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Standard naval photographic laboratory:

Arrangement and use of space.
Care of laboratory.

Storage and care of photographic material.
Care and uses of still ground cameras:

Graflex cameras.
View cameras.

Care and use of still aerial cameras:

Hand-held cameras.
K-1 mapping cameras.

K-2 oblique camera.
Care and uses of cinematograph cameras:

Bell and Howell cameras.
Akeley cameras.
Universal camera.

Ultrarapid camera.
Sensitized materials and chemicals:

Chemical mixing.
Contact printing.
Lantern-slide making.

Developing, fixing, washing, and finishing.
Copying and projection:

Photographic copying.
Photographic projection:

(1) Lantern slides.

(2) Motion pictures.
Photographic mapping:

Air work.
Laboratory work.
Mosaic making.

Aerial photographs of fleet maneuvers and fleet firing:

Preparation of equipment and supplies.
Preparation of flying personnel.
Preparation of photographic personnel.

Keeping of records.

Examination. (B) Practical..

Ground cameras.
Aerial cameras.
Use of sensitized materials and chemicals.
Mosaic making.
Photographs of maneuvers and firing.
Air work:

Use of aerial cameras.
Map making
Aerial photographs of maneuvers and firing.

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REVIEW OF NAVAL GUNNERY AND FIRE CONTROL, 8 HOURS In order to properly carry on the practice of aerial fire control, it is necessary that the officer concerned be cognizant of the methods of procedure of the battery for which he is observing. To this end a brief review of that which the student has already studied is included in the syllabus as follows: (A) Theoretical...

8 hours Elements of successful gunfire. Principles of naval gunnery. Fire-control systems of a battleship. Fire distribution. Plotting and tracking. Principles of spotting. Spotting diagrams. Communication equipment and procedure.

(B) Practical.

None. (C) Air work. None.

AERIAL GUNNERY, 30 HOURS The fulfillment of an aircraft mission, other than combat or pursuit, is governed by many factors, not the least of which is the capability of the crew of that aircraft to ward off by gunfire the offensive tactics of enemy aircraft dispatched to harass it. The lives of the men in the airship are also dependent on the accuracy of the machine gunners. It therefore behooves the student observer, who may eventually be handling one of the machine guns, to devote his energies to the absorption of the theory contained in the following outline and to painstakingly attempt to develop his aim in the execution of the

range and air practice. To hit the target with the first burst is the safety rule of aerial combat and the ability to do this should be the ambition of the student. (A) Theoretical.

15 hours
Aircraft machine guns.
Stoppage and jams.

Theory of deflection. (B) Range practices.-

15 hours On the range all students shall assist in cleaning, oiling, and

assembling the guns used in the practices prescribed by the
commanding officer.

BOMBING, 19 HOURS The scope of this subject is wide and its details many, and therefore the following course aims only to familiarize the student with bomb sights, their adjustments, and the fundamental principles upon which they are based, and to create in him the ability to drop single bombs with accuracy. Too much emphasis cannot be placed on the necessity of carrying out the following practices with the utmost care, thoroughness, and accuracy in order to obtain the maximum benefit from such a limited course.

Very close supervision is necessary in order to discourage at their inception tendencies to slur or expedite practices with the idea of maintaining the schedule by making up previously lost time. (A) Theoretical...

14 hours
Theory of bombing.
Line of range.
Trajectory in vacuum.
Dropping angle.
Air-resistance effects.
Effects of cross wind.
The principles of various bomb sights:

Effects of change in range angles.

Principle of the drift bar.
Errors and calculation of errors:

Incorrect estimate of factors necessary for sight setting.

Bad flying.
Bombing a moving target.
Formation bombing.
Operation of bomb sights.

How to use for the various methods of bombing.
Bomb and bomb gear.
Safety precautions.
Releasing gears.


(B) Practical.

None. (C) Bombing practices as prescribed by the commanding officer.

AERIAL FIRE CONTROL, 28 HOURS Aerial fire control together with reconnaissance, is the principal function of the naval aviation observer. A realization of this fact on the part of the student will eliminate all necessity of exhorting them to put forth their maximum efforts in the study of spotting. (A) Theoretical...

15 hours
Aerial spotting doctrine.
Construction of spotting diagrams.
Equipment of spotting planes.

Examination. (B) Practical.---

3 hours Spotting board. (C) Air work.--

10 hours
Spotting single salvos for spotting batteries.
One quarter of the ammunition allowance for the class to be utilized in

this practice. All shots will be observed from the air by the entire
class and the splashes spotted by radio from airships, or by telephone
from kite balloons. Each member will spot as control spotter that

number of shots proportional to the number of students in the class. Spotting single shots for assigned battery on designated target during

the fire of several batteries on several targets. Spotting salvos for assigned battery on designated target during the

fire of several batteries of several targets. Spotting salvos for assigned battery on designated target during con

centrated fire of several batteries on same target.

Spotting practices will be held as operations with fleet permit. Colonel BRECKINRIDGE. Is the crew, officers and men, detailed to this duty, or do they volunteer for it?'

Lieutenant Commander WILEY. They are all volunteers, sir.

As the officer's training progresses, he is checked occasionally and examined for his knowledge, and examined as to his knowledge and progress, and if at any time it appears he is not proper material, or is not making satisfactory progress, he is brought up before a board, and if they hold that opinion, his training is discontinued. After he has completed this short course and has been established in some flying duty, he is given the longer theoretical course, which includes all of the subjects that the Navy uses, and has to pass written examinations and still continues his flying progressively, after he has qualified in free balloons to the nonrigid airships; after he has qualified with that, and contemporaneously with it, in the rigid airship; after a year and passing all the required examinations, and so forth, and having completed certain manual and actual duties in the airship and with the airship, he may be given a qualification of “naval aviaator" airship, which corresponds to the wings given a naval airplane pilot. I do not believe that anyone has ever completed or obtained his wings in less than about a year, and most of the time it is a year and a half to two years. That qualification is not considered that he can take command of a rigid airship, but so far as his having completed the theoretical and practical requirements, then, if he is ordered to duty on the airship, he is given further instruction work and so forth, and from then on his progress must be, of course, satisfactory to his commanding officer, or he would not remain there.

The watch officer should have I think at least 2 years' actual experience, and it was always the custom on the Los Angeles and the Akron to train officers; for instance, we always had a watch officer in charge and an officer under him, although that officer had already had his wings and was considered in practice; in other words, we tried to give as much training as possible at all times.

Senator KEAN. Have you any suggestions for the improvement of that system of training?

Lieutenant Commander Wiley. Not particularly, sir; that system has been worked out at Lakehurst, following to the best of our ability our own desires for the qualification of those officers and in comparison with heavier-than-air training, and so forth, in general, I think the scheme is correct. Of course, there may be minor modifications. However, I agree quite thoroughly with the course and scheme for training.

Colonel BRECKINRIDGE. Has the lighter-than-air suffered from arbitrary action on the part of the Department in taking away at critical times important personnel?

Lieutenant Commander Wiley. No, sir; the Navy Department has always worked very well with the wishes of the officers at Lakehurst in those matters, and of course we always thought they never gave us enough people to train for our ideas.

Colonel BRECKINRIDGE. Your feeling is that there should be wider training of more personnel?

Lieutenant Commander WILEY. That was our own feeling, yes, sir; but of course the needs of the Navy as a whole have to be taken into consideration by those who decided that point.

Colonel BRECKINRIDGE. What provision is there, if any, for multiplying personnel familiar with the airship in case it required expansion in time of war?

Lieutenant Commander WILEY. Well, so far as I know, there was no provision for war expansion, excepting possibly in secret war plans which have not come under my observation. However, we obtain a class of officers nearly every year, varying from 10 to 24, who were sent for training. We have to take into consideration the attrition, due to officers going to sea, or deaths, or any other cause for separation from the airship game, and we try to train Navy officers to take care of that, and also the expansion of having two large rigid airships in view, and to provide for competent ground personnel familiar with the flying of the ship and the bases which were under construction, and so forth.

Colonel BRECKINRIDGE. From the standpoint of required expansion in time of war, from a personnel standpoint, is lighter-than-air worse off than any other section of the Navy?

Lieutenant Commander Wiley. No, sir; I can not say that it is.

Senator KEAN. If you are an officer on an airship, to obtain promotion you have to go to sea; is that right?

Lieutenant Commander WILEY. Yes, sir; you must.

Senator KEAN. Is that the case that they order you back to a battleship or something of that kind in order to be promoted, you have to do your duty at sea?

Lieutenant Commander WILEY. No, sir; the duty on an airship is called sea duty under a law passed.

Senator KEAN. Why did they order this commander of the Akron to duty with the fleet?

Lieutenant Commander WILEY. Well, that was a matter of policy; it was nothing that I had anything to do with.

Senator KEAN. I say to get his promotion, he had to practically go to sea, did he not?

Lieutenant Commander WILEY. No, sir; I do not think promotion had anything to do with it, sir; he already had the sea duty, sir.

Senator KEAN. He asked for sea duty?

Lieutenant Commander WILEY. He had the sea duty, sir; it is a question in my mind, if you want to round out your career, to satisfy a number of admirals who select the officers for promotion, I am afraid if you were on one job for your whole career, whereas they are picking officers for a complete career in the Navy, they might not think you had enough general knowledge, therefore I think it behooves one to get more knowledge from time to time of surface vessels. Also, I am in agreement with the plan to go to sea occasionally, so that you can be a better airship officer at a later time and can cooperate with the fleet.

Representative ANDREW. As a matter of fact, from what you have said, though, there are no regulations that require a man to go to sea in order to get a promotion, but, in order to meet the opinions or requirements of the admirals who pass upon the promotions, a man has to.

Lieutenant Commander Wiley. In this particular case there were many other considerations much more important that that. I think these things were also gone into in proceedings when I was before the Naval Affairs Committee 3 years ago, it was the policy in the Navy Department to train commanding officers, and that they would not want to leave one officer in command

Representative ANDREW. That matter was brought up in the Naval Affairs Committee at the time Commander Rosendahl was transferred to sea, and the information we received was if we insisted that the commander be retained on the Akron, it would mitigate against his promotion.

Lieutenant Commander WILEY. That would be one thing, undoubtedly; at the same time a matter of policy of training commanding officers could be a much greater reason.

Colonel BRECKINRIDGE. Are the personnel adequately trained in aerology?

Lieutenant Commander WILEY. As much as can be; I think you can never know enough about aerology.

Colonel BRECKINRIDGE. That is a very important phase of the problem of a lighter-than-air officer.

Lieutenant Commander Wiley. Yes, sir; and it is becoming more and more important.

Colonel BRECKINRIDGE. Before the Akron took off on the night of the 3rd, did they have available the weather reports that come over the ticker or the teletype of the Department of Commerce?

Lieutenant Commander WILEY. Yes, sir; we had those available from the 4 p.m. weather report, as I described the other day; they prepared a partial weather map from those reports; I called it partial because the airways do not cover the country like the weather reports do, the 8 p.m. and 8 a.m.

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