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many men with crowns on their heads, palms in their hands, and golden harps to sing praises withal.
There were also of them that had wings; and they an. swered one another without intermission, saying, “ Holy, holy, holy is the Lord.” And after that, they shut up the gates ; which when I had seen, I wished myself among them. -BUNYAN.
My young friends will, I am sure, now read with pleasure Cowper's beautiful apostrophe to Bunyan.
O thou, whom borne on fancy's eager wing
1. What river is here meaut, and what 12. Who met them on the other side ? gate?
13. Where was the city placed ? 2. Have any mortals ever got to the gate 14. What made their ascent of the hill without crossing the river?
easy? 3. What answer was returned to the 15. What words were written over the question, “ Are the waters all of a depth ?" gate ?
4. What did Christian say when he 16. Who looked over the gate ? began to sink?
17. What did the pilgrims hand in ? 5. What did Hopeful say to cheer him? 18. What command did the king of the 6. What did Christian say to this, and celestial city give ? what happened to him afterwards ?
19. Tell what took place when the men 7. How was Christian harassed in the entered in at the gate? passage over the river ?
20. From the glimpse of the glorious 8. With what words did Hopeful cheer city which the dreamer got, what does he him?
say about it? 9. Quote the words about the death of 21. When Bunyan says “I wished mythe wicked.
self among them," are you not each dis10. What words of Hopeful dispelled posed to say, I wish I was there too? the darkness of Christian's mind?
22. If we were wise, should we not all 11. What did Christian then say, and becoine Christian pilgrims ? what of the enemy after that?
NATURAL HISTORY & PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.
1.--ANIMALS AND THEIR COUNTRIES.
pes. Sta'tions, n... ..stare. Sub-di.vided, v... .......
....dividěre. Trans-port'ing, part.... portāre. Des'ti-tute, adj..........statuěre. De-ter'mi-nate-ly, adv..terminus. Suc-ces'sive, adj. ........ceděre. Pro-posed', part......... poněre. Struc'ture, n..............struěre. Segʻments, n.............. secāre. Joint'ed, part............jungěre.
The distribution of animals over the surface of the globe is, like that of plants, greatly influenced by climate and temperature. Animals, also, like plants, belong to particular regions, or have their natural stations and habitations, though, since a considerable number of animals
the power of transporting themselves from one region to another, these cannot in all cases be so determinately fixed.
The arrangement of the animal kingdom proposed by the celebrated Cuvier, is that which is now generally adopted. He distributes the different forms of animal life into four grand divisions, viz., 1. Vertebrated animals. 2. Soft-bodied animals. 3. Articulated animals. 4. Radiated animals. Vertebral animals are such as have a back-bone, which is called the vertebral column, as consisting of segments of the skeleton which turn one upon the other, and as being the centre on which the whole body can bend or rotate—from the Latin, verětre, to turn. This division includes man, quadrupeds, birds, serpents, frogs, tortoises, crocodiles and those fish which have a bony skeleton, as cod, herrings, &c. This first great division of the animal kingdom is subdivided into four classes :-1. Mammalia, (Lat. Mamma, a breast), or animals which suckle their young, as the cow, the elephant, the whale, &c. 2. Aves; birds. 3. Reptilia ; reptiles, such as the serpent, crocodile, &c. 4. Pisces; fishes, that is such as possess a bony skeleton.
The second great group consists of the Mollusca, or softbodied animals ; popularly known as “shell-fish ;"—so named from the Latin word, mollis, soft. Molluscs for the most part have shells, forming a defence and covering for their soft bodies, as the snail, oyster, limpet, whelk, &c; some are destitute of this covering, as the cuttle fish, the common garden slug, &c. This second division is separated into six classes, viz., 1. Cephalopoda, (Gr. kephalē, the head, and pous, a foot,) foot-headed animals, as the cuttle-fish, the nautilus, &c. 2. Pteropoda (Gr. pteron, a wing,) wing-footed animals, as the clio, the chief food of the whale. 3. Gasteropoda (Gr. gastēr, the stomach,) belly-creeping animals, as the snail, limpet, whelk, &c. 4. Acephala (Gr. a, without, and kephalē, the head,) headless, as the oyster, muscle. 5. Brachipoda (Gr. brachion, the arm,) armfooted, as the bivalve shells. 6. Cirripeda (Lat. cirrus, a curl, and pes, the foot,) clasp-footed, as the barnacle. The third sub-kingdom includes the Articulated animals, so named (from Lat. articulus, a little joint,) on account of their peculiar formation, which consists of á head and successive members jointed together. This third group is divided into four classes, viz., 1. Annulata, (Lat. annulus, a ring) or ringed animals, as worms, leeches, &c. 2. Crustacea, (Lat. crusta, a shell,) or animals covered with shells, as crabs, lobsters, &c. 3. Arachnides, (Gr. arachnēs, a spider,) including spiders, scorpions, &c. 4. Insecta, (Lat. secāre, to cut,) or small animals having the body divided into three portions, whence their name, as flies, bees, wasps, butterflies, &c. The Radiata, (Lat. radius, a ray,) form the fourth great division of the animal world. In them the nervous system, as far as it has been observed, presents a rayed or radiated arrangement, like the petals or flower leaves of a daisy, or anemone. Animals of this division are also called
zoophytes from the Greek words, zoon, an animal, and phyton, a plant, because they bear a great resemblance to plants in their structure. The Radiata are divided into five classes, viz., 1. Echinodermata, (Gr. echinos, a hedgehog, and derma, a skin,) spiny-skinned animals, including star-fishes, and seaurchins. 2. Entozoa, (Gr. entos, within, and zoon, an animal,) intestinal animals. 3. Acalēpha, (Gr. acalēphe, a nettle) stinging animals, as the Medusa, Jelly-fish, &c. 4. Polypi, (Gr. polus, many, and pous, a foot,) sea-animals with many feet. 5. Infusoria, (Lat. infusor, a pourer in,) a class of minute animals, found in water in which vegetable matters are contained, and to which the term animalcules is commonly applied. They can be seen only by the microscope.
Compiled. 1. What influences greatly the distribu. 9. Give the names of the six classes in tion of animals on the earth's surface?
2. State Cuvier's four grand divisions of 10. Explain the names, and give exam. the animal kingdom.,
ples of animals in each class. 3. Why are vertebrated animals so 11. Name the third sub-kingdom and named, and what is their peculiar cha-explain the name. racteristic ?
12. Into what four classes is it sub4. What animals are included in this divided ? division?
13. Explain the names, and give exam5. Name the four classes into which the ples under each. first grand division is sub-divided.
14. Why are radiated animals so named ? 6. To what class does the whale belong? 15. Explain the names of the five classes, 7. Is the whale correctly called a tish? and give examples under each. 8. Why are molluscous animals so named, 16. Name soine animals that belong to and what animals belong to the divi- this division. sion?
17. Explain the term zoophyte.
II.-ANIMALS AND THEIR COUNTRIES.
Teg'u-ment-ary, adj.... tegěre.
| Pro-tect'ed, v....... ... tegěre. Veg'e-ta-ble, adj.........vegēre. Ad-ja'cent, adj...........jacēre. In-hab'i-tants, n
Mi'gra-to-ry, adj.........migrāre. Er-roʻne-ous-ly, adv....errāre. A-dapt’ed, v.............. aptāre. Con-stric'tor, n... ......stringěre. Grad'u-al, adj.. ...gradi.
GREEK. Di-mi-nu'tion, no
...minuěre. Rhi-noc'er os, n...........rhin, keras. Re-cede', 0...
..ceděre. Ex-tended, part...
Hip-po-pot'a-mus, n... Fe-ro'cious, adj..
..ferox. Re-strict'ed, part........stringěre.
De-velop-ment, no In-ter-me'di-ate, adj.... medius.
Löw'ings, n. Quad'ru-peds, n......
Meer, n. In-clude', v......... ........claudére.
In the Old World the animal kingdom holds the preponder
ance over the vegetable, as the vegetable kingdom does over the animal in the New World. The animals of the Old World generally differ in species from those of the New World, The ape and baboon, the hyæna, panther, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, horse, ass, camel, buffalo, crocodile, python, &c., are inhabitants of the Old World ; while the puma, (erroneously called the American lion,) the jaguar, the sloth, the armadillo, bison, llama, alligator or caiman, boa constrictor, and rattlesnake, are peculiar to the New World. In the animal as well as in the vegetable kingdom, the largest number of species are met with in the warm regions of the globe, the heat, light, and abundance of vegetable food tending to their increase ; and a gradual diminution in the number, both of species and genera, takes place as we recede from the equator, The zoophytes, as coral and madrepore, are there abundant, and the shell-fish are large and brilliantly coloured, particularly in the Indian seas. Insects, reptiles, birds, swarm in great numbers, together with herbivorous animals of gigantic size, as the elephant, camelopard, buffalo, tapir, &c.; as also the formidable carnivorous, or flesh-eating beasts, the lion, hyæna, vulture, and condor. The effects of light and heat appear to be extended even to the inhabitants of the ocean ; the sharks, and some other fish, are larger, and more ferocious, in the seas of tropical regions, and some species of fish are here adorned with gayer colours, than those in higher latitudes. The flying-fish, and the porcupine-fish, are found only in the warm seas. The most enormous of all animals in existence, are the cetacea or whale tribe ; they are found more particularly, however, in the cold seas of high latitudes, except the sperm whale, which abounds chiefly in the warm
The researches of naturalists have shown that certain fishes are not merely limited in their range according to the laws of geographical distribution, but also have certain depths, to which they are in a great degree restricted. Hence some are most usually found at or near the surface; some are ground feeders, and are taken at considerable depths, and some occupy various intermediate stations. The temperate zones are favourable to all herbivorous quadrupeds, so useful, yea, so indispensable to man, as the borse, ass, ox, deer, sheep; the wolf, lynx, fox, bear, otter, being the chief beasts of prey. Animal life decreases rapidly as we advance to the polar regions. There the larger quadrupeds, and birds, are only summer visitants—as deer, elks. The beaver builds