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Editorial Notices, .
Fifteen Years in Canada,
Being a series of Letters on ils Early History and Settlement, 4c: B; EXAMINATION OF TEACHERS. — We direct the attention of Local
the Rev. Wm. Haw. 8vo., pp. 120. Edinburgh, C. ZIEGLER Superintendents, Members of the County Boards of Grammar School
Toronto, A. GREEN. Price 1s. 3d. Trustees, and Teachers, to the official notice and circular of the Chief This pamphlet was designed to be a hand book for emigrants from the Superintendent, accompanying the Programme for the Examination of
British Isles to Canada. It consists oi eight letters, and is chiefly com
piled from official sources-some of them noi of a very late date, but still Teachers by the County Boards of Public lostruction. It will be ob
valuable. The article on “ Education" in Canada is taken from thi served that the first mceting of each Board is fixed for the 14th of Nov. Journal, Vol. II., pp. 89, 89. next See page 150.
THE UNITED STATES Post Office DIRECTORY : BOARDS Of School TRUSTEES IN CITIES AND Towns.-An Showing the Name and Location of all the Post Towns in the United official Circular addressed to these newly-elected Boards will be found
States. 8vo, pp. 109. New York, STRINGER & TOWNSEND;
· Rochester, D. M. DEWEY. op page 148. A copy of this Number of the Journal is sent to each of the Boards; and their attention is respectfully directed to it. The do. A very valuable publication, carefully revised and corrected from authencuments referred to in the Circular will be forwarded as soon as possible. tic sources, and forming the 3rd Vol. of Pratt's Business Directory."
The Post Office in each State beginning with Maine, is given in alpha.
betical order, together with the name of each Postmaster and the County in BLANK FORMS OF REPORTS FOR 1850, &c.—The necessary which the Post Office is situated. The list extends to the new territories Copies for the present year of Printed Blank Forms of Reports for Trus of Minnesota, Nebraska, Oregon, California, and New Mexico. A similar toes, Local Superintendents, and City and Town Boards of School Trustees;
work relating to British America would be an invaluable book of reference
in the Public Departments and to extensive merchants. We hope that together with the copies of the School Architecture referred to in our
when our new Post Office System comes into force we shall not long be last number, will, if possible, be transmitted to each of the County without such a one., Clerks for distribution in their several localities in the course of the next month. Copies of the Annual Report for 1849, ordered by Parliainent to be printed will also be sent.
CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER.
1. What becomes of all the Clever Children ?......iid145-146 ABSTRACT OF ENUMERATORS' RETURNS OF THE COUNTY OF YORK, II. Duty of the Teacher in regard to the Manner of the StaCompiled by John ELLIOTT, Esq., County Clerk. Toronto, 1850.
dies of his Pupils ..........................
.......... 146–147 A most valuable Table containing the aggregate return of the inhabi
III. luconsistency of the People .................
147 tants of the several Townships of the County, together with other im- | JV. Public Libraries and Lectures..................... 147-148 portant and interesting Statistics. We would be most happy to receive
V. OFFICIAL CIRCULARS addressed by the Chief Superinten., similar abstracts from the various County Clerks in the Province, par
dent. 1. To Boards of School Trustees in Cities and ticularly an abstract of the population returns of the several Townships.
Towns. 2. Notice calling the first meeting of County The Chief Superintendent would thus be enabled to make the apportion
Boards of Public Instruction. 3. To County Boards ment of the Legislative School Grant for next year at an early period
accompar.ying, [4.] Programme of Examination and in 1851.
Classification of Common School Teachers in U. C.
5. Programme (for reference) of ditto ditto in Ireland 148–151
VI. EDITORIAL 1. Two Objections to the School Act THE FARMER's Every Day Book ;
answered, and its provisions illustrated by reference to Or Sketches of Social Life in the Country: with the Popular Elements of Practical and Theoretical Agriculture, and Twelve Hundred
the example of the nighbouring States. 2. Common
School Libraries in U. c. 3. Extension of Collegiate
Education in Ireland. 4. Remarks on the New Sehool
Law by the Press. 5. Grudging Pay to Teachers
(Selected) ................................... 152-156 So comprehensive a work on the practical duties of rural life, we
VII. EDUCATIONAL INTELLIGENCE. 1. Canada. 2. British have, iudeed, rarely met with. The title, although expressive, denotes its
and Foreign. 3. United States ...... ........ 157-158 general, rather than its specific character. The author, seems to have
VIII. LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE ........... 158-159 elegantly and practically connected his experience of pastoral life with IX. EDITORIAL NOTICES ..........................6. 160 agricultural pursuits, combined as they were in his own case. He states that, “His habits and pursuits in life had prepared bim to look beyond the mere iinprovement of his own premises to the subject of Agriculture gene
CHAMBER'S EDUCATIONAL COURSE. rally, aud especially to the social and intellectual interests of rural life.” With that view was the work written, and in that spirit is its excellent
THE SCIENTIFIC SECTION. advice conveyed. The chapter on "The Education of Farmers," " Advice to the Sons (and Daughters) of Farmers," "Toils and Pleasures of Rural
PUBLISHED BY A. S. BARNES & Co., New-YORK. Life," &c., &c., are admirably conceived and written. The work is pro
THE Messrs. Chambers have employed tbe first profeseors in fusely illustrated with superior and appropriate engravings, and is very 1 Scotland in the preparation of these works. They are now offered to handsomely bound. As a Farmer's Manual, we cordially recommend it to the schools of this country, under the American revision of D, M. REESE, our Agricultural friends.
M.D., LL.D., late Superintendent of Public Schools in the City and
County of Nero-York. REPORT TO THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION,
I. CHAMBERS' TREASURY OF KNOWLEDGE. History of the Discovery of Neptune : By BerJ. APTHROP GOULD,
II. CLARK'S ELEMENTS OF DRAWING AND PERSPECTIVE.
III. CHAMBERS' ELEMENTS OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY.
IV. REID AND BAIN'S CHEMISTRY AND ELECTRICITY.
V. HAMILTON'S VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY. erers of the Planet Neptune,- Le Verrier and Adams. Sir John Herschel
IV. CHAMBERS' ELEMENTS OF ZOOLOGY. maintained the championship for the latter, LeVerrier, for himself, Adains taking no part in the controversy whatever, but devoting himself
VII. PAGE'S ELEMENTS OF GEOLOGY. unremittingly to further scientific pursuit. The question is now generally admitted to be decided in favour of Le Verrier-that is, that his theory in
LATE STUDENT OF THE NORMAL School, who has had regard to the perturbation of Uranus being caused by an unknown planet
considerable practice in Teaching, is desirous of obtaining a situation in addition to Jupiter and Saturn, as first announced by him to the scientific world, way correct ; for the unknown planet he had found an orbit, a
as Teacher of a Coinmon School or in an Academy Satisfactory refer mase, and a comparatively precise position. He staked his reputation on the
rences can be given as to character and ability. Salary to be about £75 a correctness of his theory, and requested Dr.Galle of Berlin to test its physical
year. Address N. P., care of Aldefman SUNLEY, James Street, Hamilton accuracy. In compliance with this request, and on the very night Dr. Galle received the letter (2.3rd Sept., 1846) he discovered the new planet
SITUATION WANTED.---By a well qualified Teacher-Salary in longitude 325 53', or within 55' of the geocentric place assigned it by LeVerrier! Adams also made similar researches about the same time, and
N expected, £60. Address, post paid, David Cowan, at this Office. with like result; but the first public announcement of them was not inade until October 1st a week after the actual discovery of Neptune by Dr. Galle of Berlin.
Tronto: Printed and published by Thomas H. BENTLEY. The highly interesting and valuable Report before us is devoted to the TERMS : 5s. per annum in advance. No subscription received series of events connected with the history of this remarkable discovery, Iior less than one year, commencing with the January Wumber. Single . and to the since developed theory of Neptune. With great clearness and precision does the author deal with the entire question. His references
| Nos. öld each. Back Numbers supplied to all new Subscribers. and notes are numerous and copione-not a fact stated without an authority, *
** The 1st and 200
application, price, 5s. each. cerely thank the officers of the Ineditution for their couitesy in sending
All Communications to be addressed to Mr. Honairs, a copy in this Departmen:.
Education Office, Toronto.
BRITISH AND CONTINENTAL LIBRARIES. lore have been fraught with incalculable advantages to the literaThe subject of School Libraries in Upper Canada will doubtless
ture and general character of the people among whom they have
been amassed. We find Gibbon complaining that, in his time, "the receive a good deal of attention during the ensuing year. As a
greatest city in the world was destitute of that useful institution, preliminary step to the consideration of the best means of intro
a public library ;" and that "the vriter who had undertaken to treat ducing Pablic Libraries into every part of the country, we have any large historical subject, was reduced to the necessity of purthought that it would prove interesting to the readers of the Jour
chasing for his private use, a numerous and expensive collection of nal to learn something of the present state of Public Libraries in
books which must form the basis of his work.” Even in a large
town like Liverpool there was no public depository of books from other countries, and the extent to which they are rendered access which Roscoe could procure the ordinary Italian works requisite for ible to the public at large. We therefore present the following composing his “ Historical Biographies," so that he, like Gibbon, condensed article from the English Eclectic Review, giving a com was under the costly necessity of purchasing his own materials of prehensive and succinct view of the Library question in England
literary workmanship. Only within the quarter of a century, Gra
ham, the learned historian of North America, left this land, and and on the Continent of Europe, and also embodying a variety of
established himself at Gottingen, for the sole purpose of availing valuable bistorical miscellanea, curious and striking. We may
himself of the rich and freely-accessible collection of books in its remark, however, that measures have recently passed the British university. Parliament, giving local Municipal bodies in England authority to l With a view of establishing the fact of the immense superiority establish public libraries and museums. It is understood that the
of foreign libraries over our own-in respec: to their numbers, the great Exposition of 1851 will be rendered tributary to the accom
vastness of the literary wealth they enshrine, their entire accessi
bility to applicants from among every class of the community, and plishment of this latter object:
the extent to which they are allowed to circulate beyond the walls During the last few months, startling statements, disclosing the of the institution—we will, in the most compendious form possible, dearth of public libraries in the United Kingdom, have appeared in present some comparative statements of the principal Continental most of our public journals. They do not, however, comprise a | and British libraries. From the evidence laid before the Commit. tithe of the curious and valuable information embedded in the tee, which is said to embody the nearest approximation to truth that bulky blue-book from which they were excerpted. This doctment can be attained, it appears that France contains 186 public libraries, is a rich mine of suggestive facts and data. It exhibits the most 109 of which comprehend 10,000 volumes, or upwards, each; singular national anomalies, and develops phenomena at once hu | Belgium, 14 ; the Prussian States, 53, or 44 possessing above miliating and cheering. Its revelations are alternately streaked 10,000 volumes ; Austria, with Lombardy and Venice, 49, Saxwith lights and shadows, in strange and fitful contrast. Our ob- ony, 9; Bavaria, 18; Denmark, 5 ; Tuscany, 10; Hanover, 5; ject in the present article is to classify and condense, as far as Naples and Sicily, 8; Papal States, 16; Portugal, 7; Spain, 27, possible, some of the information scattered through the work re or 17 comprising 10,000 volumes; Switzerland, 13; Russian terred to ; information that has been gleaned from the most varied Empire, 12 ; whilst Great Britain and Ireland possess only 34 such sources—from clergymen, librarians, literati, members of Parlia depositories of learning, the large majority of which, moreover, ment, town-clerks, ex-ministers of Continental governments, popu- | are accessible only to privileged individuals, or corporations, lar lecturers, self educated working men, and city missionaries. I Upon further inspection of the tabular statements it is discover
Not many years ago, the attention of Parliament and the public able, that out of a total of 458 libraries in the European states, was directed to the formation of free galleries, museums of art, and there are 53 that are distinguished as LENDING libraries ; but of schools of design, as a means of popular enlightenment, and an this goodly number, thus standing out in bold and honourable reincitement to intellectual pursuits. Many persons, at the time, dis- lief, not one is to be found in our own conntry. In these 53 libraplayed considerable opposition to this proposal, and contended that, ries alone, in the year 1848, there were more than seven millions however successfully such institutions might be established among of volumes, independent of manuscripts, which are thus rendered foreign nations, they would not be appreciated, and might be abused eminently serviceable to the inhabitants of the several towns, cities, by our own. The experiment, however, was tried. The British and neighbourhoods in which they are deposited. In a statistical Museum, the magnificent gallery at Hampton Court, the National | list, exhibiting 330 towns or cities, throughout Europe, that are Gallery, with various other metropolitan and provincial institutions enriched by the possession of town, university, cathedral, communwere thrown open gratuitously to the public. It is now univers. | al, gymnasium, or public libraries, the keenest scrutiny can detect ally admitted that no abuse has attended the concession, whilst it no more than eleven places lying within the boundaries of these is impossible to calculate the large measure of rational enjoyment favoured isles of ours; whilst the chief of the literary stores belongand healthy mental stimulus that has resulted. Another and a yet! ing even to these are placed under the most exclusive regulations, more beneficent improvement still remains to be effected. The If from countries we descend to particular cities, we find the extensive establishment of public libraries throughout the entire contrast between our own and foreign lands no less discouraging country, and particularly in the large centres of population, is one and humiliating. In the following table are represented the numof the greatest desiderata of the age. Such libraries have long ber of libraries in some of the principal capitals and other distinexisted on the Continent, and have enjoyed the fosterage of the guished places in Europe—the aggregate volumes in each town or governments of the various States. It can scarcely be doubted | city--the population of the same-and the proportian of volumes to that the influences emanating from such stores of accumulated every 100 of its inhabitants.
Vols. came of Town. Libra Aggregate No. of
each City or to every 100 Florence . . . . Magliabecchian Library Volumes.
. 150,000 ries.
Naples . . . . *Royal Library. . . . . 150,000 Milan . . . 2 250,000 171,268 146
Brussels , . Royal Library ... . . . 133,500 Padua . . . 3 177,000
Rome. . . . Casanati Library . . . . 120,000 Prague . . . 3 198,000 107,358 184
Hague . . . . Royal Library . . . . . 100,000 Venice . . 4 137,000
Paris . . . . . *Mazarine Library . . . . 100,000 Vienna . . . 3 453,000 360,000 126
Rome . . . . . Vatican Library . . . . . 100,000 Heidelberg 1
Parma . . . . *Ducal Library . . . . . 100,000 Munich . . . 2
800,000 106,537 751 Nuremberg 2
It may be interesting to our readers, whilst treating upon these Brussels . . 2 143,500 134,000 107
magnificent institutions, to put them in possession of a few curious Copenhagen. 3 557,000 119,292 467
particulars relative to their privileges, their antiquity, the causes Montpellier . 3 100,000 33,864 295
that have contributed to their progressive increase, and the munifiParis . . . 1,474,000 920,000 160
cent funds that have been appropriated to their sustentation and Hamburgh . , 6 200,367 128,000 156
enlargement. Naples . .
290,000 350,000 82 The majority of the libraries specified above, are entitled, by law, Bologna . . 2 233,000
to a copy of every book published within the States to which they Rome . . . 6
465,000 152,000 306 respectively belong. This privilege is enjoyed by the national liBerlin . . 2 460,000 290,797 158
braries of Paris and Madrid ; the royal libraries of Munich, Berlin, Breslau . .
Copenhagen, Vienna, Naples, Brussels, and the Hague, ; the Brera Petersburgh . 505,900 469,720 107
library, at Milan ; the Magliabecchian, at Florence ; the Ducal Genoa . . .
Library, at Parma ; together with the library of the British MuDresden . . . 340,500 69,500 490
seum. Exclusive of England, the practice prevails nowhere to so Leipsic . . 2 192,000
47,514 404 great an extent as in Lombardy and Venice, and in Parma. In Madrid . . . 2
260,000 170,000 153 Belgium and France, three copies are exacted ; in Austria, DenStockholm . 2
mark, Naples, and Geneva, two copies ; in Prussia, Saxony, BavaUpsal . . . 1 150,000
4,500 3,333 ria, Holland, Tuscany, Sardinia, Portugal, Hungary, Bohemia, and Florence . .
299,000 97,548 306 the United States, only one copy. In several of the Swiss cantons, BRITISH, &c.
copies were formerly exacted; but when the censorship of the press Aberdeen . . 2
78 was abolished, that exaction ceased. Cambridge 5 261,724 25,000
In France, according to Monsieur Guizot, the bookseller is reDublin . . 143,654 238,531
quired to transmit three copies of every work published to the office Edinburgh .
288,854 138,182 209 appointed, upon failure to do which he becomes obnoxious to proseGlasgow , 3 80,096 300,000
cution. This exaction extends to every successive edition of a London .. 4 490,500 2,200,000
work, and also includes those of a costly description. But the goManchester i 19,900 360,000
vernment frequently subscribes towards productions of a high and Oxford . . 8 733,300 24,000 1,547
expensive character, in order to facilitate their publication.
In some parts of Germany, it is compulsory that every author These figures but too faithfully represent the meagre supply of
shall give to the library under the special patronage of the State, books for the free use of the people of this country compared with
one copy of his work; in others it is not compulsory, but it is al. continental States. Even Oxford and Cambridge, which at first
ways done, as a sort of traditional civility. It is not customary, sight may strike us as being redeeming exceptions to the rule,
however, to present a specimen of every reproduction, unless imyield up their solitary glory on the slightest examination. The
portant alterations have been made. Mons. Libri, an Italian literabooks are solely appropriated to the use of the literati, and students connected with the universities. They repose from year to year
teur, who has had great experience in the management of public upon their stately shelves, in solemn and unruffled quietude, un
libraries, esteems the usage a hardship and injustice to authors. It
has been stated that at least 25,000 volumes are missing in the questioned by the eager lips and eyes of the outside multitude.
Depôt Legal of France, the establishment to which the editors are Speaking of the Cambridge libraries, the Rev. J. J. Smith, librarian at Caius College, remarked that they were confined to the re
obliged to consign copies. spective bodies in the University.
In Belgium, likewise, the law compels the producer of a book to The same witness, referring to the Bodleian Library, Oxford, stated that their system is much more
send three copies of every edition to the municipal council of the
town in which it is published, and which thus becomes a guarantee restricted. For example, no Master of Arts, even belonging to the University, either resident or non-resident, can take any book out.
for his copyright. In that country there are very few works toward
which the government does not subscribe for a number of copies, He must use them in the building, from which they are never suf
thus affording a stimulus to literary enterprise, and placing itself fered to be removed. No under-graduate is even suffered to read
in a position to distribute some copies to the libraries in the prothe books in the Bodleian collection.
vinces, thereby encouraging the establishment and extension of The following list exhibits the principal libraries of the several European capitals, arranged in the order of their respective magni
such depositories. All the libraries have become municipal since tudes. Those before which an asterisk appears, are lending
the time of the French republic; those of Liege and Ghent were
ceded to the Universities, but with this restriction that they should libraries:
always remain the property of the town; in consequence of which Paris . . . . .
the government have sometimes, within a period of twenty years, 824,000
. . Munich . . . . *Royal Library . . . 600,000 spent some £12,000 on the enrichment of these noble institutions. Petersburgh. . . Imperial Library . . . . 446,000 Although the Chamber ordinarily only votes a grant of 65,000 or London . . . , British Museum Library . . 435,000 70,000 francs for the Royal Public Library of Brussels, yet whenCopenhagen . . . *Royal Library. . . . . 412,000 ever there occurs a large sale of books, a special grant is made for Berlin . . . . . *Royal Library . . . . . 410,000 the purpose. It recently happened that one of the most choice and Vienna . . . . *Imperial Library . . 313,000 curious public libraries had been announced for sale ; a bulky cataDresden . . . . *Royal Library. . . . .
300,000 logue, occupying six volumes, had been printed ; the government Madrid . . . . National Library . . . . 200,000
200,000 immediately came forward, bought the entire collection for about Wolfenbuttal . . Ducal Library . . . . . 200,000 £13,000, and added it to the royal library at the capital. They Stuttgard . . . Royal Library . . . . . 187,000 | did the same thing also at Ghent.
The library bought at Ghent Paris . . . . . Arsenal Library.', . . . 180,000 consisted of about 20,000 vols., and that in Brussels of about Milan . . . . . *Brera Library . . . . . 170,000 | 60,000. Paris . . . . . *St. Genevieve Library. . . 150,000! In many of the Continental States, where the governments watch Darmstadt .. *Grand Ducal Library. . . 150,000 | all the publications emanating from the press with great jealousy.
the books are required chiefly in order to ascertain whether they their respective governments in a spirit of great liberality. The correspond with the manuscript after it had passed the ordeal of average annual sum allotted to the support of the National Library censorship.
at Paris is £16,575 ; to that of the Royal Library, at Brussels, The same regulation for the compulsory delivery of books by £2,700; to that of Munich, about £2,000; to that of Vienna, authors or publishers is imposed in England. The origin of this £1,900 ; to that of Berlin, £3745 ; to that of Copenhagen, £1,250; exaction was first of all a private agreement between Sir Thomas to that of Dresden, £500; and to that of the Grand Ducal Library Bodley and the Stationers' Company, in 1610, which was after of Darmstadt, £2,000. ward recognized by the Legislature. By subsequent Copyright The average annual sum expended in the purchase of printed Acts, the three copies originally levied were augmented to eleven. books for the library of the British Museum, previous to 1836, was Under the Copyright Act, the following are the libraries that were only £1,135. From 1837 to 1845 inclusive, the soms devoted to entitled to receive copies of works gratuitously :--The British Mu this purpose averaged £3,433 a-year. In 18-16 and 1847, in conseum ; Sion College, in London; the Bodleian library, at Oxford ; sequence of urgent representations having been made to the Treathe University Library, at Cambridge; the libraries of Trinity Col sury of the great deficiencies existing in the collection of printed lege, in Dublin; King's Inn, in Dublin ; the Faculty of Advocetes, books, a special increase of the Parliamentary grant was made, in Edinburgh; together with those of the Universities of Edin amounting to £10,000. In 1848, however, this sum was reduced burgb, Glasgow, Aberdeen, and St. Andrews; making eleven in to £8,500; whilst, in 1849, it was still further frittered down to all.* The Copyright Amendment Act, passed in 1836, abolished £5,000. The entire amount of this latter year allotted to the the privilege in respect to six of the number, and substituted a sustentation of the library, in all its departments, is £23,261. The money grant from the Treasury, varying in amount—the highest aggregate of the sums expended in the purchase of printed books, being that granted to Glasgow, of £707 ; to St. Andrews, £630 ; 1 including maps and musical works, from its foundation in 1753 to to Edinburgh, £575 ; tu the King's Inn Library, Dublin, £433; Christmas 1847, is £102,447 ; and that expended in the purchase to Sion College, London, £363 ; and to the University of Aber- of manuscripts, £42,940 ; together, £145,387. The sums exdeen, £320 ; so that much inequality now exists. The total amount pended during the same period, in prints and drawings, amount to received by those libraries is £3,028. The Act was not extended £29,318; in antiquities, coins, and medals, to £125,257 ; and in to Oxford and Cambridge University libraries, in consequence of specimens of natural history, to £43,599. their refusal to accept compensation, and the strong indisposition A comparison between the funds appropriated by the French and they evinced to submit to any change in the ancient arrangements. British legislatures, for the general formation and maintenance of
An idea may be formed of the large number of works thus annu public depositories of books, places the latter in a still more unally exacted, from the fact that, during the last ten years, there favourable light. have been published in the United Kingdom 31,395 books; the Confining our attention to those libraries alone which constitute estimated value of one copy of each of which, taken at publication independent establishments, and where the exact amount of funds price, is £13,420. This calculation embraces new works, and new | can, therefore, be ascertained, it appears that, since 1823, the French editions and reprints of old books, but it excludes pamphlets and government has voted the sum of £426,571 for four public libraries periodical publications. In Germany the total number of separate in Paris, exclusive of another sum of £107,426 for buildings and works, inclusive of pamphlets, published in 1846, was 11,600 ; | their maintenance. The accounts of the expenditure of the French in 1847, about 11,400; and in 1848, about 10,500. In France Institute show that £16,848 bave been appropriated to its Library there appeared, in 1842, 6,445 separate works, pamphlets included: during the same period, from the public treasury ; to that of the and in 1847, 5,530.
University of Paris, £13,011: making a total of £456,430 devoted An investigation into the date of the foundation of some of the
to the public libraries of Paris ; exclusive of those of the Museum European libraries, and into the causes of their comparative pro- of Natural History, the School of the Fine Arts, the Observatory,
and the fine public library of the Conservatory of Music (which is gressive augmentation, is suggestive of many important considerations that may be turned to practical account by those who are
said to contain 17,000 vols.). If the proportion of the public grants labouring to build up the intellectual greatness of our country. to these institutions expended on their books be calculated approxiThe most ancient of the great libraries of printed books is thought
aries of printed books is thought mately at £65,000, the aggregate total so expended by votes of the to be that at Vienna, which dates from 1440, and is said to have French Legislature will be £521,430 ; or, on the average, £20,055 been opened to the public as early as 1575. The Town Library a-year. at Ratisbon dates from 1430 ; St. Mark's Library, at Venice, from
During these same twenty-six years, the sum devoted by the 1468; the Town Library of Frankfort, from 1484; that of Ham
British House of Commons to public libraries in London is, at the burgh, from 1529; of Strasburg, from 1531 ; of Augsburg, from
utmust, £282,486 ; or, on an average, £10,864 a-year. 1537; those of Berne and Geneva, from 1550 ; that of Basel, from The bird's-eye view we have thus endeavoured to present of the 1564. The Royal Library of Copenhagen was founded about 1550.
great libraries of Europe would be incomplete, without a hasty In 1671 it possessed 10,000 vols.; in 1748, about 65,000 ; in
glance at those connected with the Universities. Those specially 1778, 100,000 ; in 1820, 300,000; and it is now supposed to
entitled to notice may be ranked in the following order. contain 412,000 vols. The National Library in Paris was founded
Gottingen . .. *University Library ... 360,000 in 1595, but was not made public until 1737. In 1640 it contained Breslau . . . . University Library . . .. 250,000 about 17,000 vols; in 1684, 50,000 ; in 1775, 150,000; in 1790, Oxford . . . . Bodleian Library . . . . . 220,000 200,000; and it now possesses at least 824,000 vols. The li- | Tubingen . . . University Library . . 200,000 brary of the British Museum was established in 1753, and opened Munich . . . . University Library . . . 200,000 to the public in 1757, with about 40,000 vols. In 1800 it con- | Heidelberg
Heidelberg . . . University Library . . . . 200,000 tained about 65,000 vols. ; in 1823, 125,000; in 1836, nearly Cambridge .. . Public Library . . . 166,724 420,000; and it now comprehends 435,000 vols.
Bologna . . . .
University Library . . . 150,000 The steady growth of the Copenhagen Library has been mainly Prague . . . . *University Library . .. 130,000 owing to judicious purchases at favourable opportunities. The Vienna . . . .
University Library . .. 115,000 rapid increase of the noble National Library at Paris, since 1790, Leipsic .
University Library .. 112,000 is in a great measure to be ascribed to the Revolution ; the suppres Copenhagen . . .
University Librazy . . . . 110,000 sion of the monasteries and convents, and the confiscation of the
Turin . . . . . *University Library . . . . 110,000 property of rebels and emigrants, having placed many fine libraries Louvain . . . .
University . . . . . . .
105,000 at the disposal of the ruling powers of the day. The increase of Dublin . . . . Trinity College Library . 104,239 the British Museum, on the other hand, is mainly indebted to dona- | Upsal . . . . *University Library . . . 100,000 tions. Of its 435,000 books, at least 200,000 have been pre Erlangen . . . .. University Library .... 100,000 sented or bequeathed.
Edinburgh . .. University Library . . . . 90,854 Many of the chief libraries of Continental cities are sustained by
Glasgow . . . . University Library . .
The foundation of the University of Turin dates from 1436 ; * A recent Canadian statute makes similar provision in regard to the University of
that of Cambridge, from 1484 ; that of Leipsic, from 1544; that Toronto.
of Edinburgh, from 1582 ; and the Bodleian, from 1597. The small tion of the Court of Chancery, for the purpose of transferring all library of the University of Salamanca is said to have been founded responsibility from themselves. Many valuable donations and bein 1215.
quests have been, in past years, made to the foundation; and the The Gottingen, Prague, Turin, and Upsal, are lending libraries. number of volumes now contained in the library is about 20,000. Those of Gottingen, Prague, Turin, Oxford, Cambridge, and Dublin,
The specific object of the founder in establisbing it is not defined are legally entitled to copies of all works published within the States
in the will. The trustees have recently extended its advantages 10 which they respectively belong. The number of volumes accru to every person of respectability, free of all expense and trouble. ing to the Bodleian from the operation of the Copyright Act, since
The works are principally on theology, ecclesiatical history, and 1825, computing them from the number supplied to the British
biography, with a few in all the more important departments of Museum, would be about 38,000.
learning. There is accommodation for fifty or sixty readers. The annual expenditure of the Tubingen Library is about £760;
Not far from Dr. Williams's Library, in London Wall, is situof the Gottingen Library, £730; of the Breslau, about £409.
ated the library of Sion College, founded by Dr. White, rector of St. That of the Bodleian, at Oxford, is now about £4,000-of which Dunstan's in the West, in the year 1636. The conditions of admissum £1,375 is defrayed by proceeds of various benefactions, about
sion are somewhat similar to those of the British Museum. A note £650 by matriculation fees, and about £1,500 by "library dues.
from any Fellow of the College-that is to say, any incumbent in
London-will introduce a reader for twelve months ; while a disIn reference to the degree of accessibility to all the foreign li
cretionary power is given to the librarian to allow persons to cunbraries that have paased in review, it may be generally affirmed :hat
sult the library whom he may consider qualified. The primary admission is granted unrestrictedly--to the poor as well. as to the
object of the library was to afford literary facilities to the Estabrich--to the foreigner as well as to the native. “ The libraries of
lished Clergy of the city of London. The number of volumes France,” says M. Guizot,“ are accessible in every way : for the
ranges between 3,5000 and 40,000; they are on general subjects, purpose of reading, and also for burrowing books. Any workman
with, however, a larger proportion than usual of theological works; whatever bis social condition, who can obtain a certificate from his
many of the books are exceedingly rare, or altogether unique. The employer as to his respectability and honesty, may have books lent
collection is rich on general history, particularly concerning the to him." We have also the assurance of his Excellency, M. Van
times of Charles I., and of the same period on the Continent. The de Weyer, that the fourteen libraries of Belgium " are all accessi
number of persons who frequent the library is not more than 300 ble to the public ; any person, without any letter of authorization,
or 400 a-year; and the number of volumes in circulation during may go into them, and be supplied with a book, if he asks for it.”
the same period does not exceed 6,000. The Rev. Mr. Christmas, The same privilege is shown to exist in the libraries of Italy. M.
the librarian, suggests that, by an arrangement enabling more perLibri states that, in almost every town in Italy, there are public li
sons to take out books on certain terms of subscription, this library braries freely accessible to the public-a concession limited only by
might be opened to the public, and 200 readers accommodated, the necessity of applying for permission to read forbidden books.
where at present there are not more than six or seven. It is, howFor instance, the Florentine “History of Machiavelli" is prohibited,
ever, unlikely that this, or any other library in a large town, will and there are many others to which the same restriction extends.
be extensively used, unless it be open in the evening. Generally speaking, the books are not lent out to individuals to read at home; but the libraries attached to all the universities of Italy In the city of Westminster there still slumbers the library founded lend books to professors; whilst the privilege of reading, instead by Archbishop Tennison, in the year 1685. In the “orders and of being monopolized by the students, is shared by the public at constitutions” of the founder, it is declared that “the books of the large. The access in Italy is more unrestricted than that enjoyed said library” are to be " for public use, but especially for the use at the British Museum. Respecting the libraries of Germany, C. 1 of the vicar and lecturer of the said parish," and other clergymen Meyer, Esq., German Secretary to Prince Albert, says :-“They within the precincts. The "public" intended to be benefited by are, with few exceptions, freely accessible; they are, moreover, this collection consists of the inhabitants residing within the boundlending libraries. Every citizen has free access to the town library, aries of the ancient parish of St. Martin. The trustees are apand every member of the University has free admission to the Uni- | pointed for life by a Master in Chancery. The books are mainly versity library ; and each of these two classes of readers can mutu upon theological subjects, of great variety, curiosity, and valae ; ally introduce the other to the respective libraries they are privileged but do not exceed 4,000 in number. They are stated by the librato attend. Thus the system in the German towns is somewhat rian to be in as dilapidated a condition as books can well be. They analogous to that adopted at the British Museum, with this import are kept under the careful custody of lock and key, and are never ant distinction, however that the latter is not a lending library, taken down to be cleaned, whilst the bindings are rapidly going to whereas the introduction to a German library confers the right of decay from neglect. Thə restoration of the library is now under taking away books."
the consideration of the trustees; and it certainly might form the Now it appears that we have only one library in Great Britain
nucleus of a good local library for Westminster. that affords the same measure of advantages and facilities with the These, with the British Museum and the Lambeth Palace library, glorious array of foreign collections at which we have glanced ; constitute the entire public provision for the intellectual nurture and that is the library founded by Humphrey Chetham, in Manches and delectation of more than two millions of souls! How far they ter. There are ten or eleven libraries to which admission may be are adapted for that purpose, we leave our readers to determine. secured by the production of some sort of recommendation; and there are about twenty in addition that are accessible as a matter
Connected with the deaneries and chapters of our cathedrals,
there is an ancient set of libraries commonly called cathedral liof grace and favour.
braries. Of these there are thirty-four in England and six in Ireland. In our metropolis there are a few old and scanty libraries, but
Their basis is theological ; to some of them additions are annually which, however resuscitated and improved, would never be com
made ; and attention is being given to their restoration and improvemensurate with the mighty wants of an extending population. The
ment. In several, a moderate freedom of access is conceded to more ancient part of London is the spot best supplied. Almost
the public. The number of volumes in each ranges from 4,000 to every collection of books in London or the provinces that can aspire
11,000. These, if the sanction of those who preside over them to the character of a public library, owes its origin to a somewhat
could be obtained, would form excellent nuclei of provincial libraries remote date; showing that our ancestors, with all their imputed
for the ancient cities of our land. inferiority, paid more attention to the formation of such institutions
Parochial libraries once prevailed to a considerable extent throughthan ourselves. We will give a few particulars respecting some
out this country. Evidence has been collected of the existence of of them.
163 such libraries in England and Wales, and 16 in Scotland. Dr. Williams's Library, situated in Red Cross-street, in the They were generally designed for the use of the clergy. Their city, was opened in 1729. It originally constituted the private foundation was in the first instance, due to individual benevolence ; collection of Dr. Williams, an eminent Presbyterian divine, to bnt subsequently and principally, to the efforts of Dr. Bray and his which he subsequently added the library of Dr. Bates. It is vested 'associates,' at the beginning and in the middle of the last century. in trustees, who, early in the trust, placed it under the administra- | They have, in most cases, been suffered to go to dilapidation.