old Hindoos. The work is edited by Dr. Max Muller, into his pocket to pay his deposit in one of the Building Societies, but, un a son of the celebrated German Poet, Wilhelm Muller- Sir F. B. Head fortunately, on his way to Yonge street, he dropped the money. Thinking is publishing a work in England on the Defenceless State of Great Britain that he might have dropped it before leaving the house, a messenger was - James, the Novelist, declines becrming an American citizen. He is immediately sent to inquire, but it was gone. However, towards evening, now writing a serial for a New York Magazine- The eloquent Bishop while with rueful countenance he was describing to a friend, in passing near Bascom of the M. E. Church, South, died lately at Louisville, Ky.to his own dwelling, the loss he had sustained, a lady observed him from Poems by Allred the Great, tuned in English metre, have been lately pubher window and coming out inquired if he had lost anything. The matter lished in England by M. F. Tupper, the Poet--M. Guizot has just published was soon explained. Her little boy in going to school had picked up a work of 2 Vols. on the synonyms of the French language. li is distinthe money ; and when the overjoyed artisan pulled out some silver to guished by great precision of thought and lucidity of arrangement. M. reward the little fellow, it was politely refused. It is pleasing to record Guizot is said to be again the Editor of the Journal Des Debats, and Lamarsuch instances of true nobility in youth. We trust that the practical lesson tine of De Siecle--Lamartine has returned from England to France, and of integrity which he thus received from an affectionate parent will rivet on is now publishing a series of papers under the title of “ England in 1850." his memory through life the iniportant aphorism " honesty is the best He discusses the Pauper question at some length- There are forty-seven policy"-_-The Toronto St. Andrew's Society have it in contemplation to different religious churches and sects in the United States The French endow Scholarships in ihe Toronto University---The University Convoca Academy of Sciences has under consideration the feasibility of constructing tion held on the 28th instant, in the Hall of the Legislative Assembly
a Suspension Bridge between France and England. Strong abutments proved highly interesting- A strong effort is being made by the new
are to be constructed on either side of the Straits to which to attach the Boards of School Trustees in Hamilton and Brockville to erect a better platforms. At the distance of every hundred yards four barges heavily description of School Houses in these towns - The Teachers' Associa laden would be sunk, and to which chains of peculiar construction would tion in Whitby is stated to be in vigorous operation - Various important changes in the internal discipline of the U. C. College are reported.
be attached. An apparatus of balloons, ofan elliptical form, firmly secured,
would support in the air the extremities of these chains, which would be Education in the County of Leeds and Grenville-Extract from fastened to the abutments on the shore by other chains. The chains supthe Warden's recent Address :---As there is not, in my judgment, any sub ported in the air at regular distances would support the fairy bridge, along ject, which should more constantly occupy the public mind, and especially which an atmospheric railway would be propelled. The bridge, &c., the attention of Municipal Councillors, than the state and progress of Edu would cost $10,500,000— The famous library of Hebrew works, known cation, so I shall place it first upon the list of topics, upon which I mean as the “Michael Collection,” numbering 5,000 vols. has been added to to address you. It has been said, and said truly, that “ Knowledge is the British Museum. A novel classification by which to distinguish the Power :" but I would say, that it is not only power, but it is pleasure also; departments of literature has been introduced. It consists of various colored for the ignorant man is not only a weak man, and easily imposed upon, but bindinge, with a label of a special color to mark the subdivision of subjects when brought into contact with books which he cannot read, with systems --Carlyle is about to issue another “Latter Day Pamphlet”intituled, Jenny which he eannot comprehend, or even into conversation with an educated Lind Lunacy- The Neapolitan Government has granted a sum of 20,000 fellow-being, he then feels his own inferiori.y, and forms some estimate of I ducats for continuing the excavation of Pompeii — An“ Addisonian Litethe loss, which neither wealth nor patronage can supply. Whatever else rary Society” is about being formed at Montreal, with a view of affording you may neglect, neglect not the education of the rising generation-it is young men an opportunity of cultivating Polite Literature-Some faint traces the best fortune you can bestow upon your children, it is the greatest of Sir John Franklin have been discovered. The remains of an encampment blessing you can diffuse through the country-and it is the noblest gift you have been discovered at Cape Reilly and Beechey Island by the Capt. of the can bequeath to posterity. I have looked attentively at the statistics con Prince Albert, but it is thought that the debris discovered belong to an earlier
ected with this important subject, and I find with pleasure that, comparing period than 1849, probably 1846- Two pigeons from Sir J. Ross' Expe. the returns of 1847 with those of 1849, our High Schools have advanced dition have returned after travelling 2,000 miles. They brought no news. from one to six, and our Common Schools from 188 to 196 ; being an in- A new theory in Medical Science has been started by the Rev. J. Harcrease in the two years, in the former of five, and in the latter of eight. I rington, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. He states that disease can be detected and Would that I could add, that this was but a tythe of the increase! I trust cured by mere manipulation. The theory is, that every organ in the human that as I am now speaking to gentlemen, with whom I have so often had body is magnetically connected with the spinal marrow, where each has opportunities of conversing upon this all-important subject, it will be its pole. A properly sensitive person, by passing the hand over the verdeemed unnecessary, that I should dwell at greater length upon it; as you | tebræ, can in this way tell whether there is any irregular motion in any must be all convinced of the primary importance of contributing, by every organ, and by other passes of the hand, rectify the disturbance- Various means within your power, to its promotion and encouragement. The
beautiful meteoric phenomena have been lately witnessed in various parts new School Act, (which taken as a whole, I esteem as a good one,) will of Upper Canada--Mr. Wyld, M.P., is about to construct for the Great I hope, be allowed to remain, (even though it may be found to contain Exhibition of 1851 a globe 50 feet in diameter, upon the inner surface of some defects,) until the system shall be brought into full and vigorous ope. which will be depicted an accurate map of the world - The Montreal ration, and its working well tried by the test of experience. The constant
Industrial Exhibition has been highly successful. The specimens of induschanging of the laws, to which of late years we have been subjected, has | try exhibited seemed to have excited feelings of pleasing surprise at the given a character of great justability and uncertainty to all we do ; and | very promising and satisfactory character of Canadian ingenuity and art, such changes are often found to work greater evils, than the defects they even in their infancy. Several of the prize articles have been selected for were intended to remedy. I observe, that by the 28th Section of the new the London Exhibition— The allotment of space in the Hyde Park Crystal