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21. What says a Russian author about 24. What think you of the man who the destruction of Moscow ?
kindles war, like Buonaparte, to gratify 22. What became of the great army his own ambition ? which Napoleon carried into Russia ? 25. In what sense must Napoleon be
23. Is not war a terrible evil, and should called GREAT ? we not do all we can to bring it to an 26, What does Christ say in Matthew, end?
5th chap. and 9th verso ?
XI.-SKETCH OF THE LAWS, CUSTOMS, &c., IN THE
REIGN OF QUEEN ELIZABETH.
.dicěre In-vaʼsion, n..... ..vaděre. Ab'ject, adj...... ..jacěre. Ex-ter'mi-nate, V........ terminus.
s In-vin'ci-ble, adj. ..vincěre.
facere. Ar-ma'da, n...
.....arma. Su-per-sed'ed, v..........sedēre. Ar’ma-ment, n..... ... ...arma.
GREEK. s magnus, Mag-nan-im'i-ty, n...
animus. E-mer'gen-cy, N.........mergěre.
poleo. In-cur', v
...currěre. Nar-cot'ic, adj............narkē. In-volve', v..... ..volvěre. Dyn'as-ty, n..... ....dunastēs. In-dig-na'tion, N......... dignus. Em-ble-mat’i-cal, adj...emblēma. Fu'gi-tive, n........ ....fugěre.
Q. What great invasion was made in the reign of Elizabeth? A. Philip II. of Spain, (the husband of the late queen
of England), prepared a vast fleet to exterminate the Reformation in the British empire.
Q. What was the Spanish fleet ostentatiously called ?
A. “The Invincible Armada :"it consisted of 130 gigantic ships, and a vast number of boats and flat-bottomed transports.
Q. What were the flat-bottomed transports for?
A. The duke of Parma (in Italy) intended to transport to England 50,000 troops from Spain and the Netherlands, to support the armada.
Q. Who commanded this formidable Spanish force ?
A. The greatest generals of the age; the troops themselves were experienced soldiers, well armed and disciplined.
Q. What force had the English to oppose against this en. ormous armament ?
A. All the sailors of England amounted to 14,000 men; and the whole navy comprised only 28 frigates : but many other vessels were built and manned by private individuals.
Q. Who commanded the British fleet?
A. Lord Howard of Effingham (in Surrey), who was supported by Drake, Hawkins, and Frobisher.
Q. What land forces were mustered to oppose the landing of the Spaniards ?
A. A great many in different places; but the chief force was under the earl of Leicester, at Tilbury Fort (in Essex).
Q. Did not Elizabeth shew great magnanimity in this emergency?
A. Yes; with a general's truncheon in her hand, and a steel corslet (surmounted with a white plume) on her head, she rode through the ranks at Tilbury, to exhort the sol-diers.
Q. What was the first disaster which the armada met with?
A. No sooner had it left the Tagus (in Portugal), than a storm disabled several ships, and the fleet returned into the harbour to be repaired.
Q. Where did the fleet anchor, when it reached the channel?
A. Near Calais ; and while it was lying at anchor, Effingham sent eight fire-ships into the midst ; and caused such a panic, that the whole fleet resolved to return home again.
Q. Did the armada return back again to Spain, according to this intention?
A. No; several ships were taken by the English ; more were disabled ; and a tempest arose to complete the destruction. (1588).
Q. How did Elizabeth show her piety and gratitude to God for this great victory.
A. She caused medals to be struck with a fleet wrecked by a tempest on one side, and on the reverse were these words, “ He blew with his winds, and they were scattered.”
Q. Who was queen of Scotland when Elizabeth ascended the throne ?
A. The beautiful Mary, called Mary Queen of Scots; who was the great-grand-daughter of Henry VII. of England, and second cousin to Elizabeth.
Q. How did the queen of Scots incur the displeasure of Elizabeth ?
A. Mary laid claim to the crown of England; and though she did not enforce her claim by open war, yet she assumed the title and arms of the English monarch.
Q. In what trouble did Mary involve herself with her own nation ?
A. She connived at the death of her own husband (Henry Stuart, lord Darnley): and then married Bothwell, the villain employed to commit the murder.
Q. How did the Scotch show their indignation at this attrocious conduct ?
A. They rose in arms against the queen and her paramour; and Mary instantly took fright, and fled to England.
Q. How did queen Elizabeth treat her fugitive ?
A. She insisted that Mary should be tried for the murder of lord Darnley; and kept a prisoner (till after her trial) under the custody of some English nobleman.
Q. How did Mary deport herself during her captivity in England ?
Ă. She entered into various plots with Roman Catholics ; some to effect her own escape ; and some to murder Elizabeth, and seize upon the English crown.
Q. Did Elizabeth discover these several plots.
A. Yes; and as her kingdom could never be at peace while Mary continued to be a rallying point for the disaffected, she commanded her to be tried for treason.
Q. Was Mary queen of Scots, tried for treason against the queen of England ?
A. Yes; and, being proved guilty, was beheaded at Fotheringay-castle (in Northamptonshire), (1587).
Q. What was the character of Mary, queen of Scots ?
A. She was a wanton unprincipled woman; and had she not been so very beautiful and unfortunate, no one would have attempted to uphold her character.
Q. What great slaughter of Protestants was made in France during the reign of queen Elizabeth ?
A. The massacre on St. Bartholomew's day (August 24th, 1572), when about 30,000 Protestants were murdered in cold blood.
Q. Who contrived this dreadful slaughter?
A. Catherine de Medicis and her son Charles IX. (of France), in order to exterminate the reformers of France. Twenty-six years afterwards the famous edict of Nantes was passed. (1598).
Q. What is the edict of Nantes ?
A. A celebrated edict made by Henry IV. (the most enlightened of French monarchs) giving tolerance to the Protestants throughout his whole dominion.
Q. What scandalous traffic was introduced in queen Elizabeth's reign ?
A. The slave trade, introduced by John Hawkins, of Devonshire ; who fitted out a vessel to seize African negroes, and sell them as slaves to the Spaniards in America. (1563).
Q When was this scandalous traffic in human life abolished by law ?
A. It was abolished in England in the reign of George III. (1807), and 10 years afterwards it was abolished in Holland, France, and Spain.
Q. What was done in reference to religion in the reign of Elizabeth ?
A. The church of England, and the Presbyterian church of Scotland, were established ; and dissenters formed themselves into an independent body.
Q. What is meant by the Presbyterian church of Scotland ?
The established church of Scotland is called Presbyterian, because it is governed by “presbyters,” (which means, elders, or pastors), instead of bishops.
Q. In what other respects does the church of Scotland differ from that of England !
A. All the Scotch clergy are of equal rank—and every minister is obedient to a committee, called a classis, which again is responsible to the Synod or general Assembly.
Q. What was the reason why dissenters separated from the established church ?
A. Many protestants in Mary's reign having fled to Geneva (in Switzerland), became disciples of Calvin ; and when they returned to England, objected to forms of prayer, and to some of the usages of the established church.
Q. Mention some of the usages objected to by these Calvinists.
A. The use of the surplice, and especially the square caps then worn by the clergy, (similar to those now worn by the students at the universities).
Q. By what name did the dissenters call themselves in the reign of Elizabeth ?
A. Puritans—because they affected to “purify” themselves from every vestige of the Roman catholic church.
Q. What manufactures were introduced in the reign of Elizabeth ?
A. Gunpowder (from Germany); and knives, which were the first articles of cutlery made in England.
Q. What new articles of commerce were introduced into England in the reign of Elizabeth ?
Ă. Pocket Watches (from Germany); fans, muffs, and false hair (from Italy); and carriages (from France),
Q. What inventions were made in England in the reign of Elizabeth ;
A. The stocking-frame, sail-cloth, needles, stops in printing, newspapers, fire-ships, and paper mills. Q. Who invented the stocking-frame ?
A. The Rev. William Lee of Nottingham. As soon as his invention was made known, the stocking-knitters drove him from England, because they said his invention would ruin their trade.
Q. What became of William Lee after he was driven from England ?
A. He fled to France, where he was treated no better; and soon died of a broken heart in the most abject poverty.
Q. Who invented needles?
A. They were invented in the reign of Edward VI., but the art of making them died with the inventor.
Q Who recovered the art of making needles ?
A. Elias Growse, a German ; who carried on the trade at Buckingham, where there is still a large manufacture.
Q. What stops were invented in the reign of Elizabeth ?
A. The colon (:) and semi-colon (;) but the comma (-) and full-stop (-) were used in the reign of Henry VIII.
Q. For what purpose were the first newspapers circulated ?
A. To apprize the nation of the defeat of the Spanish armada; but we hear nothing more of them till the reign of Charles I. (1642).
Q. For what purpose were fire ships first employed ?
A. Lord Howard of Effingham (in Surrey) sent 8 small vessels, filled with combustibles, into the midst of the Spanish armada, as it lay at anchor off Calais.
Q. Where was the first paper-mill established ?
A. At Dartford (in Kent), by a German, who was knighted by Elizabeth for his invention.
Q. What discovery was made in the reign of Elizabeth?
A. Alum (which had long been a monopoly in the court of Rome) was discovered by Sir Thomas Chaloner to abound in his own estate at Whitby, (in Yorkshire).