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and slew Constantine, king of the Britons, in the battle of Lochmaben ; chastised the

Irish, who had invaded Galloway, and added Cumberland and Westmoreland to his dominions. He died in 892, after a glorious and most exemplary reign of eighteen years. It was not for his military abilities alone that he was admired by foreign princes; for it was his reputation for learning, wisdom, and justice that led Alfred the Great to court his friendship.

Malcolm II., “ the victorious," eighty-third king, ascended the throne in 1004: he repelled the Danes, improved the laws, and formed a titled aristocracy. After a splendid reign of thirty years, he became suddenly sordid and unjust, and was assassinated by his attendants as he slept.

Duncan, 1033. A prince of pacific temper, and great virtues: he was treacherously murdered by Macbeth, his general, and distinguished friend.

Macbeth, 1040. This tyrant usurped the throne to the prejudice of Malcolm, son of Duncan, who with his younger brother Donaldblain, took refuge in England. Macbeth's reign was short as cruel, being killed in a war with the English, who armed in favour of Duncan's children.

Malcolm III., 1057, long an exile in England, ascended the throne of his ancestors upon the death of Macbeth : he introduced among the Scots the custom of giving surnames; and during the crusades, assisted

Godfrey, Earl of Boulogne, in the reduction of Jerusalem. This wise and valiant monarch was killed, with one of his sons, at the siege of Alnwick.

Donaldblain, or Donald VII., 1092, uncle to Malcolm III.: his reign was short, being dethroned by Duncan, natural son of Malcolm.

Duncan II., 1094. The transient authority which this prince possessed was marked chiefly by his vices : he died without children.

Edgar, 1096, son of Malcolm III., was a good king, and cherished the interests of his subjects.

On the death of Edgar, his brother Alexander I., surnamed Acer, the Sharp, succeeded 1107. The early years of his life and reign were marked by rude and boisterous conduct, but, repenting of his folly and ferocity, he turned his thoughts to works of peace. Under this new feeling he built the church of St. Michael at Scone, and founded a monastery there : driven by a tempest to Æmona Isle, in gratitude for his preservation, and for his maintenance by the hermits, he dedicated a church there to St. Columb: he also enriched the monks of St. Andrews, and completed Dunfermline church, which his father had begun. He had espoused the princess Sibylla, daughter of William the Norman, but left no issue.

David I., contemporary with Stephen, king of England, 1124. His valour was unquestioned, and his liberality to churchmen great: he compiled a code of Scottish laws, built many religious edifices, and reigned gloriously.

Malcolm IV., 1153, grandson of David. His actions are little celebrated, and his reign is chiefly memorable for the origin of the power engrossed by the Stuart family; Walter, one of the king's courtiers, being appointed seneschal or steward of Scotland, from which employment his descendants derived their family name.

William, surnamed the Lion, 1165, was frequently at war with England; and being taken prisoner, at the battle of Alnwick, by Henry II., that monarch refused to release him till he had done homage in his own name, and those of his successors.

Alexander II., 1214, son of William the Lion : he was often at war with the Norwegians, who invaded the Scottish isles.

Alexander III., 1249: a prince of great virtues. In this reign the Norwegians were completely defeated, and obliged to retire from the isles. Alexander's issue failing, the crown was claimed by the descendants of David, Earl of Huntingdon, brother to William the Lion.

1235. An interregnum of some years succeeded, whilst the rival candidates asserted their claims, all descended from David in different degrees of affinity. Of twelve competitors, the most distinguished were John Baliol, great grandson to David by his eldest daughter; and Robert Bruce, grandson by the youngest. The nobles agreeing to refer the decision of this question to Edward I. of England, he adjudged the throne to Baliol as his vassal, and treacherously asserted En. glish supremacy.

John Baliol, 1299, was more . the creature of Edward than a monarch possessing uncontrollable authority. Gilbert de Umphraville, Earl of Angus, and William Wallace, were the foremost of the few who ventured still to assert the independence of Scotland, refusing subjection to Baliol as the deputy of Edward. Soon after this, Baliol, upon the most frivolous pretences, was dethroned by the English king, and, retiring into England, lived in obscurity upon a pension.

Robert Bruce, 1306. On the death of his ancestor (one of the candidates for the throne), Robert entertained jealous fears of William Wallace ; but the forces of William, engaging with Edward I.'s army at Falkirk, were defeated, and their leader suffered death. Robert, upon this, engaged the Scots in his own interest, the nobles seated him upon

the throne, and he was afterwards known as the Bruce of Bannockburn, by his signal defeat of Edward II. ; a victory still remembered by the Scots with triumph. The remainder of Robert's reign was a series of uninterrupted successes.

David Bruce, or David II., 1329, son of Robert ; his minority was disturbed by Edward, son of John Baliol, who assisted by Edward III., seized the throne, and compelled David to retire into France. The nobles, however, disgusted with the conduct of young Baliol, reinstated David. Some years after, the Scottish king invaded England in the absence of its prince; he was made prisoner at the battle of Neville's Cross, near Durham, and detained eleven years in captivity in the castle of Odiham, but afterwards ransomed. Leaving no issue, the crown was claimed by the Stuart family.

Robert Stuart, 1370, the descendant of Walter, seneschal of Scotland, claimed in right of his affinity by marriage to the daughter of David Bruce, being then only Baron of Řenfrew. He was a prince of uncommon abilities and prudence.

Robert III., 1390, son of Robert Stuart, was weak in intellect, and deficient in courage. He committed the toils of government to his brother the Duke of Albany, who took every method to aggrandize his own family. Robert's second son James, was detained prisoner in England, on his way to France; during the nineteen years he spent in that country, his father's dominions were subject to repeated commotions, and his eldest brother was assassinated by the Duke of Albany's command. Robert soon after died, oppressed with age and misfortunes.

James I., 1423. This prince had seen in foreign courts the different systems of Jurisprudence, and endeavoured, by abridging the power of the nobles, to assert the just prerogatives of the crown : but though he understood the principles of government admirably, the nation was not prepared to receive them : and in the struggle for power, he was assasinated by some of the nobility in a monastery near Perth, whither he had retired. James instituted the office of lords of session.

James II., 1437, pursued his father's plan of humbling the nobility ; and, seconded by his ministers, aimed at restoring tranquillity and justice ; but himself the slave of turbulent passions, he stabbed William Earl of Douglas to the heart, in a sudden fit of anger; and, taking advantage of the weakness betrayed by the next earl, he proceeded to the ruin of his family, and declared his intention to subvert the feudal law; but the splinter of a cannon-ball, at the siege of Rosburgh castle, put an end to his schemes and life, at the early age of thirty.

James III., 1460; he, with inferior abilities, embraced the same object, neglecting those of high birth, and lavishing his favours and affection upon a few court sycophants. The exasperated nobles flew to arms; James met them in battle, his army was routed, and himself slain.

James IV., 1488, was generous, accomplished, and brave: war was his passion ; and adored by a people who wished, by attachment to his person, to expiate their offences to his father, he led a gallant army on to the invasion of England: the battle of Flodden Field proved the superior skill of the English ; and James, with thirty noblemen of the highest rank, and an infinite number of barons, fell in the contest; leaving an infant of a year old to wield the Scottish sceptre.

James V., 1513. The Duke of Albany, his near relation, was declared regent; but the king, at thirteen, assumed the reins of government; he had a great but uncultivated mind; and while he repressed the consequence of the nobles, he protected commerce, and reformed the courts of justice. The reformed clergy in Scotland now first launched their thunders against the papal see, though without the concurrence of James. Quarrelling with Henry VIII., he assembled an army; the barons, piqued at his contempt of them, reluctantly complied with his summons; and, more intent upon retaliating their injuries than anxious for their own glory, suffered themselves to be shamefully defeated. James felt this affront so keenly, that he died of grief.

Mary, queen of Scots, daughter of James V. and Mary of Guise, succeeded in 1512, when only a few days old. She was educated in France ; and in her minority, the Earl of

son.

Arran and Mary of Guise were successively regents. Mary, who had espoused Francis II. of France, upon his death returned to govern her native country: she then married the Earl of Darnley, but soon disgusted with his conduct, was privy to his violent death, and immediately affianced to Bothwell, his murderer: the nobles, incensed to the highest degree, rose against her, and, being taken prisoner, she was compelled to sign a resignation of the crown in favour of her

After the battle of Langside, Mary fled into England, where she was detained as a prisoner by Elizabeth. After nineteen years captivity, she was sentenced to death, and beheaded in Fotheringay castle, 8th February, 1586. The beauty, misfortunes, and, we may add, the crimes, of this celebrated woman, have rendered the annals of her reign peculiarly interesting.

James VI, 1567, only son of Mary by the Earl of Darnley; he reigned long before his mother's death. In this period he diminished the power of the church, now declared Protestant by act of parliament, and married the daughter of the Danish king. Upon the death of his relation, Elizabeth of England, (24th March, 1603,) he ascended her throne ; and the histories of Scotland and England have since been inseparable.

Mangnall's Historical Questions.

1. What part of Scotland was inhabited 16. What was the fate of the tyrant by the Picts ?

Macbeth ? 2. What is, most probably, the meaning

17. Tell me what is here related of of the word Pict ?

Malcolm III ? 3. Under whom came the Scots from 18. What know you of Donald VII. ? Ireland ?

19. What know you of Duncan II.? 4. What became of Fergus 1. ?

20. What is here related of Edgar, son 5. What Scottish king was first con- of Malcolm III.? verted to Christianity?

21. What was the character of Alex. 6. Who invaded Scotland or Caledonia ander I. in his youth? in this reign ?

22. What were his acts, after he turned 7. When did Fergus II. succede to the his thoughts to peace ? throne ?

23. When did David i. reign, and what 8. What brought him from abroad, and was his character ? who came with him ?

24. For what was the reign of Malcolm 9. What was the fate of Fergus and his IV. chiefly celebrated ? two companions ?

25. What did Henry II. oblige William 10. What was the character of Fergus the Lion to do? II.?

26. With what people was Alexander 11. When, and by whom were the Picts II. often at war? driven out of Scotland ?

27. Give an account of Alexander III. 12. State facts that justly entitle Gre- 28. Name the most distinguished of the gory, the seventy third king, to his sur twelve competitors for the crown. name " the Great."

29. How did Edward I. of England act 13. Who courted Gregory's friendship, in this matter ? and why did he do so ?

30. To whom did Edward I. assign the 14. What was the character and fate of throne ? Malcolm II.?

31. What two patriots resisted the 15. What was the character and fate of claims of Baliol to the throne ? Duncan I. ?

32. What became of Baliol ?

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