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WHAT BECOMES OF ALL THE CLEVER CHILDREN ? during the earliest period of its existence, is regulated, seem to From Chambers' Edinburgh Journal.
afford a striking lesson by the analogy which they bear to these During a visit to a friend in the country, I was enjoying * walk | laws on which the subsequent mental development depends; and by in his garden before breakfast on a delightful morning in June, whon the wise arrangement of an ever-kind Providence, this lesson is my attention was suddenly arrested by the pensive attitude of a little made immediately to precede the period during which it should be boy, the son of my host, whom I observed standing before a rose- carried into practice. On the babe's first entrance into the world, bush, which he appeared to contemplate with much dissatisfaction. | it must be fed with food suitable to its delicate organs of digestion ; Children have always been to me a most interesting study; and on this depends its healthful growth, and
on this depends its healthful growth; and likewise the gradual yelding to a wish to discover what could bave clouded the usually strengthening of those organs: Its senses must at first be acted bright countenance of iny little friend, I inquired what had attracted upon very gently: low strong a light or too loud a noise, may imhim to this particular rose-bush, which presented but a forlorn ap- pair its sight or hearing for life. pearance when compared with its more blooming companions. He The little limbs of a young insant must not be allowed to support replied: “This rose-bush is my own; papa give it to me in spring, the body before they have acquired firmness sufficient for that task, and promised that no one else should touch it. I have taken great otherwise they will become deformed, and the whole system weakpains with it ; and as it was covered with beautiful roses last sum ened ; and last, not least, fresh and and pure air must constantly be mer, I hoped to have had many fine bouquets from it; but all my
inhaled by the lungi, in order that they may supply vigour to the care and watching have been useless; I see I shall not have one whole frame. All enlightened parents are acquainted with these full-blown rose after all."
laws of nature, and generally act on them : but when, owing to “And yet," said I, “it appears to be as healthy as any other
judicious management, their children emerge from boyhood in full bush in the garden: tell me what you have done for it, as you say enjoyment of all the animal organs, and with inuscles and sinews it has cost you so much pains ?
growing firmer every day in consequence of the exercise whichi “ After watching it for some time," he replied, “I discovered a their little owners delight in giving them; is the same judicions very great number of small buds, but they were almost concealed management extended to the mind, of wbich the body, which has by the leaves which grew so thickly ; I therefore cleared away the been so carefully nourished; is only the outer case? In too many greater part of these, and my little buds then looked very well. I cases it is not. Too often the tender mind is loaded with information now found, as I watched them, that though they grew larger every which it has no power of assimilating, and which, consequently, day, the green outside continued so hard, that I thought it impossi it cannot nourish. The mental faculties; instead of being gradually ble for the delicate rose-leaves to force their way out: I therefore exercised, are overwhelmed; parents who would check with dispicked them open ; but the pale, shriveled blossoms which s found pleasure the efforts of a nurse who should attempt to make their inwithin never improved, but died one after another. Yesterday fant walk at too early a period, are ready to embrace eagerly any morning I discovered one bud which the leaves had till then hidden system of so-called education which offers to do the same violence to from me, and which was actually streaked with the beautiful red of the intellect; forgetting that distortion of mind is at least as much the flower contained in it; I carefully opened and loosened it, in the to be dreaded as that of the body, while the motives held out to enhope that the warm sun would help it to blow: my first thought courage the little victims are not calculated to produce a moral this morning was of the pleasure I should have in gathering my one atmosphere conducive either to good or great mental attainments. precious bud for mamma--but look at it now?"
Children are sometimes met with-though fetv and far between The withered, discolored petals to which the child directed my whose minds seem ready to drink in knowledge in whatever form eye did indeed present but a melancholy appearance, and I now | or quantity it may be given to them; and the testimony of Dr. understood the cause of the looks of disappointment which had at | Combe, as well as of many other judicious writers, proves the real first attracted my attention. I explained to the zealous little gar- state of the brain in such cases, and also the general fate of the dener the mischief which he had unintentionally done by removing poor little prodigies. Such children, however, are not the subject the leaves and calyx with which nature had covered and inclosed l of these observations, of which the object is to plead for those promithe flower until all its beauties should be ready for full develop-! sing buds which are closely encased in their "hard" but protecting ment; and having pointed out to him some buds which had escaped l covering ; to plead for them especially at that period when the his care. I left him full of hope that, by waiting patiently for nature "beautiful red streak" appears ; in other words, when, amid the to accomplish her own work, he might yet have a bouquet of own thoughtless sports and simple studies of childhood, the intellect foses to present to bis mother.
begins to develop itself, and to seek nourishment from all that is As I pursued my walk, it occurred to me that this childish inci- presented to it. There exists at the period alluded to a readiness dent suggested an answer to the question asked by Dr. Jobnson, in comparison, and a shrewdness of observation, which might be "What becomes of all the clever children ?" Too often, it is to be profitably employed in the great work of education. And here it feared, are the precious human buds sacrificed to the same mis may be observed, that as to educate" signifies to bring out, the Taken zeal that lead to the destruction of the roses which had been i term education can only be applied with propriety to a system expected with so much pleasure by their little owner. Perhaps a which performs this work, and never to one which confines itself few hints, suggested---not by fanciful theory, but by practicel ex- ! to laying on a surface-work of superficial information, unsupported perience in the menial training of children--may help to rescue | by vigorous mental powers. Information may be acquired at any some little ones from the blighting influences to which they are too age, provided that the intellectual machinery has been kept in aroften exposed.
tiviry; whereas, if the latter has been allowed to rust and stiffen The la w's by which the physical development of every infant, from disease, the core of the majsupposing him to have energy
Bufficient to make an effort-to redress the wrongs done to the boy, as number, before commencing Geography. These, however, he will in most cases be vain. That self-educated men are the best | acquires naturally at a very early age ; and very thoroughly, if the educated is a trite remark; so trite, indeed, that it frequently falls teacher has taken a little pains to aid him on these points in the earon the ear without arousing attention to the apparent parodox which liest stages of his progress. A map is a picture, and hence a child it contains; and yet there must be some reason well worthy of ato | welcomes it. If it can be a map of some familiar object, as of his cention for the fact, that so many who, in early life, have enjoyed school-room, of the school district, of his father's orchard or farm, it advantages, have, on reaching manhood, found themselves surpassed becomes an object of great interest. A map of his town is also very by others who have been forced to struggle up unassisted, and in desirable, as also of his own county. Further detail will be deferred many cases surrounded by apparent obstacles to their rise. It is here, as it is only intended in this place to hint at the order of taking obvious, that the point in which the latter have the advantage, is up the subjects. the necessity which they find in exercising their own intellectual History should go hand in hand with Geography. Perhaps no powers at every step ; and, moreover, for taking each step firmly greater mistake is made than that of deferring history till one of the before they attempt the next; which necessity, while it may retard | last things in the child's course. the rapid skimming over various subjects which is sometiines Writing may be early commenced with the pencil upon the slate, effected, gives new vigor continually to the mind, and also leads to because it is a very useful exercise to the child in prosecuting many the habit of that “industry and patient thought" to which the im- of his other studies. But writing with a pen may well be deferred mortal Newton attributed all he had done ; while at the same time, till the child is ten years of age, when the muscles shall have ac. a vivid pleasure is taken in the acquirement of knowledge so ob quired sufficient strength to grasp and guide it. tained beyond any that can be conferred by reward or encourage Written Arithmetic may succeed the mental; indeed, it may be ment from others.
practised along with it. From these considerations, it appears that the most judicious
Composition—perhaps by another name, as Description should system of education is that in which the teacher rather directs the
be early commenced and very frequently practised. The child can working of his pupil's mind than work for him; and it must be re
be early interested in this, and he probably in this way acquires a collected that such a system, compared with some others, will be
better knowledge of practical grammar than in any other. blow, though sure, in producing the desired result. Every one familiar with children must have observed with what apparently fresh
Grammar, in my opinion, as a study, should be one of the last of interest they will listen to the same tale repeated again and again
the common school branches to be taken up. It requires more ma. Now, if time and repetition are necessaay to impress on the young
turity of mind to understand its relations and dependencies than any mind facts interesting in themselves, they are surely more necessary
other; and that which is taught of grammar without such an anderwhen the information to be in parted is in itself dry and uninterest.
standing, is a mere smattering of technical terms, by which the pupil ing, as is the case with much which it is requisite for children to
is injured rather than improved. It may be said, that unless schollearn. The system here recommended is one which requires pati.
ars commence this branch early, they never will have the opportunity ence both on the part of parents and teachers ; but patience so ex
to learn it. Then let it go unlearned ; for as far as I have seen the ercised would undoubtedly be rewarded by the results, one of which
world, I am satisfied that this early and superficial teaching of a would be, that we should not so frequently see “clever children"
difficult subject is not only useless but positively injurious. How wane into very commonplace, if not stupid men.
many there are who study grammar for years, and then are obliged
to confors in after life, because " their speech bewrayeth them”, that
| they never understood it! How many, by tbe too early study of an DUTY OF THE TEACHER IN REGARD TO THE MANNER
intricate branch, make themselves think they understand it, and thus OF THE STUDIES OF HIS PUPILS.
prevent the hope of any further advancement at the proper age ! (By the late David P. Page, Esq., A. M., Principal of the New York Stute Grammar, then, should not be studied too early. Normal Schoul, at Alluny.)
Of the manner of teaching all these branches, I shall have mon 1. The order of study. There is a natural order in the educa to say in due time. At present I have only noticed the order in tion of the child. The teacher should know this. If he presents which they should be taken up. This is a question of much consethe subjects out of this order, he is responsible for the injury. In quence to the child, and the teacher is generally responsible for it. general, the elements should be taught first. Those simple branches He should therefore carefully consider this matter, that he may be which the child first comprehends, should first be presented. | able to decide aright. Reading, of course, must be one of the first ; though I think the 2. The manner of study. It is of quite as much importance how day is not distant when an enlightened community will not condemn we study, as what we study. Indeed I have thought that much of the teacher, if, while teaching reading, he should call the child's the difference among men could be traced to their different habits of attention, by oral instruction to such objects about him as he can study formed in youth. A large portion of our scholars study for comprehend, even though in doing this he should somewhat prolong the sake of preparing to recite the lesson. They seem to have no the time of learning to read. It is indeed of little consequence that idea of any object beyond recitation. The consequence is, they the child should learn to read words simply ; and that teacher may study mechanically. They endeavour to remember phraseology, be viewed as pursuing the order of nature, who so endeavours to
rather than principles ; they study the book, not the subject. Let dovelop the powers of observation and comparison, that words when
any one enter our schools and see the scholars engaged in preparing learned shall be the vehicles of ideas.
their lessons. Scarcely one will be seen, who is not repeating over Next to Reading and its inseparable companions-Spelling and and over again the words of the text, as if there was a saving charm Defining, I am inclined to recommend the study of Mental Arith in repetition. Observe the same scholars at recitation, and it is a metic. The idea of Number is one of the earliest in the mind of the
struggle of the memory to recall the form of words. The vacant child. He can be early taught to count, and quite early to perform countenance too often indicates that they are words without meanthose operations which we call adding, subtracting, multiplying, and ing. This difficulty is very much increased, if the teacher is condividing. This study at first needs nu book. The teacher should fined to the text-book during recitation ; and particularly if he relies be thoroughly versed in “ Colburn's Intellectual Arithmetic," or its
mainly upon the printed questions so often found at the bottom of the equivalent, and he can find enough to interest the child. When tho page. scholar has learned to read, and has attained the age of six or seven, The scholar should be encouraged to study the subject ; and his he may be allowed a book in preparing his lesson, but never during book should be held merely as the instrument. “ Books are but the recitation. Those who have not tried this kind of mental dis
helps," is a good motto for every student. The teacher should often cipline, will be astonished at the facility which the child acquires, tell how the lesson should be learned. His precepts in this matter for performing operations that often puzzle the adult. Nor is it an un will often be of use. Some scholars will learn a lesson in one tenth important acquisition. None can tell its value but those who have the time required by others. Human life is too short to have any of experienced the advantage it gives them in future school exercises it employed to disadvantage. The teacher, then, should inculcate aad in business, over those who have never had such training. such habits of study as are valuable ; and he should be particularly · Geography may come next to Mental Arithmetic. The child careful to break up, in the recitations, those habits which are mo skondd bare en idea of the relations of size, form, and space, as well grogoly mechanical. A child may almost be said to be educated,
who has learned to study aright ; while ono may havo acquired in
PUBLIC LIBRARIES AND LECTURES. the mechanical way a great amount of knowledge, and yet have no
[By O. S. Fowler, Esq., A. m.] profitable mental discipline.
For this difference in children, the teacher is more responsible than FACILITIES FOR STUDY are every way inferior, whereas they any other person. Let him therefore carefully consider this matter. ought to abound. Books should be multiplied a thousand fold, till
they become the great commodity of traffic and commerce. But
most of all they require to be IMPROVED. Trashy novels require to INCONSISTENCY OF THE PEOPLE.
be superseded by works full of sound sense, excellent instruction,
and scientific knuwledge. Yet they should not be dry and pludding [By the Hon. HORACE Mans.)
but filled, not merely with all that halo of beauty which clusters The people do not yet seem to see that all the cost of legislating around every right exhibition of the works of nature-because against criminals ; of judges and prosecuting officers, of jurors and around the works themselves—but with all the elegance of diction witnosses to convict them; of building houses of correotion, and and charms of style wbich appertain 'to language. A clumsy ur jails and penitentiaries, for restraining and punishing them, is not a inspid style in a scientific work, is like rags ou the goddess of hundredth part of the grand total of expenditure incurred by private beauty. How pre-eminently does the subject allow and require all and social immoralities and crimes. The people do not yet seem to the excellencies and ornaments of style so abundant in the very spe, that the intelligence and morality which education imparts, is nature of language ! Every child's school-book should equal that beneficent kind of insurance which, by preventing losses, Irving's “Sketch Book," for felicity of diction. Dress up all the obviates the necessity of indemnifying for them; thus saving both inherent beauty of nature in all the charms of a truly splendid style premium and risk. What is engulfed in the vortex of crime, in each -blend the useful with the rich-and such books as mortal eyes generation, would build a palace of Oriental splendor in every school never yet beheld, would render reading far more enchanting than district in the land ; would endow it with a library beyond the ability the ball-room. of a life-time to read; would supply it with apparatus and laboratories PUBLIC LIBRARIES.—These books, thus splendid in composition, for the illustration of every study and the exemplification of every should be accessible to all. Private libraries åre eminently useful, art, and munificently requite the services of a teacher worthy to but public vastly more so. The pour require reading material proside in such a sanctuary of intelligence and virtue.
equally with the rich. Let it be furnished, and crime, generally But the prevention of all that havoc of worldly goods which is associated with ignorance, would thereby be prevented. Let govercaused by vice, tranfers only one item from the loss, to the profit inent advance funds for this purpose, and they will have less reside of the account. Were all idle, intemperate, predatory men to quisition for jails and hangmen. As you EDUCATB THE PBOPLE you bocoine industrious, sober and honest, they would add vast sums to proportionally diminish crime. A hundred told more effectual the inventory of the nation's wealth, instead of subtracting from it. preventive this than punitive measures. In fact, unite physical Let any person take a single town, village or neighborhood, and look and intellectual with inoral training, and you head off crimes alrnost at its inhabitants individually, with the question in his mind,-how together. If men knew the consequences of violating law, they many of them are producers and how many are non-producers ; that would sin less. Public reading-rooms are of course recommended as is, either by the labor of the body or the labor of the mind, add value & part of public libraries ; and so are circulating libraries. But we and dignity to life, and how many barely support themselves; and I especially require FBMALB reading-roums." Women love to read, think he will often be surprised at the smallness of the number, by and should have equal access to this means of mental culture. . whose talent and industry the store-houses of the earth are mainly PUBLIC LECTURES will be found still more promotive of public filled, and all the complicated business of society is principally man intelligence and virtue. Let every village and ueighbourhood bave aged, Could we convert into co-workers for the benefit of mankind, a splendid public room, attractively arranged and fitted up, and all those physical and spiritual powers of usefulness which are now capable of holding “all the region round about," and the let governantagonists or neutrals, the gain would be incalculable.
ment employ and support lecturers, in part, at public expense, as it Add the two above items together,-namely, the saving of what
now does teachers, furnished with splendid apparatus for illustrating the vicious now squander or destroy, and the wealth which, as vir
the respective sciences in which they lecture; and let them spend tuous men they would amass and the only difficulty prosented
their lives in the service. Let one man have manikins and anatvwould be, to find in what manner 80 vast an amount conld be bene mical models, drawings, and preparations, and occupy a given ficially disposed of.
section, say one or more counties, which he should visit at stated · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·
intervals, so that all could hear as they are growing up. Let bin When the city of Boston was convinced of the necessity of having
teach anatomy and physiology ; especially the young the value of a supply of pure water from abroad, for the use of its inhabitants; it
health, means of preserving it, and causes of its destruction. Pay voted three millions of dollars to obtain it; and he would be a bold
five dollars to this object, where hundreds are now paid to physicians man who would now propose a ropeal of the ordinance, though all
for TRYING TO cure, and few would be sick, and those who were would past expenditures could be refunded. Yet all the school-houses in
be able to doctor themselves. Strange that doctors have not Boston, which it has erected during the present century, are not
enlightened the people touching the laws of healh, long before this, worth a fourth part of this sum. For the supply of water, the city
But their neglect will prove their ruin, which many of us will live of New York lately incurred an expenditure of thirteen millions of
to see. dollars. Admitting, as I most cheerfully do, that the use of water
Let another public Lecturer be fitted out with a phrenological appertains to the moral as well as to the ceremonial law, yet our cities
paratus-drawings, paintings, animal and human casts and skull, have pollutions which water can never wash away,--defilements
and whatever else will illustrate or enforce his subject, and pass which the baptism of a moral and Christian education alone can
around his circuit periodically, lecturing on this science of mind, remove. There is not an appetite that allies man to the brute, nor a
and telling parents how to manage this child, govern that, and passion for vain display which makes him more contemptible than
educate the other, and in what occupations they will each succeed : any part of the irrational creation, which does not cost the country
as well as pour forth that perpetual stream of ADVICE which Prevomore every year, than such a system of schools as would, according
logy gives in such rich abundance and personal applicability. Lt. to the evidence I have exhibited, redeom it almost entirely from its
him also add the MENTAL PHILOSOPHY, and MORALS and ethics, of follies and its. Consider a single fictitious habit of our people, which
this science of man, so that the entire body politic shall not only no one will protend adds any degree to the health, or length to the
be treated to the rich intellecluel repast which it serves up, but life, or decency to the manners of the nation, I mean the smoking
become imbued with its purifying, elevating doctrines ; and a powerof tobacco. It is said, on good authority, that the annual expenditure
ful check would thus be given to vice, and incentives to public in the country for the support of this habit is ten millions of dollars;
virtue ard improvement be propounded for general emulation. Say, and if we reflect that this sum, averaged upon all the poople, would
reader, has not this science purified your own feelings, and inbe only one half dollar 8-piece, the estimate seems by no means extra
proved your MORALS as well as intellects? It will do this fur ali. vagant. Yet this is far more than is paid to the teachers of all the Kindred lecturers should be employed abdl fuled out with abuda ! Public schools in the United States.
| apparatus for illustrating chemielty, natural history, geolegy, chrunology, natural philosophy, mathematics, astronomy, and every . In your new and responsible position, the first subject which will other department of science and nature. The expense would not naturally engage your attention is the nature of the work which lies be great, and would save a hundred fold in cost of the criminal calen before you. It is to provide primary instruction for children from dar alune.
five to eight years of age-intermediate instruction for those from These lectures sliould be especially adapted to the juvenile mind;
eight to eleven years of age--and higher instruction for youths from and wliat is well adapted to the young, is also adapted to adults.
eleven to fourteen. The nature and classification of subjects conI would not, however, recommend every mountebank becanse he
tained in this course of instruction, need not be here enumeratod or can ve bired for twelve dollars per month ; but splendid lecturers
stated; but they will at once suggest the proper gradation of -well informed on all scientific matters, and perfectly suipiliar
schools, and the several departments in the same school, when
established upon a large scale and including several teachers. with that on which they lecture ; and instead of those whu lisp, or squint, or violate both grammar and rhetoric, or deform their mat
The providing proper School-houses, furnished with maps, apter by defective delivery, I would recommend splendid orators-
paratus, and the needful text-books for the pupils, the employment of good-looking, noble and commanding in appearance, dignitied, im
efficient Teachers, the appointment of an able and active Superinpressive, fluent, felicious jo style, and uitogether captivating ; $0
tendent, and the selection of an intelligent and faithful local Comas to draw out all classes, especially the young, in delighted througs
mittee for each School or ward, together with the estimate and tu hear them discourse learnedly and vluquently on nature and her
provision for the support of Schools, will next engage your earnest Ta Ws, and incile in these youth an ardent desire still farther to
attention, and constitute the principal subjects of your future solici prosecute these thrillingly interesting subjects. Think you our
tude and labours. A division of labour will be one of the most youth, thus educated, would throng the country carouse, the dis
convenient, if not essential, means of accomplishing these purposes gusting groggery, or the demoralizing theatre, --ihose nurseries of
with any degree of facility and success: such as the appointment vice ?
of a Committee on School-houses; a Committee on the qualificaEspecially would I recommend lectures on elocution. L't child
tions, employment and salaries of Teachers; a Committee on text
books and apparatus; a Committee on examinations and discipline; a dreo be taught to SPEAK-taught by example, und by those after
Committee of Ways and Means, and another on Accounts. In whom they may safely pattern. I would make them all good
smaller towns and incorporated villages, so minute a division of SPEAKERS. Not that I would not recommend any local teachers.
labour among the Members of the Board of Trustees will not be
They are : inuispensable. But I would create a new profession—that of
necessary. Most of these Committees should report once a month lecturing. By a law of mind truth can be TALKED into mankind,
at the monthly meeting of the Board of Trustees; the Committee Ospecially into juveniles, which no other form of teaching can pos
on School Examinations should attend the Quarterly Examinations mibly convey. To this law of mind I would adapt instruction. The
of the Sohools, and should report the result of examination in each Persian teachers LECTURE to their scholars.
Sohool. The local Superintendent (who should be a practical
This is the great method of instruction. This is right. This is the most powerful
Teacher, a man of virtue, a lover of youth, and an ardent friend and means of conveying instruction in the world. Let GOVERNMENT
promoter of knowledge) should visit each of the Schools and report
on their state and progress at least once a month; and his report therefore turnish these educational facilities.
should specially include, among other things, a statement of the
manner in which the School Registers are kept, and the character | CIRCULAR,
of attendance of pupils, as well as the character of organization, From the Chief Superintendent of Schools to the Boards of School classification, teaching and discipline in each school. He should
Trustees elected in the several Cities and Towns in Upper have Quarterly Meetings of the Teachers, to interchange views on Canada, September the 3rd. 1850.
various points of instruction and discipline, in order to promote bar[OFFICIAL.)
mony of action, and cause the whole system of schools in each city EDUCATION OFFICE,
and town to tend towards a high and uniform standard of excel Toronto, 7th October, 1850.
To enter into a minute detail of all the regulations and proceedYour fellow-citizens and townsmen have elected you ings which must be adopted in order to establish and maintain a to a trust the most important and responsible; and the Sohool Act proper system of schools in each city and town, would entirely exinvests you with ample powers to fulfil that trust, so as to extend ceed the limits of this circular. The importance, objects and pecuthe facilities of a sound education to each child in every city and liar features of this system of schools, I explained, at some length, town in Upper Canada. On you will rest the responsibility if any in a circular addressed to the Heads of City and Town Corporations of the Schools under your charge is inefficient, whether from the in January, 1848, on the introduction of the City and Town School employinent of an improper teacher, or from the want of a proper Act, 10th and 11th Vic. chap. 19, and which will be found in the School-house, or proper furniture or text-books, or if a single child first volume of the Journal of Education, pages 16-24. And the be unprovided with the means of education; and to you will apper economy and great practical advantages of this system of schools rain the satisfaction and honor and gratitude, which shall never die, in cities and towns where it exists in the neighbouring States, are it each school over which you are placed be a living fountain of shown in the same volume of the same Journal, pages 121-123, and knowledge and virtue, and if each child within your jurisdiction 150-153. have unobstructed access to that fountain. Water and bread and Under these circumstances, it would be superfiuous for me to clothing are not more neodful for the health and growth and comfort dwell at length upon the subject anew ; but to aid you as far as in of the body, than are the food and pulsations of knowledge to the my power in the great work on which you are now entering, I vital energy and divine distinction of mind. The uneducated child have purchased, and I hope soon to be able to place into the hands of grows up into a mere animal of bones and sipews, with tastes and the Board of School Trustees foreach city and town in Upper Canada, sympathics and habits as degraded and pernicious as they might be | Mr. Barnard's unrivalled work on “ School Architecture—an octavo exalted and usoful. The destiny of each child in each city and town volume of nearly 400 pages, containing upwards of 300 illustrations, -especially of the more laborious classes-is, in a great measure, and embracing all the important improvements which have been in your hands. You are its chosen educational guardians; and as made in the last few years in the construction of school-houses for such you have the power of training and sending him forth an schools of every grade, from the infant school to a Normal School, intelligent and useful citizen, or of neglecting and turning him out with suitable plans for the construction and arrangement of seats, both a victim and instrument of the worst propensities of our na desks, and for warming and ventilation, for appendages, grounds, ture.
&c.” I will also endeavour to procure for each Board of School Our cities and towns are the centres and hearts of large sections Trustees, whom I am now addressing, a copy of the “Rules and of country, and radiate influences, for good or for evil, which are Regulations for Public Schools” which have been adopted by the felt over the whole areas of the surrounding circles. This is espe- Bards of Education or Trustees in the cities of Bosion and Provicially the case in Upper Canada, where domestie relations and every | dnce (Rhode-Island), and under the operation of which the most variety of social and business intercourse betweon town and country i complete and efficien' vystour of Schools has beer matured which, 1 era su nurnarous and intimate.
think, ekipps in any oily or fowl, either in Europe or America. Our School Law confers upon you all the powers of establishing and 48;. und I think it proper, at the same time, to make a fow explana. maintaining your schools (Classical as well as Common,--seo 12th tory and practical remarks on the subject. section, 4th clause) which are conferred upon the School Corporations 1 1. You will observe that the standard of qualifications prescribed of the cities referred to; and my earnest desire and prayer is, that you
for each class of Teachers, is extremely low ;-lower indoed, than may be disposed and enabled to exercise these powers with like in strict propriety it ought to be lower than it is for Common School wisdom, patriotism and success.
Teachers in Ireland lower than it will doubtless be in Upper CanIt is in the character and facilities of public school education in
| ada in the course of three or four yesrs. Tbe standard here laid
down for first class Teachers, will probably soon be applied to their cities and towns that our American neighbours far excel us. I think our rural schools, as a whole, are advancing more rapidly
second class Teachers, and that of second, applied to third class than theirs; but in each of their cities and towns they have in effi
Teachers, and no persons will be admitted into the publio schools as cient operation an uniform and magnificient system of schools, the
legally qualified Teachers whose qualifications will not enable them advancement of which is the highest ambition of their highest
to secure a second class certificate according to the accompanying citizens, and which offers FREE cducation to the poor as well as the
Programme. But the Council of Public Instruction has had regard rich-to all classes upon equal terms according to property. In all
to the present circumstances of the country, to the fact that this is our cities and towns we now have substantially their school law; and
the first step which has yet been adopted for establishing an uniform I fervently hope we shall soon have as good, and even better schools.
standard and system of examination of teachers throughout Upper It is with the elective Board of School Trustees in each city and
Canada. It is painful to think, that there should be a necessity in town in Upper Canada to say whether this shall be so or not.
any part of the Province, to license persone as teachers with no higher
qualifications than those required of third class teachers in the accomI have the honor to be; Gentlemen,
panying Programme ; but it is hoped such a ncessity will not long . Your most obedient servant and fellow-labourer,
exist : and every teacher of this class should be impressed with the
E. Ryerson. | consideration, that if he wishes to be recognized in future years as P. S.-It may be proper for me to make an explanatory remarki a legally qualified Teacher of Common Schools, he must apply on the nineteenth section of the School Act, authorizing, under himself diligently to the acquisition of higher qualifications. The certain circumstances, the establishment of Protestant and profession of School-teaching can only be efficient, and influential; Roman Catholic Separate Schools. In my late Circular to Township as the qualifications and character of its members are respectable Councils, I have remarked upon this provision of the Act, and shown and elevated. The accompanying Programme states the minimum that it is no new provision, but one which has existed upwards of of qualifications required for each class of certificates. seven years--since the commencement of our present. Common 2. But the first, and perhaps most important duty which devolves School system. Te has clearly been intended from the beginning as a
| upon you, is that which precodes an examination into the intellecprotection of the minority against any oppressive or invidious pro
tual qualifications of candidates. The law expressly declaros, that ceedings on the part of the majority in any School division, in n o certificale of qualification shall be given to any person as addition to the ordinary provision of the Act, prohibiting the com | Teacher, who shall not furnish satisfactory proof of good moral pulsory attendance of any child upon a religious exercise, or reading character." This is a vital point on which you are called to.pass a a religious book, to which his parents or guardians shall object. conscientious and impartial judgment, befyre you admit any canThe existence of so few separate schools (only about fifty in all didate to an examination. The law of the land thus makes you the Upper Canada, and nearly one-half of them Protestant), shows that tho morul guardians of the children and youth of your respectivo counprovision for their establishment is rarely acted upon, as the local ties, as far as depends upon the moral character of their Teachere, school authorities seldom find oecasion for it. And as there can be the same as the Divine law makes you the guardians of your own no Separate School in a school division, unless the Teacher of the | children ; and you should certainly license no character to teach the mixed school is of a different religious persuasion from the applicants former, whom you would not permit to teach the latter. Many for such Separate School, the local Board of Trustees can always, if representations have been made to this Department respecting, inthey think proper to do so, make such a selection of Teachers as will
temperate, and profane, and Sabbath-breaking Teaehers. To what prevent the establishment or continuance of separate schools.
extent these representations are well founded, is not for me to say. 1 on .
. E.R. But when so many parties have been individually authorizod to
license Teachers, it were not surprising if isolated individual firm(OFFICIAL.]
'ness should be overcome by the importunity of a candidate in somo Notice to the Local Superintendents of Schools, and the Trustecs of instances, backed by requests of inconsiderate Trustees. Now, District Grammar Schools throughout Upper Canada. however, you meet in Council: the candidates como before you on Education OFFICE,
common ground; you judge of the “moral character" of each by a
Toronto, 8th October, 1850. common rule : you are less liable to those plaintive appeals and pleas By the 28th section of the School Act, 13th and 14th Victoria, which have so often been pressed upon the feelings of individual chapter 48, the Board of Trustees of the Grammar Schools and the Superintendents and Visitors. I can not. but regard it as your Local Superintendents of Schools in each County or Union of special mission to rid the profession of common school teaching of Counties, are constituted a Board of Public Instruction for such unworthy characters and of wholly incompetent persons, to protect County, or Union of Counties; and under the authority given in the youth against the poison of a vicious toacher's example, and to the 35th section, and 3rd clause of said Act, I hereby appoint the lay. the foundation for greatly elevating the profession of school first meeting of each County Board of Public Instruction to be held teaching, and greatly inoroasing the officiency and usefulness of on Thursday, the fourteenth day of November next, at 10 o'cloch.. Common Schools. The moral character of teachers involves the A. M., at the place of the last meeting of the Council of such County, deepest interests of our offspring, and the widest destinies of our or Union of Counties. When once assembled, the law authorizes country. No lax expediency or false delicacy should be permitted each County Board to appoint the times and places of its own to endorso a person of irregular habits or doubtful morals as a meetings..
.. good moral character," and let him loose upon society, authorized E. RYERSON, and certified as a duly qualified Teacher of its youth. I am suro Chief Superintendent of Schools, U. C. you will agroe with me, that your cortificate should state what you
believe to be strictly true, and therefore be a guarantee to Trustees Circular from the Chief Superintendent of Schools to each of the
:of Schools and parents of children, in regard to the moral charaeter : County Boards of Public Instruction in Upper Canada."
and intelleotual qualifications of every Toacher whom you shall (OFFICIAL.] EDUCATION OFFICE,
Toronto, Eth October, 1850. 1 .3. As to your examination of candidates in the several subjects GENTLEMEN :
mentiones in the Programme, I had at first intended to have preI transmit you herewith a copy of the Programme į pared somnu general questions on each subject, as hints both to exfor the Examination and Classification of Teachers of Common
aminers and candidates for certificates of different classos; but on Schools, which has been adopted by the Council of Public Instruc- ' further consideration, I found it would occupy too much space, and tion, as required by the School Aot, 13th and 14th Victoria, chapter I might probably be better left to the discretion and judgment of