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3. To know the elements of English Grammar, and be able to parse any easy sentence in prose.
6. To be acquainted with the elements of Geography, and the general outlines of the Globe.
7. To have some knowledge of School organization and the classification of pupils.
II. QUALIFICATIONS OF Second Class TEACHERS. . Candidates for certificates as Second Class Teachers, in addition to what is required of candidates for Third Class certificates, are required :
1. To be able to read with ease, intelligence, and expression, and to be familiar with the pr nciples of reading and pronunciation.
2. To write a bold free hand, and to be acquainted with the rules of teaching writing,
3. To know Fractions, Involution, Evolution, and commercial and men. tal drithmetic. (Female candidates for this class of certifcates will only be examined in Practia, and
mental Arithmetie.) 4. To be acquainted with the elements of Book-Keeping.
5. To know the common rules of Orthography, and be able to parse any sentence in prose or poetry which may be submitted; to write gramman. cally, with correct spelling and punctuation, the substance of any passages which may be read, or any topics which may be suggested.
6. To be familiar with the elements of Mathematical, Physical and Civil or Political Geography, as contained in any School Geography.
Examiners themselves. I would only suggest, therefore, as all the candidates present at any meeting of a County Board of Examiners will probably be examined in a single class, the candidates entitled to the lower class certificates may be relieved from remaining (ex. copt as mere spectators,) at the continuatiun of the examination of those who are deemed competent to be examined in the subjects prescribed for the higher class certificates ; and that as the object of the examination is, to ascertain not only the nature and extent of the attainments of the candidates, but their capacity to teach others what they know themselves, the examination, in each subject of the programme, should be specially adapted to elicit this primary qualification of a good Teacher, as also his knowledge of school organization, classification, and government.
4. It only remains for me to advert to the mode of calling the first meeting of County Boards of Public Instruction, and of holding their future meetings. As the mode of calling the first meeting is left as a matter of instruction from this Department (section 35, clause 3.), I have thought it would be most convenient for the members of each County Board to meet about the middle of November, and have appoined that time accordingly. Each County Board once assembled, will ever after, according to law, appoint the times and places of its own meetings. It is submitted, whether the first meeting of each County Board of Public Instruction would examine Teachers at all; whether the members present at such meeting might not consider and determine their mode of proceeding in the admission of candidates to examination, and in the mode of examining them-assigning to one or more members the duty of conducting the examination in each branch or subject prescribed in the Programme ; and then appointing the time and place, or times and glaces for the examination of Teachers-giving due publicity of the tame. As but three members of the County Board are required to be present at any meeting for the examination and licensing of Teachers, they might at a general meeting agree to meet in sections of three or four members each at places most convenient for the examination of Teachers for different specified portions of the County–especially if it be large. As by the 15th Section of the Act, the certificates of qualification to Teachers, given by local Saperintendents, are valid during the current year, the meetings and proceedings of the County Boards will have reference to 1851 and future years.
No branch of a system of public instruction has ever been brought into operation in any country, without much anxious toil; and the efficient commencement of this most important and too long neglected department of our school system, will require no inconsiderable Ja bour and much patient and earnest purposo to promote the welfare of the rising generation. The more serious and difficult part of the task will soon be accomplished, while the results cannot fail to be extensively beneficial, alike upon the application, the aspirations and improvements of Teachers, the character of the Schools, and the progress and interests of the pupils.
I have the honor to bo, Gentlemen,
III. QUALIFICATIONS or FIRST CLASS TEACHERS. Candidates for certificates as First Class Teachers, in addition to what is required of Candidates for Third and Spcond Class certifificates, are required:
1. To be acquainted with the rules for the mensuration of Superficies and Solide, and the elements of Land Surveying.
2. To be familiar with the simple rules of Algebra, and be able to solve problems in Simple and Quadratic Equations.
3. To know the first four books of Euclid.
5. To have some acquaintance with the elements of Vegetable and Animal Physiology and Natural Philosophy, as far as taught in the Fifth Book of the National Readers..
6. To understand the proper organization and management of Schools and the improved methods of teaching.
N.B.-Female candidates for Arst clau certificates will not be examined in the subjecu mentioned in the first three paragraphs under this head. By Order of the Council of Public Instruction for Upper Canada.
J. GBORGE HODGINS,
Recording Clerko, 1
EpocaTION OTTICE, TORONTO.
Adogged lao 3rd day of October, 1850.
GENERAL FORM OF CERTIFICATES OF QUALIFICATION FOR COMMOX SCHOOL
TEACHERS IN UPPER CANADA. To be granted by County Boards of Public Instruction, in accordand with the
foregoing Programme of Examination. .
PROGRAMME of the Eramination and Classification of Teachers of Cominon
Schools, prescribed by the COUNCIL OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION FOR UPPER CANADA, as required by the Act, 13th and 14th Victoria, chapter 48, section XXXVIII.
TO BE IN FORCE UNTIL REPEALED OR REVISED BT SAID COUNCIL, X.B.-Candidates shall not be eligible to be admitted to examination, und they shall hive furnished the Examiners with satiatactory evidence of their strictly temperate bablu and good moral character.
I. QUALIFICATIONS OF THIRD CLASS TEACHERS. Candidates for certificates as Third Class Teachers, are required : 1. To be able to read intelligibly and correctly any passage from any common reading book.
2. To be able to spell correctly the words of an ordinary sentence dictated by the Examiners
3. To be able to write a plain hand.
4. To ha able to work readily questions in the simple and compound rules of Arithmetic, and in Reduction and Proportion, and be familiar with the principles on which these rules depend.
This is to Certify, that ................ of the ...... faith, having applied to the Board or POBLIC INSTRUCTION for the County (School Circuit or United Counties) of .... .... for a Certificate of Qualification to teach a Common School, and having produced "satisfactory proof of good moral character," the BOARD has carefully examined him for her) in the several branches of study enumerated in the" Qualifications of third, second, or first, as the case may be) ...... class Teachers,” contained in the “PROGRAMME OF THE EXAMINATION AND CLASBITICATION OF TEACHERS or COMMON SCHOOLS, PRESCRIBED BY THE COUNCIL OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION FOR UPPER CANADA," adopted the 3rd day of October, 1850 : and having found the said ...... ...... well qualified to teach the several branches therein named, the BOARD, as authorized by the 29th section of the Act, 13th and 14th Victoria, chapter 48, hereby licenses him for her) to teach apy Common School in the ...... (If a first class Certificate, here insert the name of the County, School Circuit, Union of Counties, or City; if second class Certificate, the name of the Township, and if a third dass
Certificate, the name of the School Section in which the candidate is authorised to teach, -to be determined, at the discretion of the Board.)
This Certificate of Qualification to remain in force (for one year from the date hercof, or until annulled according to law-to be determined by circumstance, and the class of the Certificate granted.)
Dated this ...... day of ......, one thousand eight hundred and ..... N.B.-Each Certificate should be signed by the Chairman of the Board, and must also have the signature of a Local Superintendent of Schools. See 2nd clause of the Wók uction of the Act.
8. To be prepared for examination on the subjects treated of in:-
Fifth Book of Lessons, Sections 2, 3,* 4;
Geography Generalized; . .
Board's or Thomson's Treatise on Arithmetic; * Thompson's Euclid, Books I. and 11., with the exercises thereon; * Thompson's Algebra, Chapters 1, 2, 4, and 8; * Board's Mensuration, Sections 4, 5, 6, and 11; * Lessons on Reasoning, Parts 1. and II.;
* Professor M'Gauley's Lectures on Natural Philosophy, Part I., Chapters 6, 7, 8, 9, and the first 28 paragraphs of Chapter 10.
PROGRAMME OF EXAMINATION AND COURSE OF STUDY
QCALIFICATIONS OF FIRST CLASS TEACHERS. FOR THE TEACHERS OF THE IRISH NATIONAL SCHOOLS.
They will be required: (la connexion with the foregoing we think it will prove useful and interesting to insert
1. To write a short essay on a given subject connected with the organize the following for the purposes of reference.--Ed. J. or E.)
ation and management of Schools, and the general principles of Education. QUALIFICATIONS OF PROBATIONARY TEACHERS. The Candidates will be required:
The Female Teachers will be examined on the 3rd Section of the Fifth
Book, the Geography Generalized, and the 3rd Book of the Epitome of Geo1. To read with correctness, ease, and intelligence, any passage selected graphical Knowledge. in the first four Lesson Books.
2. To know the Third and Fourth Bouks. 2. To write a bold, free hand, and exhibit a knowledge of the principles
1 3. To be acquainted with the resolution of Plane Triangles, and with the of peamanship, and of the rules for teaching writing.
use of Logarithms. 3. To write from dictarion, with correct spelling, aay passage read slowly 4. To know Quadratic Equations. from the Third Lesson Book.
5. To have a popular acquaintance with the Laws of Heal, and the 4. To be familiar with the principles of the elementary rules, and with
structure of the Steam Engine, and the elements of Chemistry. Proportion, and be able to work, with facility, neatness, and accuracy, 6. To be prepared for examination on the subjecte treated of in:suns ia these rules, and in Commercial Arithmetic.
• Fifth Lesson Book, Sections 1 and 5;" 5. To parse any short, easy sentence in prose, and to exhibit an acquaint
* Lessons on Reasoning, Parts Ill., 1V., and V.: ance with the Elements of Gramma:.
• Thompson's Euclid, Books III. and'Iv., with Exercises thereon; 6. To be acquainted with the general outline of the great division of the
* Thompson's Algebra, Chapters 3, 5, 6, and 9;__
• M'Gailey's Lectures on Natural Philosophy, Par. II., Chapters Globe.
6, 7, 8, 9, and 10; The Female Candidates will not be required to know Cowmercial Arith.
* Johnson's Catechism of Agricultural Chemistry, or any other metic.
Treatise on the same subject which the Commissioners may publish or QUALIFICATIONS FOR THE THIRD Class.
sanction. The Candidates for promotion to this class will be required:
The Female Teachers will not be required to be prepared on the subjects 1. To read with ease and expression; and be familiar with the principles marked with an * asterisk. of Reading, and with the principles and difficulties of Pronounciation.
Candidates for promotion must be prepared for examination on any of the 2 To write from dictation, in a neat, free hand, with correct spelling
subjects prescribed for the Class or Classes below that to which they desire and punctuation, any passage read from the National Lesson Book.
to be raised. 2 To know, in addition to the rules meationed in the course of Proba.
GENERAL CONDITIONS. ." * tioners, Fractions, Tavolation, Evolution, and to be acquainted with the The minimum of proficiency required of the Teachers of each Claus ja rules of Mental Arithmetic.
stated in the preceding programme. Female Teachers will not be required to proceed beyond Practice to qualify
All newly appointed Teachers, who have not previously conducted Na.
tional Schools, are considered as probationers, and must remain as such for at for this Class.
least one year, at the expiration of which time, they will be eligible for classi4. To parse any sentence submitted to them, and to analyze words, giving
fication, and may be promoted, even before being trained, to any Class azthe roote, prefixes, and affixes.
cept the First: if promoted they will receive the full amount of Salary to Femalo Teachers will not be examined to the same extent in the latter
which they may become entitled, from the commencement of the second year
of their service under the Board. acercise.
All Teachers must remain at least one year in a lower division of any 5. To know the elements of Mathematical and Physical Geography, the
Class, before they are eligible for promotion to a higher division of the Geography of Ireland, and the general Geography of Europe.
same; and they must remain two years in a lower Cla-s before they are 6. To be acquainted with the principles of Book-keeping, and the mode eligible for pronotion to a higher Class. ol kerping Farming Accounts.
This Regulation does not apply to Probationary Teachers, nor to Teach.
ers who may be promoted on the recommendation of the Professors at the 7. To be acquainted with the Measurement of Plane Surfaces.
termination of the course of training. 8. To be familiar with the improved modes of Teaching, and with the
None but Teachers trained at the Normal School of the Commissioners Rules and Regulations of the Commissioners.
are eligible for promotion to any dirision of the First Class, and only upon 9. To be prepared for Examinations on the subjects treated of 10:
the recommendation of the Professors, or of a Board of Inspectors. The National Lesson Books, to the Fourth inclusive;
Examinations are to be held, at specified times, by the Inspectors, with Easy Lessons on Money Matters;
the view of promoting meritorious Teachers; while those who may have
conducted themselves improperly, or in whose Schools the attendaoce has Introduction to the Art of Reading, 1st Part; Spelling.Book Superseded;
considerably decreased, will be liable to be depressed. Geography Generalized, first eight Chapters;
No Teacher will be admitted to examination with a viero to promotion, on • Board's Treatise on Book-keeping;
sohose School a decidedly unfavourable report has been made by the District • Bourd's Mensuration, Sections 2 and 7;
Inspector within the previous year.
Teachers will not be eligible for promotion, unless, in addition to satis. . Whatever Agricultural Class Book may be hereafter published factory answering in the course prescribed for the Class to which they aspire, or sanctioned by the Board for the use of their Schools.
it appears from the reports of their respective District Inspectors that iheir
Schools are properly organized and well conducted, that adequate exertions QUALIFICATIONS OF SECOND Class TEACHERS.
have been niade by them to kerp up a sufficient average attendance: that They will be required:
their junior Classes are carefully taught, and that a fair proportion of the 1. To write grammatically, and with correct spelling and punctuation,
Pupils of the higher Classes, besides being proficients in the ordinary
branches of Reading, Spelling, and Writing, are possessed of a respectable the substance of ad easy lesson read twice over.
amount of knowledge in, at least, Grammar, Geography and Arithmetic. 2 To know the general Geography of the remaining great divisions of In female Schools it will be fariher requisite that instruction in plain the Globe, the Geography of the British Empire, and of Palestine.
Needlework, including sewing, koitting, and cutting-out, be given to all
girls capable of receiving it, and that they exhibit a due proficiency in this 3. To be acquainted with the outlines of general History.
department The Female Terchors will be examined on Mental Arithmetic.
It must also appear from the reports of their Inspectors, that their School 4 TO POAseso some knowledge of the elementary principles of Mechanics,
Accounts have been regularly and correctly kept, that their Schools and Hydrostatico, Pneumatics, Optics, and Physiology.
School premises have been preserved with neatness and order, and that
cleanliness in porson and habits has been enforced on the children attendiog 5. To know the First and Second Books.
them. 6. To be familiar with the rules for the Mewarement of Bolide, the prin.
None can be appointed as Assistant Teachers whose qualifications une eiples on which these rales depead, and with the elements of Land Sur. er depead, and with the elemento of Land Sar• . not equal to those required of Probationero.
not con veying
Batisfactory Certificates of character and conduet will be required of all 7. To know the elementary rules, and be able to solve Simpla Enisations. I. Candidate
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION.
“At the head of the whole system-controlling, regulating, and giring life and he ciency to all its parts, is the Chief Superintendent. He apportions the public money among the several counties and towns; distributes the laus, instructions, decisions, forms, &c., through the agency of the County and Town Superintendents, to the several dis
tricts-is the ultimate tribunal for the decision of all curtrotersies arising under any of TORONTO, OCTOBER, 1850.
the laws relating to Common Schools-keep up a constant correspondence with the several officers connected with the administration of the system in all its parts, as well as with the Inhabitants of the several districts ; exercises a liberal discretionary power, on equi
table principles, in all cases of inadvertent, unintentional, or accidental omissions to comTWO OBJECTIONS TO THE SCHOOL ACT ANSWERED ply with the strict requisitions of the law ; reports annually to the Legislature the AND ITS PROVISIONS ILLUSTRATED BY REFERENCES TO THE
condition, prospects, resources, and capabilities of the Common Schools, the manage
ment of the School Fund. and such suggestions for the improvement of the system as EXAMPLES OF THE NEIGHBOURING STATES.
may occur to him: and vigilantly watches over, encourages, sustains, and expands to its . It would be strange if no objections were made against some
utinost practical limit the vast system of Common School Education throughout the
State.” (p. 30.) provisions of any school law. In the States of New-York and Then respecting the very points on which certain writers have Pennsylvania, whole counties rose against the Common School been ringing the changes relative to our School law, the Bllowing law on its first enactment; and their opposition, in some instances
is the New York State Law: . continued for years.
** The Superintendent shall prepare suitable forms and regulations for making all But it has long since ceased-especially in reports and conducting all necessary proceedings, under this Act, and shall canse the the former Stateand the discords of former ignorance, selfishnes
same, with such instructions as he shall deem necessary and proper, for the better of garization and government of Common Schools, to be transmitted to the officers required
execute the provisions of this Act throughout the State. (Passed in 1812, and still unteand faction are drowned and forgotten in the universal acclamations
pealed and unmodified, after the erperience of nearly 40 years.) of joy and triumph at the noble acbievemenls of their common school
Our school law gives the Chief Superintendent no power to system. So it has already begun to be in Upper Canada ; and so make "regulations for the organization and government of Comwe are confident, from the history of the past, it will soon be uni. mon Schools ;" that power is vested in the Council of Public Inversally. In the mean time, among several criticisms too trivial to
struction. Besides, “each neglect or refusal" on the part of any
of the local School officers, to observe the regulations or decisions" merit notice, iwo objections have beeu made to certain provisions
of the New-York Superintendent, renders such party liable to a of our School law, on which it may be proper, once for all, to re penalty varying from ten to twenty-five dollars. The following mark; not because the objections have been made by any consider are additional provisions of the New York State School Law, reable portion of the Canadian press, or that they are characterised lative to the powers of the Superintendent of Schools: by the least research or consideration, or that they have been made
* The Superintendent of Common Schools may designate and appoint any one of the
Clerks employed by him to be his General Deputy, who inay perform all the duties of the in any spirit of courtesy or candour ; but simply that all who earn
Superintendent in case of his absence or a vacaucy in his office." Passed in 1841.
The Superintendent of Common Schools may appoint such and so many persons as eally desire the universal education of Canadian youth, and who
he shall froin time to time deem necessary, to visit and examine into the condition of
Common Schools in any county where such persons may reside, and report to the Superare patriotically lubouring to promote that object, may have the
intendent on all such matters relating to the condition of such schools, and the means or
improving them, as he siiall prescribe ; but no allowance or coppensation shall be made means at hand to refute the only plausible pretext for hostility that
to said visitors for such services." Passed in 1839.
- Any County Superintendent may be reinoved from office by the Superintendent of the most unscrupulous pens have been able to devise.
Common Schools, whenever in his judgment sufficient cause for such removal eriste; and
the vacancy thereby occasioned shall be supplied under his hand and official seal, until the . It has been objected, that the Provincial Superintendent of
he Board of Supervisors of the county in which such vacancy crists."
Passed in 1843, Schools has power to decide certain questions submitted to him,
It may be left to the writers who have assailed our School law, and to give instructions for the execution of School Act, and that the
to say, whether the Superintendent of Schools in the State of NewProvincial Council of Public Instruction has power to prescribe the York is a despot and the people'and teachers " serfs" or "slaves." Books to be used in the Schools, and to make regulations for their But we think they themselves must confess that his powers are organization and government.
much greater than those conferred by our law on the Chief Superin'These objections are put forth, as if the matters objected to were tendent of Schools in U.C. This is so, even in respect to the Normal novel monstrosities enacted for the first time in the present School School; for there the State Superintendent is not merely a member Act: whereas precisely the same provisions (oply more comprehen of a Council having the management of the Normal School, but has vive in reference to the Superintendent) have existed in our School co-ordinate and co-equal power with such Council. The New-York law nearly five years, and without a shadow of suspicion that con State Law on this subject is as follows: stitutional liberty has not been secure, or that a human being has
3. The said Normal School shall be under the supervision, management and zorern been wronged, -pay, in the face of the fact, that our Common 'ment of the Superintendent of Common Schools and the Regents of the University. The
said Superintendent and Regents shall, from time to time, make all needful rules and reSchools have advanced with unprecedented rapidity. Were there gulations, to fix the nunber and compensation of teachers and others to be employed anything in these provisions of the Act of the character alleged by
therein, to prescribe the preliminary examination and the terms and conditions on which
pupils shall be received and instructed herein, the number of pupils from the respective the objecters, the last five years would surely have furnished some Icities and counties, conforming as ncarly as may be to the ratio of population, to fix the illustrations. Their entire silence in respect to facts, and their eo
ocation of the said school, &c., &c. Passcl in 1841. tire volubility in unsupported assertious, sufficientiy indicate the The writers to whom we have referred have also attacked that baselessness of their objections.
provision of our law which authorises the Chief Superintendent to In every system there must be some head, whether in a school appoint suitable persons in the several counties and ridings to hold or in a nation, whether under a monarchy or a republic, whether of Teachers' Institutes, and make regulations for their management. public instruction or public revenues. Whatever may be the | The following is the School law of the State of Connecticut on this powers of the Provincial Superintendent of Schools, he is responsi- subject--a provision from what that of our law was adopted: ble for the exercise of them in every particular. If he does a
GENERAL ASSEMBLY, MAY SesSION, A. D., 1848. wrong to the humb!est individual in the country, his decision can Resolved by this Assembly, That the Superintendent of Common Schools bc, and he
bereby is, directed to employ suitable persons' to hold, at not more than sixteen convenibe complained of, and he be brought to account accordingly; if he
ent places in the different counties of the State, in the months of September and October be unfaithful in any part of his duty, he can be arraigned and dis .annually, schools of teachers not exceeding one week each, for the purpose of instruct
'ng them in the best modes of governing and teaching our corumon schools, &c. mjesed. His responsibilities are, therefore, commensurate with his powers, and the assertions of some writers about "irresponsible
Let us turn now to the democratic State of Michigan where the covernment in connexion with the office of Chief Superintendent
jatest and most perfect system of public education has been adopted of Schools, are mere figures of speech and spectres of imagination. I which exists in any of the Northern
which exists in any of the Northern States. The second and third Our American neighbours are proverbial for not giving their State
| sections of the School law of that State is as follows: officers greater powers than are required by the exigencies of the pub "Sec. 2. The Superintendent of Public Instruction shall prepare and cause to be print
ed with the laws relating 10 primary schools, all necessary forms and regulations for con lic service. What are the powers, then, with which the people of the
ducting all procredings under said laws, and transmit the same with such instructions relaState of New York have felt it necessary, during an experience of
tide to the organization and government of public schools, and the course of studies proper
to be pursued therein, as ke may deem advisable, to the several officers entrusted siú their nearly forty years, to invest their State Superintendent of Common arrangcinent and care. Schools? The following is a summary account of these powers, * Sec. 3. Such laws, forms, and inetructions, shall be printed by the person harins
contract for the State printing, in pamphlet tona, with a proper index : and shall also given in a "Digest of the Common School System of the State of
have annexed thereto, a list of such school books as the Superintendent shall think best New-York," compiled by S. S. Randall, Esq., present General adapted to the use of the primary schools, and a list of books containing pet less than two
hundred volumes suitable for Tounshir Libraries, rrith such rules as he may think proper Deputy Superintendent of the Schools:
to recommend for the gozernment of such libraries?' l'assod in 1813..',
Whether the writers who have assailed our School law, are entirely uninformed as to what is passing in the neighbouring countries on school matters, or whether they presumed upon the entire absence of such information on the part of their readers, we are unable to say ; but we doubt not every candid person of any party will be satisfied, that the powers of the Superintendent of Schools in Upper Canada are much less than those possessed by Superintendents of Schools in the “ free and democratic States” bordering on our southern and eastern frontier; and that there must be a strong and evident necessity for these provisions of the school law, or they would not exist in such States.
Then on the subjecting of selecting and prescribing text-books for the schools, and the selection by our Council of Public Instruction of one series of such books, which has been objected to. What is the judgment on this point by those whose love and conceptions of liberty will hardly be called in question by any of the assailants of our School law ? The following are the sentiments of the Massachusetts Board of Education:
* The inultiplicity of school books, and the imperfection of many of them, is one of the greatest evils at present felt in our Common Schools. The Board know of no way, in which this evil could be more effectually remedied, than by the selection of the best of each class now in use, and a formal recommendation of them by the Board of Education. Such a recommendation would probably cause them to be generally adopted; but should this not prove effectual, and the evil be found to continue, it might be deemed expedient to require the use of the books thus recommended, as a condition of receiving a share of the benefit of the school fund."*
But it is needless to multiply testimonies of this kind, a volume of which might be collected. It is a settled question among educationists of all countries. But we will add a few illustrations of the application of the principle at this moment in the State of Michigan. It will be seen by the foregoing extracts from the law of that State, that the individual Superintendent is the authority created for the selection and recommendation of both text and library school books throughout the State. A former Superintendent had sought to please all parties by recommending three or four text-books in each branch of school instruction, and thereby failed to secure the important object of uniformity of text-books in the schools. The present State Superintendent-a man of acknowledged ability and energy-has determined to sanction one, and but one, series of text-books for all the schools in the State. The men whose bookmaking and book-selling craft is endangered by this promotion of the public interests, have assailed the judiciousness of the State Superintendent's selections ; but even these interested parties have too much self-respect to call in question the propriety of such authority, as have the Canadian writers to whom we have alluded. To elicit the opinion of the most experienced educationists in Michigan on the subject, the present Superintendent (the Rev. S. NEWBURY) addressed a note to the Rev. Dr. Duffield, an able and competent judge. The reply, together with the following extracts, will show the manner in which the Superintendent is sustained by the enlightened men of all parties throughout the State:
Jackson, Mich., April 4, 1850. Rev. GEORGE DufrieLD, D.D.
Dear Sir, I take the liberty to write you, to ask your views upon a subject which his excited some feeling in the public mind, and one which I feel anxious to see decided in such a manner as shall redound to the interests of education in our Staie. I wish to obtain your views as to the course pursued by the Superintendent. in recommending a single series of text books for each branch of elementary education, instead of recommending various authors on the same subject, and if you please, give me your opi. nion of the merits of some of the more important books on the list, such as the Arithmetics and Mathematical course, the Histories, the Philosophies, the English Grammar, and the Rhetorical Reader, or any others you may please to notice. I trouble you with these inquiries because of the great confidence I have in your judgment in such matters, and because of the great interest I have in the adoption of the best means for the progress of the educatio: al interests of our country, my whole time being devoted to this objeci.
Respectfully and truly, yours, &c.,
SAMUEL NEWBURY. SREPLY.]
Detroit, Mich., April 19, 1850. Rev. Samuel NEWBURY, Jackson.
Dear Sir,-Yours of the 4th instant was duly received, and I will cheer. fully, answer, as briefly as I can, your several inquiries. Among the most important and delicate duties, prescribed by law to the Superintendent of Public Instruction, is that of recommending text books to be used in schools. It is important, because the success in teaching depends very much on the character of the books put into the hands of the pupil. It is delicale, because the competition in school books has produced several systems on every branch of elementary education, eacb, perhaps, possess. ing some peculiar merit, and on that account enjoying some portion of the confidence of the public.
As a public officer, charged with this day, the Superintendent could not feel himself at liberty to decline its responsibilities, either by inaclion, or by recommending every work presented by an author, or a publisher. This would have increased, rather than cured that growing evil-the multiplication of text books.
It appears from a previous annual report, that there were put upon the list three series of Arithmetic, Thompson's, Emerson's aud Davies'. These works are constructed on the plans and methods of teaching quite different from each other; and those three systems, differing in every essential parti.
authority of the State placed side by side in the bame school. This must necessarily produce confusion. It prevented teachers from arranging pupils of the same age and acquirements into classes ; and without classification, there can be no regular and systematic instruction. A variety of text books on every other branch of elementary education was, in like manner recommended, so that scarcely two schools could be found using the same books. It seems tl
books. It seems that these, and other considerations of a like character, induced the present Superintendent, on entering upon the duties of his office, to examine very carefully, in connection with others whose opinions were entitled to great weight, all the leading text books in use in our State; and after a very careful comparison of them all, he de. cided to recommend the list appended to his aonual report, and it seems to me it would be difficult to make a better selection. I am aware, however, that some have questioned the wisdom of this recommendation. This, in. deed, was to be expected, because it affected many interests. Some of the articles published, complaining of the selection of books, are of so grave a character, and so well calculated to mislead the public mind, that I think it due to the interests of education, to give my views. very briefly, of some of th
portant of the text books which the Superintendent has recommended, that the public may judge intelligently of the propriety of the selection..
THE ARITHMETICS. The Arithmetics most in use in this State, were the series of Davies, Thompson, Emerson, and Perkins. The first three of these had been previously recommerded. It becaine necessary to select one or the other of these series, or else to abandon altogether every attempt at system an uni. formity. Prof. Davies higher course is used, in whole or in part, in more than one hundred collegiate institutions, and has been adopted by our State University. His academical course is adopted and used eyen more extensively, being used, as I am informed, in over one hundred academies in the State of New York, and his course for comnion schools has a wide circu. latior. Now it is manifestly of the first importance to bring all the departments of instruction, the school, the academy and the university into 'harmony with each other. It is of great consequence that the same terms, definitions and rules laid down in the arithmetics, should be found with only the necessary modifications in the Algebra, and higher branches of Maihematics. And as the higher works were already in general use in the State, the arithmetic constructed on the same general plan was to be preferred on that account.
HISTORIES. I highly approve the selection of histories on account of the arrangemen of the maiter--the accuracy of facis-and the general style. It was proper that the Superintendent, in forming his judgment, should give weight to the standing and reputation of the authors, [wliose various works were examined,jas teachers of youth, Mrs. Willard, whose histories are recom. mended, has been long and favourably known as the head of one of the most flourishing female seminaries of the country. She is indeed one of the most distinguished educators of ihe age, and her scholars in nearly every State of the Union bears a living testimony to the fidelity and usefulness of her labours.
PHILOSOPHIES The Philosophies recommended, large and soonll. are well adapted to the use of our schools and academies. They were written by Professor Parker, whose philosophies are used in the public schoois of Boston, and are in very general use in other States, and certainly have raceived the highest commendation from competent judges. From the examination I have given them I think they unite, in the highest degree, the requisites of a good text book, viz: a concise and verspicuous style, correct arrangemen: of matter, lucid explanations, and unity in all the parts.
The Chief Superintendent of Schools for Upper Canada in his Annual Report for 1819. sununarily and emphatically states the reasons which induced the Provincial Board of Education to recomiend but one series of text-hooks in the Common Schools of U.C.:
The great object contemplated and gained by the introduction of an uniforin series of text-books in the schools, is three-fold: 1. The substituttion of books of superior value for those of inferior value, or of objectionable character. Perhaps no opinion is more unanimous among competent judges, than that many of the books which have been used in our schools, and are still used to some extent, are next to worthless for the accounplishment of the object for which they are used, if not pernicious in their tendency : nor have I heard it pretended on any occasion, much less from any quarter entitled to respect, that the motley variety of school books which chance, time, circumstances, and itinerant vendors have strewed over our country, are comparable in excellence with the series of National School Books, whch have been recominended by the Provincial Board of Education for use in all our sehools. 2. A second object conteinplated by an uniform series of textbooks for schools, is the classification of pupils and the greater efficiency of teaching. When there is but one series of Readers, one Arithmetic, one Geography, one Grammar, &c., used in a School, all the pupils of like attainments in such school, in any one branch, can be formed into the same class; and as a public speaker can address one hundred as easily as he can address ten, so a teacher can teach a class of twenty pupils as easily as he can two. The fewer classes, therefore, he has in his school, the more instruction he can give on any one subject, and to each pupil in given time. But pupils cannot be thus classified where there is a diversity of text-books in the different subjects of instruction. The use of an uniform series of text-books in each school will, therefore. sdd greatly to the value of a teacher's time, and to the amount of knowledge imparted to the pupils, or of mental development by appropriate exercises. And when a teacher be. comes familiar with a serios of text-books-the order of subjects and the modes of illustrating themi-he can use such accustomel instruments of teaching with more ease and to greater advantage, than when new books are constantly thrust upon him. It is scarcely possible to devise a scheme more seriously to paralyze a teacher's exertions and lesson the value of his labours, than by denying him the means of classifying the pupils of his school, and by distracting his attention and wasting his time in teaching thein ona by one instal of teaching them by classes. 3. A third object resulting from the use of an uniform series of text-books is their greater clue a mess. A merchant can fell an article much cheaper when the delaand for it is very large, then when the demand is very limited; the pnblisber of a newspaper can afford it at a inuch less price per annum when the circulation of it is twenty thousand copies, than when it amounts to only one or two thousand. So can the publishers of school-books sell them cheap in proportion to the extent of the demand for them. The more general the demand for any one series of
hool hooks becoines, the greater will be the competition and enterprise to supply that demand. The books will then be produced better in quality and lower in price. In whatever light, therefore, we view the introduction of an uniform scries of good school books. the gain the vast gainf it is on the side of the pupils and their parents."
GRAMMAR. The author of the grammar recommended is Mr. W. S. Clark, principal of one of the flourishing academies of New York. One great merit of this grammar is, that it cannot be taught without the use of the blackboard.
RHETORICAL READER. Parker's Rhetorical Reader deserves a place in all our schools. The in. troduction is full of sound sense and practical knowledge, and the princi. ples of good reading, as unfolded by the author, when rightly apprehended by the teacher, cannot fail to secure a supervision of this most invaluable part of a good education, so exceedingly desirable in many schools I do not deem it necessary to specity, further, the books contained in the list recommended, though much might be said of each one of the most import. ant books on the Superintendent's list.
Having replied to your inquiries. S have only to remark in conclusion, that the duty of selecting a proper list of books has an intimate connection with im; ortani public interests-the great interests of common school education. If the public sustain the Superintendent in the recommendation he has made in compliance with the requirements of the law, our schools will soon feel the influence of a common system or instruction, and a check will be put to the efforts which have been made, and are now making, from abroad, to introduce into our schools and system of public instruction, the numerous works which daily come from the press. A uniform system, or. ganized on a permanent basis, will then take the place of the contusion which now prevails, and teachers, and scholars, and parents, and those having charge of the interests of education, will act in concert with each other in carrying forward what we all have so much at hear the intellectual and moral improvement of the youth of our State..
Respectfully and truly yours, &c.,
Pastor of the 1st Pres. Church, Vetroit. I fully concur in the views expressed in the letter of the Rev. Dr. Duf. field. I had carefully examined all the works to which he refers with one exception. And think they are the best that can be introduced into our schools. They form a complete system, and as such, I hope they will be received and used by all our teachers.
SAMUEL A. McCOSKRY, Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church
in the Diocese of Michigan. I concur in the foregoing views and opinions expressed by Dr. Duffield and Bishop McCoskry.
• E. FARNSWORTH,
(Regent of the University of Michigan. I concur fully in the views expressed above. regarding the merits of the elementary works specified by the Rev. Dr. Duffield, and generally of the list recommended by the Superintendent of Public Instruction. My opi. nion of the importance of uniformity in school books is such, that if I did not entirely coincide in the opinion of these gentlemen, I should deem it my duty to lay aside any special predilections I might have for others, in order to do what little there might be in my power to sustain the public authorities in their efforts to accomplish so desirable an object.
[Regent of the University of Michigan. I concur very fully in the general views expressed by Dr. Duffield, Bishop McCoskry, Chancellor Farnsworth, and Dr. Pitcher.' With the works of Prof. Davies I am familiar; and have no hesitation in recommending their introduction in the schools of this State, as the best system heretofore of. fered to the public.
CHARLES W. WHIPPLE,
Chief Justice of Michigan. I fully concur with the recommendation of Bishop McCoskry of the books presented by the Superintendent of Public Instruction, for the use of all schools throughout the State. The acknowledged superiority of the more important books on this list as set forth by Dr. Duffield in worthy of the special consideration of all teachers and all friends of education, who desire to see permanently in our education system an uniformity in instruction. I trust the time is not far distant when this desirable result will be realized.
F. H. CUMING, Rector of St. Mark's Church, Grand Rapids.
Detroit, May 17, 1850. Rev. SAMUEL NEWBORY,
Dear Sir,-After a patient examination of the books recommended by our Superintendent for adoption in our schools, I cordially concur in the views expressed by Dr. Duffield. They seem to me almost without exception, to possess merits sufficient to justify the selection and entitle them to univer. gal use in our common schools, and I trust the choice of our Superintendent will be ratified by she people in the uniform adoption of these works. Very respectfully,
H. D. KITCHEL,
Pastor of the løt Con. Church, Detroit. (From the Faculty of the University of Michigan.)
University of Michigan, May 17, 1850. We, the undersigned, severally fully concur with Bishop McCoskry, Dr. Pitcher, and others, in reference to the views expressed by the Rev. Dr. Duffield with regard to the comparative merits of the books specified in the above letter; and in general as to the list of text books recommended by the Superintendent. As a multiplicity of books issued daily from the press, is coustantly urged upon our schools from abroad, we deem it essential to the permanency and prosperity of our system of public instruction, to secure uniformity in text books throughout the State, and we therefore approve the course adopted by the Superintendent--the reconimendation of a single set of books on each elementary branch of education instead of inserting upon the list various authors upon the same subject.
G. P. WILLIAMS, Prof. Math. and Nat. Phil.
From the Red. Dr. PENNY, one of the Visitors of the University of Michigan, and formerly President of Hamilton College.
Grand Rapids, 2012 June, 1850. The frequent changes of elementary books in all our schools, although the consequence of a very laudable and desiiable ambition, in the cause of education, is nevertheless loudly and justly complained of.as a gerious evil; causing loss and perplexity alike to :he parent, ihe teacher, the bookseller, and pupil. I is not easy to find a bettei remedy than that proposed by our Superintendent of Public Instruction, viz. tha: by a general and official recommendation of the best books now extant, their general adoption should, as far as possible, be secured, and thai, from time to tine, such changes should be made, through the same channel, and such only, as a due regard to merit may demand."
JOSEPR, Perny. From the Rev. J. BALLARD, Principal of the Union School, Grand Rapids.
I entirely concur with Dr. Duffield in regard to the importance of having a uniformity of school books throughout the State, in our primary and higher schools. The effort 10 produce a uniformity in our school books, and especially in introducing so good a selection, meets with my hearty concurrence.
JAMES BALLARD, Priocipal of Union School. Grand Rapids, June 20, 1850. From the Teachers of the Female Department in St. Mark's College, Grand Rapids.
The list of 'school hooks selected by the Superintendent of Public lostruction as far as examined by the undersigned.elicits our entire commen. dation, both from the character of the lext-books, and the design of uniformity throughout the State. We most cheerfully recommend them to our patrons, and also to the attention of those who are engaged in the advancement of educational interests.
J. A. HOLLISTER. Grand Rapids, June 20, 1850.
G. W. MOORL. From the Detroit Free Press. It is by law made the duty of the Superintendent of Public Instruction to recommend text books for use of the schools in
ated changes of text books in schools is the source of much vexation and ex. pense to parents; and while it is desirable, it seems to us, to avoid this, we are inclined to think uniformity in the books throughout all our schools is exceedingly important. This is not to be secured in any other way, so far as the recommendation of the Superintendent is concerned, but in the selection of a single set of books. Heretofore, we believe, various text books in the several branches of education, bave been rec and this has been the source of much difficulty with school officers in making the selection which would secure a desirable uniformity in the text books.
From the Jackson Patriot. The list of books selected by the Superintendent of Public Instruction, we are glad to see, elicits the entire commendation of the Press. This is right, and speaks well for the interest felt on this subject in different sections of the State.
We bespeak for the whole list of books recommended, a criticalexamination. One very important feature in this selection we notice, is, the soperintendent recommends but one author on the same branch of study. The object is to secure, as far as practicable, uniformity of text books in our Districi Schools. We sincerely hope that school officers, teachers, and the friends of Common Schools throughout the State, will co-operate with the Superintendent in a work so vital to the interests of our schools.
From the Detroit Daily Advertiser. The Superintendent of Public Instruction has, after examining them, recommended a series of books as best adapted to the use of our common schools throughout the State. The necessity of uniformity in school books in the primary branches of education is quite apparent. To bring about this uniformity, the co-operation of school teachers and schools Boards is important and necessary.
from the American Citizen. The necessity of uniformity in books used in Common Schools, has long been seen and felt, and we are pleased to notice the efforts of the Superin. tendent of Public Instruction, and the President of the Board of Education, to establish a list to be introduced in every common school throughout the State. Those interested in education will hail with pleasure the attempt of these gentlemen to accomplish an object which must, without fail, eradi. cate an evil of long standing and a serious obstacle in our otherwise rapid strides towards a perfect system of tree schools. Here is a theory recommended, which if successful, will give to our system of Common School Education alasting benefit and healthy advancement.
From the Macomb County Herald. We are glad to notice that the Superintendent has, upon full examination, determined to recommend the list of books hereinafter enumerated, for the use of all the schools in this State. This effort at uniformity, if suceessful -as we trust it may be-cannot otherwise, in our opinion, than aid mate. rially in the great cause of education.
The importance of uniformity in the school books throughout the State, must, uport a moment's reflection be, we think, apparent to all. The schools can be more certain ot boing supplied with books, and at much lower prices. The merchants in the country, and others who are generally expected to supply the books, will be at no loss to know what kind of books to purchase and to keep on hand. But to be successful in his efforts at reform in this measure, it is highly important that the Superintendent should meet with the hearty co-operation of the several School Boardo, and the friends of education generally, throughout the State ; and we really hope there will be no lack of such co-operation.