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calls her chickens to their food “ I soon perceived that my laby her cluck, and drives them bour would be well repaid ; for from danger by her scream. an old vulture was sitting on a

Birds have the greatest variety naked prominence, with her of notes; they have, indeed, a young about her, whom she was invariety, which seems almost structing in the arts of a vulture's sufficient to make

to make a speech life, and preparing, by the last adequate to the purposes of a life lecture, for their final dismission which is regulated by instinct, to the mountains and the skies. and can admit little change or My children,' said the old improvement. To the cries of vulture, you will the less want birds, curiosity or superstition. my instructions, because you has been always attentive; many have had my practice before your have studied the language of the eyes; you have seen me snatch feathered tribes, and some have from the farm the household boasted that they understood it. fowl, you have seen me seize the

The most skilful or most con- leveret in the bush, and the kid fident interpreters of the sylvan in the pasture; you know how dialogues have been commonly to fix your talons, and how to bafound among the philosophers of lance your flight when you are the east, in a country where the laden with prey.

But you recalmness of the air, and the member the taste of more demildness of the seasons, allow licious food—I have often rethe student to pass a great part galed you with the flesh of man." of the year

in
groves
and bowers. “Tell us,' said the

young vultures, But what may be done in one 'where man may be found-how place by peculiar opportunities, he may be known: his flesh surely may be performed in another by is the natural food of a vulture peculiar diligence. A shepherd why have you never brought a of Bohemia has, by long abode in man in your talons to the nest ?' the forest, enabled himself to • He is too bulky,' said the mounderstand the voice of birds at ther. When we find a man we least, he relates with great con- can only tear away his flesh, and fidence a story, of which the cre- leave his bones upon the ground.' dibility is left to be considered . Since man is so big,' said the by the learned :

young ones, how do you kill As I was sitting,” said he, him?-you are afraid of the wolf within a hollow rock, and and of the bear; by what power watching my sheep that fed in are vultures superior to man? the valley, I heard two vultures Is man more defenceless than interchangeably crying on the a sheep?" We have not the summit of the cliff. Both voices strength of man,' returned the were earnest and deliberate. My mother : 'I am sometimes in curiosity prevailed over my care doubt whether we have the of the flock-I climbed slowly subtlety; and the vultures would and silently from crag to crag, seldom feed upon his flesh, had concealed among the shrubs, till not nature, that devoted him to I found a cavity where I might our use, infused into him a strange sit, and listen 'without suffering ferocity, which I have never obor giving disturbance.

served in any other being that

fatten upon

feeds upon the earth. Two herds Carpathian rocks; he had made of men will often meet and shake many observations : he knew the the earth with noise, and fill the places that afforded prey round his air with fire. When you hear habitation as far in every direcnoise and see fire, with flashes tion as the strongest wing can fly along the ground, hasten to the between the rising and setting of place with your swiftest wing, for the summer's sun; he had fed men are surely destroying one year after year on the entrails of another; you will find the ground men. His opinion was, that smoking with blood, and covered men had only the appearance of with carcases, of which many animal life, being really vegetaare dismembered and mangled bles with a power of motion ; for the convenience of the vul- and that as the boughs of an oak ture !' . But when men have are dashed together by the storm, killed their prey,' said the pupil, that swine may

fallwhy do they not eat it? When ing acorns; so men are by some the wolf has killed a sheep, he unaccountable power, driven one suffers not the vulture to touch it against another, till they lose till he is satisfied himseif. Is their motion, that vultures may not man another kind of wolf ?' be fed. Others think they have

Man,' said the mother, “is the observed something of contrionly beast who kills that which vance and policy among these he does not devour, and this quali- mischievous beings; and those ty makes him so much a benefac- that hover more closely round tor to our species.' • If men kill them, pretend, that there is, in prey, and lay it in our way,' said every herd, one that gives directhe young one, 'what need shall tions to the rest, and seems to be we have of labouring for our- more eminently delighted with selves?' •Because man willsome- a wide carnage. What it is that times,' replied the mother, 're- entitles him to such pre-eminence main for a long time quiet in his we know not-he his seldom the den. The old vultures will tell biggest or the swiftest, but he you when you are to watch his shews, by his eagerness and dilimotions. When you see men in gence, that he is, more than any great numbers moving close of the others, a friend to the together, like a flock of storks, vultures.' you may conclude that they are hunting, and that you will soon revel in human blood.'

Mr. Editor, still, said the young one, • I Although the following exwould gladly know the reason of tracts, in reply to your corresthis mutual slaughter-I could pondent, Z., in your first number, never kill what I could not eat.' may be considered not fully to

My child,' said the mother, explain, and be deemed a satis, 'this is a question which I cannot factory solution to his query, answer, though I am reckoned they may be new and interesting the most subtle bird of the moun- to some of

your readers. tain. When I was young I used

I am, Mr. Editor, frequently to visit the aerie of

Yours, &c. A. an old vulture whodwelt upon the April 23, 1822.

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It has been the received opi- water when it is poured on vita nion that the sun was fire, burn- riolic acid. But if we place wa ing and heating other bodies in ter, which is perfectly transpalike manner as a culinary fire : rent, in the focus, no heat will but the celebrated Dr. Fordyce be produced : nay, if spirits of has asserted, that the sun is pro- wine were placed in the focus, bably not at all hot in itself; they would scarcely be heated. neither are the solar rays hot, But the same heat which melts but have only a power of produ- iron would more than suffice to cing heat (caloric) on being ap- make water boil. From this explied to other bodies. An opi- periment then, without advancing nion very

little different to this, farther arguments, it appears is entertained by Dr. Herschel. that the rays in themselves have This ingenious astronomer as- no heat ; and there is no reason serts, that the idea of the sun to suppose that the sun is hotter being a body of real fire, is than the earth we inhabit, &c. futile and erroneous.

The sun's rays heat bodies only poses, on the contrary, that it is when they are bent or destroyed an opaque body, surrounded by (the term absorbed does not, in an atmosphere of a phosphoric my opinion, exactly answer the nature, composed of various purpose)--hence they do not heat transparent and elastic fluids, by water if perfectly transparent; the decomposition of which, light neither do they heat the air above is produced,

and lucid appearances the clouds ; at least, as very litformed of different degrees and tle bending takes place in these intensity. The doctor even goes cases, the heat is so trifling as to so far as to assert, with much be scarcely worth mentioning : probability, that the sun is in re- the upper regions of the air then ality an inhabitable world. Some are extremely cold, though expoforcible reasoning, with the au- sed to the direct action of the sun. thority of demonstration,

Heat, it is affirmed, can only given by the doctor in support of be produced by the solar rays at his suppositions.

the surfaces of bodies ; conseIt is a constant rule, with re- quently the interior can only be gard to hot bodies, that they heat heated by communication. And, all cold bodies which come near if we keep in mind, that heat is them. Though it must be al- more readily transmitted, lowed that some bodies will re- municated, and received, by some ceive heat with more readiness bodies than others, it will then than others : however, this will appear that, as a body receives not easily form an objection to heat with more facility, it will be what immediately follows. more heated by the sun's rays

Now, if we take a large burning as a piece of iron will be more glass, and hold a piece of iron in heated than a piece of wood. its focus, such heat will be pro- We have seen then, that the duced as to melt the iron. But solar rays are not hot in themthe glass, through which all the selves--that they produce heat rays passed, is scarcely heated at only when they are bent or deall : and when they fell on the stroyed that therefore they do iron they were no hotter than not heat transparent bodies, nor

are

com

K

do they heat in passing through being created and annihilated by them, but only at their entrance, any natural cause, (for under all and passing out again, &c. its variety of forms matter is

The different distances of the matter still ;) then what kind of planets from the sun, it is ima- a substance must heat be, to be gined, makes a great difference produced and destroyed by so in the number of the rays, and in many causes! Why, truly, nothe momentum with which they body can tell, for it must have a fall on them : so that it has been property which matter has not. thought that Mercury is exceed- Heat must then be a quality, for ingly hot, and Georgium Sidus qualities we know can easily be cold beyond conception. But created and annihilated. And if since the heat produced in bo- heat be a quality it must have dies depends on their disposition matter to exist in, so that if we to receive it, the several planets apply any of the causes promay be so composed as to have ducing heat, no heat is produced but a very trifling difference in unless there be some matter to the heat produced by the solar produce it. This therefore is the rays.

Hence then, what has result of enquiries into the nature been hitherto said concerning of heat.-Ibid. the heat of the planets, as calcu- Agreeably to the foregoing lated on the supposition of the hypothesis, caloric, or heat, does sun being the source of heat, may not descend from the sun to the be called in question.—Less. earth; that the solar rays are Astro, and Philo.

not hot in themselves, that they Whether heat be a substance heat bodies only when they are or a quality, it is manifest that bent or destroyed : hence there is it may be created and annihilated. no “ impartation of caloric by Now we have no idea of matter sun to earth.”

ANECDOTES, &c. It happened, that the learned was to esteem the books still his Patru, who was no less remarka- own, and to make use of them as ble for his necessities than his long as he lived. great learning, being tormented A friend to the Duke of Guise by his creditors, determined, at frequently represented to him the length, to sacrifice his books to necessity there was for putting his own ease and their satisfac- his affairs into better order, and tion. His library, therefore, gave him a list of useless people was exposed to sale. Mr. that he entertained about him. Boileau heard of this circum- After the Prince had examined it, stance, and repairing to his house, “ It is true," said he,“ that I can made a purchase of the whole. live very well without these peoA few hours after, he sent Mr. ple, but pray, how will they live Patru a letter, by which he ac- without me?" quainted him, that he had a great INDIAN RETRIBUTION.

A jourfavour to request of him, and nal of the United States has the folwould not be refused; which lowing anecdote:--An Indian of Natchez had an altercation with sequence of this conduct. The one of his countrymen and bit gentleman persisted, and seemed him severely in the hand; the every day to become more addictlatter declared himself maimed, ed to his bottle. One evening, and demanded the usual combat. when she imagined him to be The day is fixed; the tribe assem- dead drunk, she unsewed a leadble; the champions advance, the en weight from one of the sleeves offended man armed, the offender of her gown, and, having meltwithout arms ;

both painted of ed it, she approached her husdifferent colours. They approach band, who pretended still to be each other running, and stop at sound asleep, in order to put it fifteen paces

distance. The man into his ear through a pipe ; conwithout arms uncovers his breast. vinced of her wickedness, the His adversary rests calmly on gentleman started up, and seized his musket, drinks some draughts her; when having procured asout of his gourd, aud looks sistance, he secured her till the around. All on a sudden he morning, and conducted her to utters a cry, takes aim at his prison. The bodies of her six enemy, fires, and hits him. husbands were dug up, and, as While the offender is weltering marks of violence were still disin his blood, the other reloads cernible upon each of them, the his musket, presents it to the son proof of her guilt appeared sn of his dying adversary, retreats strong upon her trial, that she some paces, points with his finger was condemned and executed. to the place where the heart is To this circumstance is England seated, and receives the mortal indebted for that useful regulawound. In all such cases it is tion, by which no corpse can be necessary that both the cham- interred in the kingdom without pions perish.

a legal inspection. ORIGIN OF THE CORONER's In- In a company of naval officers, QUEST.- A gentlewoman in Lon- the discourse happened to turn don, after having buried six on the ferocity of small animals; husbands, found a gentleman har- when an Irish gentleman present dy enough to make her a wife stated his opinion to be, that a

For several months Kilkenny cat, of all animals, was their happiness was mutual; a the most ferocious; and added--circumstance which seemed to “I can prove my assertion by a pay no great compliment to the fact within my own knowledge : former partners of her bed, who, I once,” said he, saw two of as she said, had disgusted her by those animals fighting in a timber their sottishness and infidelity. yard, and willing to see the reIn the view of knowing the real sult of a long battle, I drove them character of his amorous mate, into a deep saw.pit, and placing the gentleman began frequently some boards over the mouth, left to absent himself, to return at them to their amusement. Next late hours, and, when he did re- morning I went to see the conturn, to appear as if intoxicated. clusion of the fight, and what do At first, reproaches, but after- you think I saw?"-

---- One of the wards menaces, were the con- cats dead, probably," replied one

once more.

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