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All courage ;

down their idle weapons dropt;
O’er shields and helms and helmed heads he rode
Of thrones and mighty seraphim prostrate
That wish’d the mountains? now might be again
Thrown on them as a shelter from his ire.
Nor less on either side tempestuous fell
His arrows, from the fourfold-visag'd four
Distinct with eyes, and from the living wheels
Distinct alike with multitude of eyes ;
One spirit in them ruld, and every eye
Glar'd lightning, and shot forth pernicious fire
Among th' accurs'd, that wither'd all their strength,
And of their wonted vigour left them drain’d,
Exhausted, spiritless, afflicted, fall’n.
Yet half his strength he put not forth, but check'd
His thunder in mid volley; for he meant
Not to destroy, but root them out of heaven:
The overthrown he rais'd, and as a herd
Of goats * or timorous flock together throng'd
Drove them before him thunder-struck, pursued
With terrors and with furies 5 to the bounds
And crystal wall of heav'n, which opening wide,
Rolld inward, and a spacious gap disclos'd
Into the wasteful deep; the monstrous sight
Struck them with horror backward, but far worse
Urg'd them behind; headlong themselves they threw
Down from the verge of heav'n; eternal wrath
Burnt after them to the bottomless pit.

MILTON.

XLII.-PRIDE AND HUMILITY.'
The self-applauding bird, the peacock, see-
Mark what a sumptuous Pharisee is he!
Meridian sun-beams tempt him to unfold
His radiant glories, azure, green, and gold :

1 Prostrate,-notice the accent here, this word is usually accented on the first syllable. 2 Mountains, see Rev. vi, 16. 3 Distinct with eyes,—that is, punctured, thick set, or studded with eyes.

4 As a herd of goats, -Our Saviour represents the wicked as goats and the good as sheep. See Matt. xxv, 33. 5 With terrors and with furies,see Job vi. 4, and Isaiah ii. 20. 6 Wasteful deep,—that is, desolate abyss. 7 “ The comparison of the proud and humble believer to the peacock and the pheasant, and the parallel between Voltaire and the poor cottager. are exquisite pieces of eloquence and poetry.”—Campbell.

He treads as if, some solemn music near,
His measured step were governed by his ear;
And seems to say-ye meaner fowl give place,
I am all splendour, dignity, and grace!

Not so the pheasant on his charms presumes,
Though he too has a glory in his plumes.
He, Christian like, retreats with modest mien
To the close copse, or far-sequestered green,
And shines without desiring to be seen. Cowper.

XLIII. THE COTTAGER.
Yon cottager, who weaves. at her own door-
Pillow and bobbins, all her little store-
Content, though mean, and cheerful, if not gay,
Shuffling her threads about the live-long day,
Just earns a scanty pittance, and at night
Lies down secure, her heart and pocket light:
She, for her humble sphere by nature fit,
Has little understanding, and no wit,
Receives no praise ; but though her lot be such,
(Toilsome and indigent,) she renders much ;3
Just knows, and knows no more, her Bible true-
A truth the brilliant Frenchman* never knew ;
And in that charter reads, with sparkling eyes,
Her title to a treasure in the skies.
O happy peasant ! O unhappy bard !
His the mere tinsel, hers the rich reward ;
He, praised perhaps for ages yet to come,
She, never heard of half a mile from home:
He, lost in errors his vain heart prefers,

She, safe in the simplicity of hers. Cowper. i Weaves-i. e. weaves lace with bobbins upon a pillow. 2 Cheerful, gay-He is cheerful, who is habitually lively; gay, who is oceasionally or accidentally so. Cheerfulness is an evergreen; gaiety a passing flower, more brilliant for a time, but not permanent. 3 Much-much praise, to God. 4 Frenchman-Voltaire, who was a scoffer at religion.

281

PREFIXES AND AFFIXES.

A Prefix or Initiative is a particle prefixed to a word, to modify its meaning, as un in unfair, that is, not fair.

An Affix, Postfix or Terminative, is a particle fixed to the end of a word, to modify its meaning, as ful, in graceful, ous in gracious, that is,

full of grace.

I. PREFIXES

OF ENGLISH OR SAXON ORIGIN.

1. A signifies, at, on, to, with,--as, afar, at a great distance,-aboard, on board, -afield, to the field, apace, with a quick pace.

2. Be, signifies about, before, to make,—as, begird, to gird about,bespeak, to order before, -becalm, to make calm.

3. En, (with its variations em, im,) means, in, also to make,-as enthrone, to place in a throne,-embolden, to make bold, -embitter, to make bitter.

4. For, gives the word to which it is joined an opposite ineaning, as, forgive, to give pardon instead of punishment,-forbear, to suffer but abstain from showing it.

5. Fore, means, before,—as, forerun, to run before.

6. Mis, means, error, ill, not, -as, misbehaviour, ill behaviour,-miscount, to err in counting, -mistrust, not to trust, to suspect.

7. Out, signifies beyond, superiority, -as, outlive, to live beyond another,-outdo, to do in a superior manner.

8. Over, means, above, beyond, -as, overcome, to come above or over one, to conquer, -overcharge, to charge beyond or too much.

9. Un, before a verb, means, the undoing of the action,-as, unfetter, to take off fetters.

10. Un, before an adjective or adverb, means, not, -as, unable, not able,-unlikely, not likely.

11. Under, means, beneath or inferior,-as, underclerk, a clerk beneath a principal clerk.

12. Up, means, motion upwards,—as, upset, to set the under part of a thing

up, to overset. 13. With, from or against, -as, withdraw, to draw from,—withhold, to hold against.

EXERCISE. Point out the prefix in each of the following words, tell its import, and also the meaning of the whole word. 1. abed, aground, afoot.

7. outcry, outlet, outshine. 2. besprinkle, bespatter, bedim,

8. overdo, overdrive, overshade. 3. entrap, empower, imprison.

9. unbosom, unfurl, unclasp. 4. forsake, forget, forswear.

10. unsafe, uneasy, unjustly. 5. foreknow, forefather.

11. undermine, underground, 6. mislead, misdeed, misfortune.

12. uphold, uphill, upset.

II. PREFIXES.

OF LATIN ORIGIN.

1. A, (with its variations, ab, abs,) signifies, from or away,--as, avert to turn from,-absolve, to loose from, to acquit,—abstain, to hold from: to refrain.

2. Ad, (a, ac, af, ag, al. an, àp, ar, as, at,) means, to or at,-as, ascend, to climb to,--accede, to yield to,-adjoin, to join to, affix, to fix to, aggravate, to make heavy to, to make worse, –alleviate, to make light to, to soften,-annex, to tie to,-approximate, to draw very near to, arrogate, to ask to one's self, to assume,-assimilate, to make similar to,-attest, to bear witness to.

3. Am, means, round, -as, ambition, a going round seeking honour or preferment.

4. Ante, means, before,-as, antecedent, going before,-antecessor, contracted into ancestor, one that goes before, a predecessor. The Greek prefix anti, means, against,

5. Circum, (circu) means, round,-as, circumfluent, flowing around, circuit, a going round.

6. Cis, means, on this side of,—as, cisalpine, on this side of the Alps.

7. Con, (co, cog, col, com, cor,) signifies, together,-as, conspire, to breathe together, to plot,-compose, to place together,-coheir, heir to gether, joint heir,--cognate, born together,-collect, to gather together, --corrupt, to burst together, to rot.

8. Contra, (contro, counter,) signifies, against, -as, contradict, to speak against,-controvert, to turn against, to dispute, -counterplot, to oppose one plot by another.

9. De, means, down or from, as, deject, to throw down,-demonstrate, to show from a height, to shew clearly,—decrease, to grow down, to diminish.

10. Dis, (di, dif,) means, asunder, not, -as, dissolve, to loose asunder, -digress, to step aside, to wander, -diffuse, to pour asunder.

11. Ex, (e, ec, ef,) means, out, from, -as, exclude, to shut out,-eject to cast out, -eccentric, from the centre, irregular, -efflux, a flowing out.

12. Extra, means, beyond, -as, extraordinary, beyond ordinary.

13. In, (il, im, ir,) prefixed to verbs, means, in, into, on,-as, invent, to come upon something new,-illume, to throw light on,-import, to carry into,-irradiate, to throw rays on, to shine.

14. In, (ig, il, im, ir,) before adjectives or adverbs, means, not, -as, invisible, not to be seen,-immortal, not mortal,-ignoble, not noble, mean,-illegal, not legal,-irresistiably, in a manner not to be resisted or withstood.

15. Inter, (intra, intro,) means, between, among, -as, intercede, to go between, to mediate,-intramural, within walls,- introduce, to lead among, to make known.

16. Juxta, means, nigh,--as juxtaposition, a placing nigh to,

17. Ob, (oc, of, op,) means, against, in the way of,—as, object, to cast against,-occur, to run or come in the way of,-offer, to bring in the way, to present,-oppress, to press against, to crush.

18. Per, (pel,) means, through or thoroughly, -as, pereunial, lasting through the year,-pellucid, letting light through, clear.

19. Post, means, after,-as, postpone, to place after, to delay. 20. Pre, means, before, --as, precede, to go before.

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21. Preter, means, beyond or past,—as, pretermit, to send past, to omit.

22. Pro, means, forth, forward, in place of, -as, provide, to see or look forward,-protrude, to thrust forth,-pronoun, a word used instead of a noun.

23. Re, means, back or again,-as, repulse, to drive back, -revise, to see or examine again.

24. Retro, means, backwards,-as, retrospect, a looking backwards or on the past.

25. Se, means, aside, or out of the way,—as, select, to gather aside to choose, -seduce, to lead out of the way.

26. Sine, (sim,), without, or not having,—as, sinecure, an office with emolument but without care,-simple, without a fold, artless.

27. Sub, (su, suc, suf, sug, sup, sus,) means, under,-as, suspect, to look or spy under, to imagine to be guilty,-submerge, to plunge under,

-succour, to run under, to assist, suffer, to bear under,—suggest, to bring under notice, to hint,-support, to carry under, to uphold,pend, to hang under, to interrupt.

28. Subter, means, under,-as, subterfuge, a flying under, a shift.

29. Super, (sur,) means, over or above, -as, supervisor, one who looks over,--surpass, to pass above, to excel.

30. Trans, (tra, tress,) means, over, beyond, along, -as, transport, to carry beyond,—traduce, to lead along in order to expose to public ignominy, to defame,-tresspass, to pass over the line.

31: Ultra, means, beyond,--as, ultramontane, beyond the mountain, a foreigner.

EXERCISES. Point out the prefix in each of the following words, tell its import, and also the meaning of the whole word. 1. avoid, abduce, absent.

13. ignorant, illegible, insane, immense, 2. asperse, adverb, accept, affluence, ag- irregularly. grandise, alluvial, annihilate, appraise, 14. interrupt, intelligent, introvert. arrest, assume, attend.

15. oblige, occasion, offend, opposite. 3. amputate, ambiguity.

16. peruse, perspire. 4. antedate, anticipate.

17. postscript, posthumous, 5. circumscribe, circumvent,

18. precursor, precaution, premature. 6. coequal, cognominal, colloquy, con- 19. procure, proclaim, promote. junction, compile, correspond.

20. rebuild, reprint, return. 7. contravene, countervail.

21. Secede, secrete, seclude. 8. demerit, depress, degrade.

22. subvert, succumb, suffuse, suppli. 9. disfigure, divulge, diffident.

cate, sustain. 10. elongate, efface, excavate.

23, subterranean. 11. extramundane, extravagant.

24. superfine, supernatural, superscribe. 12. invade, illude, impede, irruption. 25. transgress, transmit.

III, PREFIXES.

OF GREEK ORIGIN.

1. A, an, means, want of, or without -as, apathy, want of feeling,– anarchy, without government, disorder.

2. Amphi, means, double,as, amphibious, having a double life, that can live in two elements.

3. Ana, means, through or up,-as, anatomy, the act of cutting up or dissecting the body.

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