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third or down to the forty-first, and for the most part does not fully speaking, writing, and reading men you have occasionally a Shakecover the forty-second ;-the boys will correct me if I am wrong :) speare, a Bacon, or a Franklin, my wonder is to see these boys or, to make the comparison fairer, if you take, not in the same and girls, after a few years' training, able to express, in written latitude, but the isothermal lines that give the same climate as ours, marks and spoken sounds, the subtlest shades of thought, and that and turn the globe round till every part of its surface which lies in two or three languages. between them comes up to the brazen meridian, you will find many The next branch of common school education is arithmetic, the a spot equalling, some surpassing, Massachusetts in natural science of numbers, the elements of mathematics. This is in reality advantages, none exceeding her in prosperity ;-some regions you a branch of the great department of language, a species of compowill find, as the globe revolves beneath your eye, as favourably sition ; but of 80 peculiar a nature as to constitute a separate circumstanced as ourselves as to position, climate, and soil ; but science. This is another of the great master keys of life. With inhabited by degenerate or savage races ;-by tribes that never it the astronomer opens the depth of the heavens ;--the engineer, emerged into civilization, or have sunk back into barbarity. the gates of the mountains ;-the navigators, the pathways of the
But you may ask, while you perceive this contrast, is it possible deep. The skilful arrangement, the rapid handling of figures, is a that it should be caused by education ? and much of the difficulty perfect magician's wand. The migbty commerce of the United which you will perhaps find in agreeing to the answer would vanish, States, foreign and domestic, passes through the books kept by if you would but look upon education, in the full comprehension of some thousands of diligent and faithful clerks. Eight hundred the idea, as the drawing out, the training up of the intellectual book-keepers, in the Bank of England, strike the monetary principle in man; the divine principle which makes him what he balances of half the civilized world. Their skill and accuracy in is. Till this is done, man is but a superior animal; hardly even applying the common rules of arithmetic are as important as the that. At best, the purely sensual man is but a piece of painted, enterprize and capital of the merchant, or the industry and courage aching clay. But awaken the spiritual nature, kindle the intellec of the navigator. I look upon a well-kept ledger with something tual and moral spark, and he starts up a Newton or a Washington ; of the pleasure with which I gaze on a picture or a statne. It is -- being but a little lower than the angels.
a beautiful work of art. It is by arithmetrical rules, and geometBut you ask again can common school education do this ? and I rical diagrams, and algebraical formulæ, that the engineer digs an answer fearlessly it can and does. I certainly cannot on this occa underground river-channel for an inland lake, and carries a stream sion, and in the few minutes' time still left me, undertake to treat of fresh water into every house in a crowded capital. Many a slate this mighty theme in all its bearings, but I do not despair, even in a full of vulgar fractions has been figured out, to enable our neighfew sentences, of suggesting to you the great points of the argument. bours in Boston to sip a glass of Cochituate.
in a class of Cochituate.
2003 I will take school education in its common simple acceptation, as Then come the elements of natural philosophy and natural science, confined to reading and writing, (in which I include speaking and the laws of organic and inorganic nature, of which something is composition,) arithmetic, and the elements of natural philosophy; taught in our common schools, is it wonderful that a community, and I believe the extension to a whole community of the means of in which this knowledge is diffused, should multiply itself a hundred obtaining such an education without cost, is sufficient to effect all I fold ? I mean is it wonderful that one well taughi man should do ascribe to it. It is scarcely necessary to say, that I do not, in the work of uninstructed thousands ? Mythology tells as of Briareus these statemente, hold up education as a creative cause. I take with his bundred hands, and Argus with bis hundred eyes ;-but into the account the spontaneous co-operation of the mysterious these are only faint images of the increased and sharpened vision principle of intelligence, with all its perceptive faculties, bestowed which knowledge imparts to the well educated. M. Agassiz sees and quickened by the author of our being ; just as the farmer, a great deal more with his two eyes, than Argus did with his when he describes the effect of the various processes of husbandry, hundred. Mr. Bond beholds a satellite of Neptune in the depths of includes the co-operation of those inscrutable principles of vegetable the heavens,-three thousand millions of miles from the sun,-a growth, which philosophy strives in vain to analyze, but without body perhaps not five hundred miles in diameter,-as easily as the which not an ear of corn is ripened.
diver beholds a pearl oyster in seven fathoms of water. No Titan With this explanation I say, sir, that common reading and that fought with Jupiter, and piled Ossa upon Pelion, had as much writing, that is, in a word, the use of language as a system of strength in his arm, as the engineer has in his thumb and finger, visible and audible signs of thought, is the great prerogative of our when he turns the screw that lets the steam into the cylinder of nature as rational beings. I say that when we have acquired the his engine. What is there in the Arabian Nights like the skill of mastery of this system of audible and visible signs, we have done the metallurgist, who converts a shapeless clod of iron ore into the the greatest thing, as it seems to me, as far as intellect is concerned, mainspring of a watch ? What was there in Michael Scott's book which can be done by a rational man. It is so common that we to compare with the practical necromancy of the chemist? do not much reflect upon it; but like other common things, it hides Now these are the branches of knowledge of which the elements a great mystery of our nature. When we have learned how, by are taught at our schools ; and need I urge that such a control of giving an impulse with our vocal organs to the air-by making a the signs of thought, -such a possession of the keys of knowledge, few black marks on a piece of paper,—to establish a direct sympa -such a consciousness of power over nature as results from this thy between our invisible and spiritual essence and that of other acquaintance with her mysteries, is quite sufficient in the aggremen, so that they can see and hear what is passing in our minds, gate to give a character to a community,—not certainly to produce just as if thought and feeling themselves were visible and audible, wonderful effects in each individual,-but in their united and com--not only so, when in the same way we establish a communica tinuous operation to promote the prosperity of a State. tion between mind and mind in ages and countries the most remote, we have wrought a miracle of human power and skill, which I never reflect upon without awe. Can we realize, sir, that in this
THE EFFICIENCY OF A SCHOOL SYSTEM NOT DEPENDway we have, through the medium of the declamation of these chil
ENT ON A LARGE SCHOOL FUND.' pre dren, been addressed this morning by Demosthenes and Cicero, by Burke and Fox? Well, sir, all this is done by writing, reading, In the Appendix to the last Report of the Superintendent of and speaking. It is a result of these simple operations. When Schools for the State of Connecticut, we find a “PRIZE ESSAY OR you tell me a boy has learned to read, you tell me that he has entered
the Necessity and Means of Improving the Common Schools of into an intellcetual partnership not only with every living contemporary, but with every mind ever created, that has left a record of
Connecticut." The following extracts from this valuable Essay, itself on the pages of science and literature, and when he has deserve the attention of every friend of Education in Canada, not learned to write, he has acquired the means of speaking to gener merely for the statistics contained in them, but for the practical ations and ages, that will exist a thousand years hence. It all
instruction which they convey, as to the essential elements of an comes back to the use of language. The press, the electric tele
efficient system of public education :graph are only improvements in the mode of communication. The wonderful thing is that the mysterious significance of thought the There was a time when the Common Schools of Connecticut were invisible action of spirit,--can be embodied in sounds and signs esteemed the best in the world, and when Connecticut, on account addressed to the eye and ear. Instead of wondering that among of her system of public education, was the brightest spot in all Christendom. Connecticut gave to the world the first example of a who receive shall themselves, raise as much as they take, and report government providing a munificent fund for the education of every annually as to the results. Those who go from other States into child within its limits, and of securing the benefits of this provision Connecticut, can hardly credit the testimony of their own senses equally and forever to the humblest as well as to the highest, to the when they are forced to believe the apathy that prevails. Every poorest as well as to the richest. She connected with this fund a newspaper and lecturer out of Connecticut, high and low, ignorant system of general and minute supervision, good for its time, to pre and knowing, sneers at the Connecticut School Fund, and the prosent serve the fund from abuse and misapplication, and to give thorough condition of the Connecticut schools. ness and efficiency to its actual workings. It was a system suited
Are the people of Connecticut aware that this is the case ? Do to the state of society then existing to the staid and sober habits
they know what the people of other States think and say of them ? of the people. It answered in a good measure, its design. It made
Do they believe that what is thought and said is true and deserved ? teachers and parents both feel their responsibility.
We can hardly believe that they are generally aware of the bad reThe results of this school system, were great and good. Every
pute into which their schools have fallen. Or if they are informed hamlet in Connecticut of no more than twonty houses, whether
in respect to it, they do not believe that they merit so bad a name. spread out upon the plain, or crowded into the valley, whether
The majority are too well contented to leave their schools as they sprinkled along the sloping hill-side, or wedged in among the brown
are. They persuade themselves that their school system works as rocks of some wild ravine, could show its district school-house, which
well as any public school system can be expected to work; that was regularly opened for many months in the year. There was
notwithstanding all that may be said out of the State against tho hardly to be known the son or daughter of Connecticut, who could
schools of Connecticut, these schools are better than those of any not read and write. It was the rarest of all things to see one who State in the Union. They are opposed to any agitation of the subhad not received a good Gementary education.. .
ject. They will give their hearts to no strong and united effort to This was reported to the honour of Connecticut throughout the improve their schools. On the other hand, those who know that our Christian world. The lover of his race, who had been rewarded for schools are inferior to those of some of the other States, and who his zeal for the elevation of his countrymen, by a life-lease in a see clearly, in the prevailing apathy, the certain signs of a still Prussian of Austrian dungeon, saw his prison wall all light about greater degeneracy, are almost discouraged to hope for any great him when he thought of the one government in the world that had and permanent improvement. Neither of these classes are wholly provided efficiently for the education of the humblest child, and ga in the wrong, nor wholly in the right. It is not true, that the schools thered hope for the time, when his government and all governments of Connecticut are as good as those of certain other States. It is should do the same. In our own Union, the other States were
not true, that our publio school system is as good, or is managed as reproved for their negligence, and spurred on to their duty by the efficiently as the systems of many other States. There is not only example of what Connecticut had been the first to perform. The danger, but a certain prospect, that if things remain as they are, the emigrant mother in Vermont or Western New-York, as she looked schools of Connecticut will degenerate still more, and Connecticut around upon her untaught boys and girls, sighed for the schools of will be dishonoured more and more, in the comparison with her sister Connecticut and was ready to exchange the rich fields that were States. It is not true, indeed, that all the hard and contemptuous beginning to look 80 luxuriant about her, for the most rocky farm things that have been said about our schools and our school fund are within the limits of a Connecticut school district. '
just and deserved, but the facts can be brought to prove that there is But within the last twenty years a change in all these respects too much ground for them, and that the public apathy on this subject has taken place. Connecticut no longer holds the same high posi is inexcusable and fraught with evil. tion which she once did. Austria and Prussia have provided their
What then is the condition of the Common Schools of Connectisubjects with an efficient and successful Common School system.
cut ? Facts are stubborn things. We present the following, in Other governments in Europe are slowly awaking to their duty and
which tho contrast is strikingly exhibited :interest in respect to the same high matter. Despotism even is striving to make peace with its wronged and outraged subjects, by First, as to appropriations for school purposes. Money is the giving, in return for the civil rights which it withholds, the substan- sinews of education as of war. The willingness to appropriate tial blessings of universal education. Many of the States of our money shows zeal for any cause. Connecticut, in 1795, set apart own Union are giving themselves to this causo with a zeal and for school purposes a large and increasing fund for the support of energy which show them determined to make amends for past schools, which now amounts to $2,070,000, and divides $1.40 for neglect and torpor. In Massachusetts, Ohio, New-York, Georgia, every scholar between the age of 4 and 16. Besides this, there are Rhode Island, and many other States, vigorous and successful efforts the town deposit-fund and local funds. Instead of annexing to the are made. School funds are accumulated ; taxes are readily im reception of their annual dividend the condition of raising a speciposed and cheerfully paid ; Boards of Education are instituted ; fied sum, the annual taxation was gradually diminished, till in 1822 periodicals are circulated; public lectures are given ; Normal it ceased altogether. In 1845, it is not known that a single town or Schools for the instruction of teachers are provided ; teachers' con school society in the State, raised a tax for school purposes by volunventions and institutes are attended with zeal and profit. These, tary taxation. In a few of the large city districts, a small propertyand other signs, show beyond question, that there is a strong move tax is collected, and applied to the wages of teachers, but not ment in the public mind: that the people are being aroused. In l amounting in the whole State to $9,000, or 3 cents to each inhabitant, some States and parts of States this interest is well-nigh enthusiastic. | or 10 cents to oach child between the ages of 4 and 16.
But Connecticut! where is Connecticut the mean while? Where Massachusetts and New-York, as the capital and dividend of their is she, who was once the star of hope and guidance to the world ? | school funds have increased, have, at the same time, increased the She was the first to enter the lists, and was the foremost in the race. sums to be raised as a condition of receiving the dividend of their Is she foremost now? Whatever may be the truth of the case, it is funds. From 1835 to 1845, the capital of the Massachusetts Fund certain, that she is not thought to be in the other States. It is the was increased from $500,000 to $800,000. During the same period general opinion, out of Connecticut, that she is doing little or no the amount annually raised in towns by tax, for the wages of thing ; and, whereas, a few years since, her name was mentioned in teachers, has advanced from $325,320 to near #600,000. The staconnection with Common Schools, with honour, only ; it is now, in tute of 1839 requires that $1.25, for every child between the age of this connection, coupled with expressions of doubt and regret, and 4 and 16, should be raised and actually expended for the purposes that by wise and sober men. Her large State endowment is de of instruction in each town, whereas, more than $3.00 for every scribed as having put her effectually asleep, as having sent her to child of the above age was actually raised by tax in 1845 in 53 “Sleepy Hollow," from the influence of which, when she is aroused towns, more than $2.00 in 190 towns, and $2.99 is the average for a moment, it is to talk of her noble School Fund and James Hill through the Stato. 2.99 is the average in Massachusetts and 10 house, just as Rip Van Winkle did of his neighbours who had been cts. in Connecticut. It is instructive to look over the list of towns dead forty years. The School Fund is quoted every where out of 1 as arranged in the school returns of Massachusetts for 1846. The Connecticut,we venture to say it is quoted in every other State in town standing first is a new town just out of Boston, which raises the Union, as a warning and example to deter them from giving the 87.64. The town numbered 8 is an unpretending agricultural proceeds of their own funds, except only on the condition, that those town in Worcester county, which raises $1 82. The town numbered 30, a small town, raises $3.77. The town numbered 280 to have done in this department. In 1838, New-York appropriated raises by tax $1.43 per scholar, which is 3 cts. more than every scholar a sum equal to about $5 for every school district, or $53,000 for the in Connecticut receives from the School Fund.
whole State, on condition that a like amount should be raised by the In New-York, when the legislature in 1838, virtually increased the
several towns, both sums to be spent in the purchase of books for capital of the School Fund from $2,000,000 to near 86,000,000, the
| school district libraries. Six years after this law passed there were obligation on the part of the towns, to raise an amount equal to that
more than one million and a half of volumes scattered through every distributed was not removed. Thus, while the appropriation by the neighborhocd of that great State. Massachusetts, for one year, State was increased from $100,000 in 1835, to $275,000 in 1845,1 appropriated the income of its school fund for this object on certain the amount required to be raised by tax in the towns increased in conditions, and at this time every school district is supplied with a the same proportion, viz., from $100,000 to $275,000, and the library open to all the children and adults of the community. annount voluntarily raised by the towns and districts in 1845, more
We adduce these statistics as testimony concerning the degree of than quadrupled the amount raised in the same way in 1835.
interest which is felt in Connecticut on this subject, compared, with In Rhode Island, the State appropriation has increased from
the zoal that prevails in the above named States. We discuss not $10,000 in 1829 to $25,000 in 1845, while the towns in 1829 re
here the importance or the wisdom of these measures. We have
other testimony still more direct. It comes from the people themceived the State appropriation unconditionally, but are now required
selves. Let any man study the returns of the school visitors as reto raise a third as much as they receive.
ported to the legislature in 1845, let any man study the reports now lu Maine, 40 cts. must be raised for every inhabitant, which is per
on file in the Commissioner's office for the year just closing, and he haps more than is required in any other of the New-England States.
will receive one uniform and desponding confession in respect to the Second, as to the supervision of schools. The first effort, to set
apathy that prevails --like an atmosphere of death. Particular deaart a class of officers for the special duty of visiting schools and fects are named and remedies are suggested, but the want of public examining teachers, was made by Connecticut in the school law of interest is uniformly named as the worst and most disheartening 1738, and there Connecticut has left the matter, except that the
evil. Then let him contrast these returns with those of many other towns may now make returns to the Commissioner of the School
States, and what a change will he notice. On the one hand is heard Fund, who is also Superintendent of the schools. In the mean time the voice of declension and despondency, on the other, the language other States have taken the suggestion from Connecticut and im of progress and hope. r' and proved upon it. Massachusetts has a State Board of Education, But this does not exhaust the evidence. Those who go from with one individual devoting his whole time to collecting facts and Connecticut into other States, and from them into Connecticut, feeb difusing information for the improvement of schools. New-York a shock in the transition. It is like going from a cellar into the sunhas not only a State Superintendent, but a school officer for each shine, or from the sunshine into a cellar. We know an intelligent county, and a Superintendent for each town. $28,000 was paid in gentleman who has seen his scores of years, who has recently re1814 as salaries to the County Superintendents. Vermont and moved from Rhode Island into the land of steady habils," and can Rhode-Island have recently adopted the system of State, County, hardly understand or believe that the apathy which he fiinds, can be und Town Superintendents.
a reality. The writer has within a few years made the change the Third, as to the education and improvement of teachers. The other way, from Connecticut to the Bay State. He too has been forfirst elaborate effort to call public attention in this country to the cibly impressed with the contrast. In one particular, this contrast importance of Normal Schools or Teachers' Seminaries, was made is very striking. In Connecticut, the people have been persuaded, by Roy. T. H. Gallaudet, in a series of essays published in Hart- i that to be taxod for the support of Common Schools, is a levy upon ford, in 1825. Massachusetts put this idea into actual being. By the poor, for the schools of the rich. In Massachusetts, the people the offer of $10,000 from Hon. Edmund Dwight, of Boston, the know that all such taxes are a lawful tribute from the rich, foo the legislature unanimously appropriated an equal amount for the annual benefit of the poor. We have seen in the latter State, in a crowded expouse of three Normal Schools for three years, and at the close town meeting, a thousand hands raised as by magic, to vote the of the third year, provision was made for the erection of buildings largest of two sums named by the school committee, a sum which and the permanent support of these schools. In New-York, a State was nearly a dollar for every individual of the entire population, men, Normal School has been established in Albany, and $10,000 annually women, and children. The motion was made by one of the wealthiappropriated for this object.
est men in the town, whose own children were too old to attend the The first assembly of teachers, like those now known as Teachers' public school. It was supposed by others wealthier than he, and Institutes, ever held in this country, was held at Hartford in 1839, having no interest of their own in the schools. A proposition to set and it is believed to have been the last but one held in Connecticut. apart five hundred dollars as a fund to be distributed to the feebler This inportant agency has since been introduced into New-York, districts, at the disoretion of the town committee, was moved in the Oio, Massachusetts, New-Hampshire, and Vermont. In New same way, and carried without the show opposition. In the same York nore than 6.000 trachers assembled in the different counties town, the year following, the school tax was increased by two thouin the autumn of 1845. In Massachusetts, $2,500 havo been sand dollars, though the most important district had ten days before appropriated by the legislature for their encouragement during the taxed itself nearly nine thousand dollars for land and a building for current year.
a high school. This occurred in a town by no means the foremost Fourth, School-houses. The first essay which is known to have to engage in sohool improvements, and not even now the most conbeen prepared to expose the evils of school-houses badly constructed, spicuous for its zeal or its expenditures. In Lowell, Salem, Worwarmod, lighted, and ventilated, was read at a State Convention of cester, Springfield, Roxbury, and in towns of less importance, the thu friends of education in Hartford, in 1830; and for nearly 9 years public school-houses are the best buildings in the town, inviting alier, fivo school-houses only in the State are known to have been without for their aspect of beauty and solidity, and within for their repaired and built in accordance with its suggestions. The same convenient apartments and their abundant apparatus. We have seen essay was read and published in Boston, in 1831, and was followed something of the working of this school system for years. We by immediate attention to the subject in different parts of the have observed the conscientious and honourable pride felt in the State. In 1838, a now impulse was given to this kind of improve- public schools, by those influential for wealth and talent, who give to inent by Mr. Mann's Report on the subject, and from that time these schools their influence, and send to them their sons and till 1844, the amount of $634,326 was expended for the construc- | daughters. What is of far more consequence and interest, we have tion and permanent repairs of school-houses. Within the past two freely mingled in the families of those in humbler life, and learned years, one-third of the school districts of Rhode Island have re f'rom the lips of parents their high sense of the value of these schools paired old school-houses or constructed new ones after improved which cost them little or nothing, and which promised to give their plans. Since 1838, more than $200,000 has been expended in children all the education which they desired. We have heard from this way.
the mother of a large family of boys, hearty regrets, that her sons Fifth, School-libraries. The first juvenile library perhaps, in the must be removed from the school by the doparture of the family from world was ostablished in Salisbury, Conn., more than half a century town. Seeing these things, we could not but conclude that public since, and the originator of the school district library enterprise was schools may attain high perfection, and that such schools are the a native of this State. This is about all that Connecticut is known I choicest of earth's blessings.
school, if objes Board of 3......A
School)--XXVII. 3......to sce that sufficient security be given by all officers of the Council, entrusted with School moneys, and that no deduction be inade
from School Fund for charges; to appoint, if expedient, one or more SubTO THE COMMON SCHOOL ACT FOR UPPER CANADA,
treasurers of School moneys for one or more Townships, such Sub-treasurers to
be liable to same obligations, in places for which they are appointed, as County 13TH AND 14TH VICTORIA, CAP. 48.
Treasurer-XXVII. 4......to appoint, annually, or oftener, Auditors to audit
all School money accounts, and report to Council-XXVII. 5.... to provide N.B,- The Roman Capitals indicate the Sections and the figure, the clower of the Act referred to.
for incidental expenses of County Board of Public Instruction-XXVIII......
in such Counties as have more than one County Grammar School, to diville such The County into as many Circuits as there are County Grammar Schools-XXVIII. COUNCIL OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION FOR U.C. to be appointed by Governor, and to consist
of not more than nine persons-XXXVI..... to meet at times and places to le ACCOUNTS of all moneys received and expended for school purposes duriug the year, to
appointed by Chief Superintendent-XXXVII......
perintendent-XXXVII....... to make regulations for be submitted by Trustees to annual section meeting-(see Trustees)--XII. 18.
the management of the Normal School-XXXVIII...... to make regulations AGREEMENTS under repealed Acts, valid until altered by this Act-I.
for government or Common Schools, classification of Schools and Teachers,
and for Libraries-XXXVIII. 4... to recommend or disapprove of text-books ALTERATIONs in boundaries of sections not to have effect until after the 25th of December
for Schools, and books for libraries, and give public notice of disapproval of any next after having been made-XVIII. 4.
books used in Schools-XXXVIII, 5. APPRAL-Dissatisfied parties, in disputes, submitted to Local Superintendents, have right COUNTY BOARDS OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION-Trustees of County Grammar School, and of-to the Chief Superintendent-XXXI. 7.
Local Superintendent or Superintendents of Schools in each County to constitute APPOINTMENTS under repealed Acts to remain valid until altered or annulled by this
-may be more than one in a County-(sce Circuit Boards).... At any lawful Act-I.
meeting of-three members, including Local Superintendent, to be a quorum for
granting Certificates to Teachers; not less than five to be a quorum for other APPORTIONMENT of school moneys-(sce Superintendent, Chief and Local.).
business; expenses of Board to be provided for by County Council-XXVIII. ARCHITECTURE-School-(see School Architecture.)
..... to meet not less than four tiines 2-year ; to fix times and places of their ARBITRATIONS-Local Superintendents to attend-(see Superintendents, Local.)
meetings, order of proceedings, and manner of recording them-XXIX. 1.
to examine and give certificates of qualification to Teachers, arranging them in ARBITRATOR-In case of dispute between Teacher and Trustees, one-chosen by each
three classes, according to instructions to be provided party, with the Local Superintendent, to make final award ; if either party
to annul any certificate
if expedient ; certificates to be given only to Teachers of good moral character, neglect to appoint Arbitrator, the other party may name both Arbitrators; the inatters in dispute may be re-submited until final award be made-XVII.
and subjects of Her Majesty i certificate may be general, (as to Comuty.) or
limited as to time or place ; every certificate must have the signature of at least ARBITRATORS for settling difference respecting sites of school-house to be chosen, and
one Local Superintendent-XXIX. 2..... to select text-books from list recoinwith Local Superintendent, to decide finally-XI..... to be chosen, in case the
mended by Council of Public Instruction, and facilitate the procuring of such annual report of Trustees be not satisfactory-XII. 18.
books-XXIX. 3..... to adopt all lawful means to advance the interests of ATTENDANCE-AVERAGE-of pupils, both summer and winter, to form basis of appor
Common Schools, to promote formation of County School Libraries, and the tionment, unless otherwise directed by Chief Superintendent-(see Superinten
diffusion of useful knowledge-XXIX. 4. dent, Local)-XXXI. 1.
COUNTY SCHOOL. FOND-County Council may levy assessments to increase ; to be in the B
custody of County Treasurer ; if assessments not paid into --by 14th December;
County Treasurers, never beless, to pay all lawful orders to Teachers--XXVII. BOARDS--County-OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION-(sce County Boards of Public Instruction.)
1.....Sub-treasurers may be appointed by County Council for one or more Boog-FOREIGN-in English branches, not to be used without permission of Council of
Townships, to receive and disburse ; no deduction from-to be made for charges Public Instruction--XIV.... LIBRARY-(sec Librarian.). .....RELIGI009
of receiving and paying-XXVII. 1. not to be used by a Pupil in School, if objected to by his parent or guardian XIV......TEXT-to be selected by County Board of Public Instruction, from
COUNTY--The word-shall include Municipal Unions of Counties. --XLVII. list authorized by Council of Public Instruction-XXIX. 3..... AUTHORIZED Local Superintendent to see that none other are used in schools, and to facilitate Default of holding section meetings for want of proper notice by Trustees or other the procuring of them-XXXI. 5.,
persons, to be punished by tine-IX. BOUNDARIES of sections not to be altered by Township Councils, unless all parties inte
DIFFERENCES as to site of School-house between Trustees and householders, to be settled rested have had due notice-XVIII. 4.
by arbitration-XI. BORROWING of money for school purposes by Trustces-Township Councils may autho- | DEATH OF Tausteks-Vacancy occasioned by-to be filled at special meeting of houserize the and levy tax to repay in ten years-XVIII. 1.
W h olders or freeholders-XII. 12.
DEPUTY SUPERINTENDENT may be appointed by Chief Superintendent--XXXV. 6. CERTIFICATE OF QUALIFICATION--No Teacher deemcd qualified without one-XV....
granted by Local Superintendent, valid until the 1st of January 1851--XV.... :) to Teachers, to be granted by County Board of Public Instruction- (which see)
ELECTIONS under repealed Acts to remain valid till altered or annulled by authority of -XXIX. 2..... Cancelling of-to release Trustees from obligation to continue
this Act-I....of Chairman, Secretary, and three Trustees at first section Teacher in their employment-XXXI. 8........TO TEACHERS--(see County
meetings-V....of Trustees in Cities and Towns to be conducted in same Board) - which shall be valid in any part of Upper Canada, until revoked, may
manner as municipal elections, and to be held saine place as last municipal be given by Chief Superintendent on recommendation of Teachers of Normal
election-XXIII. ...in Incorporated Villages (See Villages --XXT. School) to any Teacher who shall have been a Student at Normal School-XLIV. EXBEZZLENENT-(scc School Fund)-XLIII. CHAIRMAN to be elected at Section Meetings-V. & VI. 1... ...to give casting vote, decide questions of order, and grant a poll, on request of two electors-V.
False REPORT, signing, by Trustees, or making false returns by Teachers, to be punCLASSES of Teachers of Common Schools-(sce Teachers.)
ished by fine of five pounds-XIII. CLERK_TOWNSRIP to communicate description of new section to person appointed to FEMALE SCHOOL may be established in any section by Trustces, with consent of Local call first school meeting-IV.....io allow Trustees' Collector to make copy of
Superintendent-XII, 5. parts of Assessment Roll-XII. 9..... to furnish Local Superintendent with
FUNDCOMMON Schoo1-Penalties for signing false Report by Trustees, or making false copy of all proceedings of Township Council, relating to all school matters
Report by Teachers, to be paid into-XIII... parts of united or altereit sec. XVIII. 5......COUNTY- to lay before County Council notification of appor
tions to have same elain to, as if not altered-XVIII. 4. (Sec School tund.) tionment of Legislative Grant, by Chief Superintendent-XXVII. 1...to notify Chief Superintendent of appointment and address of Local Superintendents and
G County Treasurer ; and to furnish him with a copy of all proceedings of County GRAMMAR SCHOOL-COUNTY-Of the Common Schools in Cities and Tons may be Council, relating to school assessments or matters--XXVII. 3.....to transmit
united with, in such manner as Board of Trustees in concurrence with Trustec's annually, by Ist March, to Chief Superintendent, an abstract of school accounts,
of Grammar Schools shall adopt-XXIV. 4....of each County or Circuit, audited by County Auditors, and give explanation of same-XXVII, 5.......
Trustees of, with Local Superintendent or Superinteudents in each, to form Senior-In Education Office, to be Recording Clerk to Council of Public In
County or Circuit Boards of Public Instruction--XXVIII. ....when more than struction-XXXVII.
one, in a County, such County to be divided by County Council into as many
Circuits as there are Crunty Grammar Schools --XXVIII. CrRQUIT-COUNTY BOARDS OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION FOR-(see County Boards of Public
Instruction)-XXVIII. CITIES AND Towns-TRUSTEES IN-to be elected by majority of taxable inhabitants in INDIGENT Persons may be wholly or in part exempt from payment of Rates by Trustees each ward-XXU.......One Trustee for-to be elected in each ward, annu
-XII. 10. ally, on the second Wednesday in January (see Trustees)-XXIII.
INSTRUCTION-RELIGIOUS-Pupils may receive by desire of their parents or guardiansCOUNCILS-Township-to levy such assessment on property in a section, for general
XIV. school-house purposes, purchase of apparatus, text-books, library books, and
INTERPRETATION ACT to apply to this Act--XLVIII. salary of Teacher, as the Trustees, on behalf of majority at section meeting oalled for such purpose shall desire ; and may grant to Trustees authority to borrow money for general school purposes, and levy tax to pay interest and prin
JUDGES OF THE COUNTY COURTS may summon and punish any Secretary-treasurer cipal in ten years.XVIII. 1......may levy tax to establish Township Model
wrongfully withholding any money or property belonging to any School Section School, and Library; themselves to be Trustees ; may consent to Trustees of
-XLIII. Common Schools merging their Schools into Model School-XVIII. 2.......
Justices OF THE Peace may fine persons making false declaration of right to vote nt to form 'new School Sections, and appoint person to call first meeting therein ;
Section Meetings_VII....to impose penalty on Trustees refusing ortice, or and to cause their Clerk to notify him, &c.-XVIII. 3.... ..may alter and unite
neglecting duties after accepting-VIII. ...to in pose the fines for not giving sections on request of majority at special meeting in each section ; alteration
proper notice of Annual or other Section Meetings-IX.... nay convict not to go into effect until 25th December after ; inust be satisfied that all parties
Trustees or signing false Report, and Teachers of keeping faise Register or have had due notice ; may authorize the disposal of school sites, or school
making false Return, and levy penalty by distress, to be paid to School Fund houses, not required in consequence of union or altering of sections, in such
XU....Any, authorized to adıninister Oath of Allegianee to Coipmon School manner as special meeting shall think proper-XVIII. 4.....to cause Clerk to
Teachers-XXIX2.... to take Affadavit of majority of Trustees in any School furnish Local Superintendent with copies of all proceedings on School matters
Division of the wrongful withholding of Books, Papers, Chattles or Moders by XVIII. 6. ....to authorize separate Schools for Protestants, Roman Catholics,
a Secretary-Treasurer--XLIII....may convict any person who shall wilfully or Coloured People--(see Separate Schools)-XIX.......may pass By-law to
disturb any School, or School Meeting, and fine offender not more than 15, to abolish Section Divisions, and unite all the Schools in the Township under one
be paid over for School purposes-XLVI. Board of Trustees. when requested by majority of resident householders at special meetingy.XX.......CITY AND Town-to have saine powers and obli- | LECTURE-A PUBLIC-to be delivered at least once a year in each School Section, by gations as Township and County Councils-XXI....... to provide such sums,
the Local School Superintendent-XXXI. 4. and in such ruanner as Boards of Trustees shall desire for support of Schools
| LEGISLATIVE School GRANT-No County, Town or Village to be entitled to share of XXIV. 6....(AND VILLAGE-90t to be entitle I to any share of Legislative
without raising an equal clear sum by assessinent; if a less suru raised in any School Grant, without raising by local assessment, a sum at least equal (clear of
year, Chief Superintendent to deduct a sum equal to deficiency out of the next all charges of collection) to such grant; if a leeg sum raised in any sear, Chief
year's apportion ment--XL. Superintendent to deduct a sum equal to deficiency from next'apportonment
LOCAL SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS-(see Superintendent, Local.) XL....COUNTY) to levy on the Townships annually a surn at least equal (clear of all charges of collections to the Legislative Grant to such Towrs Ips, such LIDRARIAN (in Ton neliips) to be appointed by Trustecs-XII. 17..... (in Cities and assessinent may be increased, either to increase the County School Fund, or to
Towns) to be appointed by Board of Trustees--XXIV. 10. afford special relief to poor sections on recommendation of Local Superintent
LIBRARIES-Towxer--to be under management of Trustees -XI. 12. sin Cree ents; the amount to be paid to County Treasurer, by 14th December, annually ;
and Torins, may be established by Board of Trustees ; expense to be provided to make provision to enable Treasurer to pay orders to Teachers by 11th Decem
for by Corumon or Town Council -XXIV. 6...... to be under charge of Board ber, whether assessment paid ia or not-XXVII. 1...... to raise money by
of Trustceg-XXIV. 10. ...No Government aid shall be given to, any unless assessment for County Commor School Library-XXVII. 2...... to appoint,
an equal amount be raised from local sources--XXXV. 10.......Governor in annually, Local Superintendents for a whole County, or for any one or more
('ouncil may anthorize expenditure of £300 annually for retablishinen: nf, onder Town! ,in firani yorilrinpihnir onlarine, la noi lasp than one pour per
certain regulations and conditions-XLI..... County Common School, County Council to raise money for establishment and support of-XXVII. 2.... County Board of Public Instruction to promote establishment of-XXIX. 4.
M MATORS of Cities and Towns to give six days' public notice, in three places in each
Ward, of first election of School Trustees-XLVII.
be given-XII. 12....A lawful School, any person wilfully disturbing, may
useful knowledge-XXXIII. MODEL Schools, Township, may be established by Township Councils ; Councillors to be
Trustees; Common Schools may be merged into ; Sudent-teachers to receive
tuition free-XVIII. 2. MONEY-Appropriation of, from Consolidated Revennot effected by repeal of former
Acts-1.. .. .. School, apportioned to Townships to be distributed among the Sections, by Local Superintendent-(see Superintendent, Local)--XXXI. 1..... due to Sections to be paid by County or Sub-treasurer to Teachers, on cheques of Local Superintendent-XXXI. 2.......No part of, to be paid to School in which any book disapproved of by the Council of Public Instruction is used and public notice given of such disapproval-XXXVIII. 3.
NEW OR NEEDY SECTIONS may be aided from County School Fund-XXVII. 1.
throughout Upper Canada-LXIV. Notice of Orst nieeting in new Section to be posted in three public places, six days before
time of meeting, by person appointed by Township Council, within twenty days-IV......li Section Meeting not held for want of proper, Trustees or other persons guilty of neglect to forfeit five dollars-1X... ...of Annual or other Section Meetings, in case of default of holding for want of proper notice, may be given by any two freeholders or householders in Section, within twenty days-IX......or Annual and Special Meetings in Cities and Towns to be given by Board of Trustees—XXIV. 9.......of Meeting of County Board of Public Instruction to be given to any Teacher whose cerificate of qualification has been suspended by Local Superintendent-XXXI. 8.
P PERIODICAL-One devoted to Education to be procured by Trustees for each Section
XII. 15. PENALTY for wilfully signing false report by Trustees, and making false return by
Teacher, five pounds, to be recovered before any Justice of Peace-XII. Poul to be granted at Section Meetings on request of two electors-V. PROCEEDINGS of Section Meetings, signed by Chairman and Secretary, to be trans
mitted forthwith by Secretary to Local Superintendent-V......of Special Section Meetings, copy of, to be transmitted to Local Superintendent-XII. 12. ......of Township Councils Copy of, relating to all school matters to be furnished to Local Superintendent by Township Clerk-XVIII. 4......of County
Councils to be furnished to Chief Superintendent by County Clerk. PROPERTY, Common School, to be in custody of Trustees XII. 3......Common School, may be acquired and applicd by Trustees-XII. 3.
Q QFORON of County Board of Public Instruction for granting certificates to Teachers, to
consist or threc members including a Local Superintendent ; for other business
not less than five members to be a quorum-XXVIII. QUALIFICATION OF TEACHERS-(See County Board of Public Instruction)-XXIX. 2.
R RATE-BILLS imposed under repcaled Acts to remain valid till annulled by this Act-I....
to be prepared by Trustees, and may be payable monthly, quarterly, half-yearly, or yearly, as they see fit-XI. 8......in Cities and Towns may be levied by
Board of Trustees; money to be paid to Chamberlain or Treasurer-XXIV. 7. RATES, SCHOOL, due by persons residing out of Section, may be sued for by Trustees
-XII. 11. RELIGION—any exercise of-Pupils not to be required to join in, if objected to by their
parents or guardiang-XIV. REMOVAL Of Trustees, Vacancies occasioned by, to be filled at Special Meeting-XII. 12. REPORT. ANNUAL, of Trustees to be read before Annual Section Meeting, and contain
full accounts of all moneys received and expended ; if not satisfactory, Arbitrators to be chosen to decide-( See Trustees)-XII. 18......of Trustees to Local Superintendent to be made before 15th January-( Sec Trustees )--XII. 19 ......of Board of Trustees in Cities and Towns, to be published in one or more public papers at the close of each year, and to contain account of progress of schools, and receipts and expenditure of moneys ; to be made to Chief Superintendent before 15th January-XXIV. 11....... to be made to Chief Superin
tendent by Local Superintendents, on or before 1st March-XXXI. 10. RESIDENTg in a Section between five and twenty-one years of age permitted to attend
the School so long as they conform to the rules, &c., excepting children for
whom separate Schools have been established-XII. 13. RETORNING officer at elections in Cities and Towns to be same person as at last municipal
election : or in his default one may be chosen by electors present-XXIII. ROMAN CATHOLIC School-( See separate Schools)-XIX.
SECTIOK DIVIsions may be abolished by Township Councils whenever majority of
electors at Special Meetings desire it, and all the Common Schools in such
Township be united under ove management as in Cities and Towns-XX. Sections-SCHOOL-Present-to remain until altered under this Act-I....New-Person
appointed to call first meeting in-to give six days' notice, within twenty days IV......to be formed by Township Councils-XVIII. 3. .....may be altered or united by Township Council on request of Special Meeting-XVIII. 4.... New or Needy-may be relieved from County School Fund on recommendation
of Local Superintendent-XXVII. 1. SEPARATE SCHOOLS for Protestants, Roman Catholics, or Coloured People, to be author
ized by Township Councils, and Boards of Trustees of Cities, Towns and VIIlages, on written application of twelve resident heads of families ; limits of such School Sections to be fixed by same authority ; first election of Trustees same as in new Sections ; to go into operation 26th December next after; to be under same regulations as other schools ; Trustees of-to be chosen only by parties petitioning or sending scholars; to share in School Fund according to average attendance of pupils not to be allowed unless Teacher of Section School be of different religion from petitioners ; children attending, not to be included in
Common School Returns--XIX. SCHOOL ARCHITECTURE--Governor may apply £200 annually to procure plans for
improvement of, &c.-under certain conditions-XLI. SCHOOL EXPENSES to be provided for by Trustees-XII. 7. SCHOOL FUND-Common-The sum annually apportioned out of Legislative School
Grant to each County, City, Town or Village, and at least an equal sum raised annually by Local Assessment to constitute; to be expended solely in paying salaries of qualified Teachers-XL....... If any part of embezzled or lost, and proper security has not been taken by authorized parties such parties to be liable for loss; the amount to be recovered by person entitled to receive such sums; or by Crown Suit; Secretary-Treasurer to account for under penaltyXLIII......Common-no part of-to be applied to payment of salary of Chief or Local Superintendents, or any other expenses, but to be wholly
expended in paying Teachers' salaries--XLV. SCHOOL-HOUSE to be built-repaired, furnished, &c., by Trustees may be rented by
Trustees if none belong to Section, or if a second be required-XII. 4... ...and site not required after alteration or union of sections, may be disposed of as Special Meeting directs-XVIII. 4...in Cities and Towns may be purchased,
rented, furnished, &c., or disposed of by Boards of Trustees XXIV. 2. SCHOOL MONEYS shall be payable to County, City, Town and Village Treasurers, on or
before 1st July, yearly, under directions of Governor in Council-XLI. SCHOOLS COMMON-one or more may be merged into Township Model Schools XVII
2.....All the-in a Township may be united under same management as in Cities and Towns, by Township Councils, when majority of resident householders at Special Meetings desire it-XX...... in Cities and Towns, Board of Trustees to see conducted according to law-XXIV. 11......in which any book is used that has been disapproved of by Council of Public Instruction, not to
receive any portion of Legislative School Grant-XXXVIII. 5. STUDENT-TEACHERS to receive tuition in Township Model Schools free-XVIII. 2. SUBSCRIPTIONS due by persons residing out of Section may be sued for by Trustees
his behalf-XI......may consent to establishing a Female School in any
Circuit Board of Public Instruction-XXVIII.
Letters patent under the Great Seal-XXXIV......duties of-(in part) to
SECRETARY to be elected at Section Meetings-Sec. V and VI. 1.
one of themselves ; to give security ; to deliver books and moneys when called
with such Judge's order ; other lawlul remedy not impaired thereby-XLIII. SECTION MEETINGS to elect a Chairman and Secretary-V...... to receive and decide
Iron Trustees' Report -VI. 2.