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pastor, after dividing among the poor what money was his joy was too great for utterance, while their astonish- all solitary ; his pleasures were derived wholly from himin the poor's-box, quietly retired from his parish, having ment at his uncouth appearance struck them dumb. self; he felt oppressed by the kind attentions of few supporters when forsaken by the government. He bad at this time his last shirt upon his back ; his strangers. At length chance threw an object in
* Until the year 1695, Alexander continued at home feet and legs were bare, his thighs and body covered his way, that awakened in his mind a new train working with his father'; but he was still very unsettled, with the skins of wild animals. His beard which had of thoughts and feelings, and roused him from and gave to his parents much cause of uneasiness by not been shaved for four years and four months, wa his lethargy. In his wanderings up the burn-side his wayward humours and irregular conduct, which at
of a great length, while a rough goat's-skin cap covered of Keil's Den to the ruins of Balcruivie Castle and length brought him under church censure. Being now his head. He appeared to them as wild as the original its romantic neighbourhood, he often met a young eighteen years of age, and spurning the control of his owners of the skins which he wore. At length they girl seated alone, tending a siugle cow, the profather, he went to sea, rather than be rebuked in church began to converse, and he invited them to his hut; perty of her parents
. Her lonely occupation and for his improper behaviour. For a period of six years but its access was so very difficult and intricate, that innocent looks made a deep impression upon him. he remained abroad; but in what situation, or in what only Captain Fry accompanied him over the rocks He watched her for hours unseen, as she amused herparticular part of the world, there are no documents to which led to it. When Alexander had entertained self with the wild flowers she gathered, or chanted prove. That he was with the Buccaneers in the South them in the best manner he could, they returned to the her rural lays. At each meeting the impression beSeas I am much inclined to believe for the two follow boat, our hero bearing a quantity of his roasted goats'. came stronger, and he felt more interested in the ing reasons :--Ist, His boisterous conduct to his flesh for the refreshment of the crew. During their young recluse. At length he addressed himself to younger brother, Andrew, who was weak in his intel-repast he gave them an account of his adventures and her, and they joined in conversation : he had no averlects, for only laughing at his drinking salt water by stay upon the island, at which they were much sur- sion to commune with her for hours together, and mistake, and his attempt to seize a pistol (probably prised. Captains Dover and Fry invited him to come began to imagine that be coald live and be happy with brought home with him from sea,) shows a reckless- on board ; but he declined their invitation, until they a companion such as she. His fishing expeditions ness of consequences which he could only have acquired satisfied him that Dampier had no command in this were now neglected. Even his cave became not so among that body. 2dly, His appointment to be sailing- expedition ; after which be gave a reluctant consent.' sweet a retreat. His mind led him to Keil's Den and master of the Cinque Ports galley, a situation of trust, pp. 91–93.
the amiable Sophia. He nerer mentioned this adrequiring a prerious knowledge of the seas to be navia We onnit his next set of adventures, which, venture and attachment to his friends ; for he felt gated, when a fit person can be obtained. At this however, are well worthy of record, and are well ashained, after his discourses to them, and the properiod there is no probability that they were scarce ; recorded, to join him on his return to Scotland:
fession he had made of dislike to human society, to and Dampier himself, an able seaman, knew well how
acknowledge that he was upon the point of marrying, * For a few days Selkirk was happy in the com
and thereby plunging into the midst of worldly cares. consent to the nomination of a master not fully
quali- | pany of his parents and friends ; but, from long habits, But he was determined to marry Sophia, though as fied, -pp. 22–28.
he soon felt averse to mixing in society, and was most firmly resolved not to remain at home to be the subThe voyage in the Cinque Ports galley, Cap- his face from the dawn until late in the evening, when ject of their jests. This resolution being
formed, he tain Dampier, of which he was master, is given be returned to bed. It was his custom to go out in him, and bid adieu to the romantic glen. Between at great length. The cause of his landing at the morning, carrying with him provisions for the day; lovers, matters are soon arranged, and, accordingly, Juan Fernandez is thus stated :
he wander and meditate alone through the without the knowledge of their parents, they both set • From this period, until the end of August, the Cinque secluded and solitary valley
of Keil's Den. The roman-off for London. Alexander left his chest and all his Ports kept cruising along the shores of Mexico, or tic beauties of the place, and, above all, the stillness clothes behind; nor did he ever claim them again; among the islands, without any success, the St. George that reigned there, reminded him of his beloved island, and his friends knew nothing and heard nothing of having gone to the coast of Peru. During this period which he never thought of but with regret for having him for many years after; still they kept bis effects a violent quarrel arose between “ Honest Selkirk," as left it. When evening forced him to return to the untouched in hopes of his return. Both his father and Harris call our hero, and Captain Stradling. So high haunts of men, he appeared to do so with reluctance; mother were dend, when, in the end of the year 1724, did the dispute arise, that Selkirk resolved to leave for he immediately retired to his room up stairs, where
or beginning of 1725, twelve years after his elopethe vessel, whatever might be the consequence. At
his chest at present stands, and in the exact place, it ment with Sophia Bruce, a gay widow, by name Jength want of provisions, and the crazy state of the is probable, where it then stood. Here was le accus
Frances Candis or Candia, came to Largo to claim the abip, compelled Stradling to sail for the island of Juan tomed to amuse himself with two cats that belonged to
property left to him by his father,-the house at the Fernandez, to refit. He was in hopes of recovering his brother, which he taught, in imitation of a part of
Cragie Well. She produced documents to prove her the stores and men which they had left there at the his occupations on his solitary island, to dance and
right; from which it appeared that Sophia Bruce lived commencement of their cruise in these seas ; in which, perform many little feats. They were extremely fond
but a very few years after her marriage, and must have as bas been already remarked, he was disappointed, as of him, and used to watch his return. He often said
died some time between the years 1717 and 1720. the two French whalers had taken away every thing, to his friends, no doubt thinking of himself in his youth,
This is farther established by the will and power of and he only recovered two of his men, who had been “ That, were children as docile and obedient, parents
attorney, preserved in the Scots Magazine, vol. xlvü., successful in concealing themselves. Their account of would all be happy in them." But poor Selkirk him
page 672, which is dated in 1717.'-pp. 128-135. the manner in which they had spent their time, fixed self was now far from being happy, for his relations the resolution that Selkirk had formed some time often found him in tears.
Our readers will perceive from these extracts before, to leave the ship and remain upon the * Attached to his father's house was a piece of that the work is not the less amusing because island. ground, occupied as a garden, which rose in a con
much pains have been bestowed upon it. • From the beginning to the end of September the siderable acclivity backwards. Here, on the top of ressel remained undergoing repairs. The disagreement, the eminence, soon after his arrival at Largo, Alexan- LETTER TO SIR ALEXANDER MALET, BART. instead of being made up, became greater every day, der constructed a sort of cave, commanding an extenand strengthened the resolution which Selkirk had sive and delightful view of the Forth and its shores. A Letter to Sir Alexander Malet, Bart., in reference to made to leave the vessel. Just before getting under In fits of using meditation, he was wont to sit his Pamphlet, touching the late Expulsions from weigh, he was landed with all his effects, and he leaped here in bad weather, and even at other times, and Winchester School; with a Word, in passing, to the on shore with a faint sensation of freedom and joy. to bewail his ever having left his island. This recluse Editor of 'The Literary Gazette.' By an Old He shook hands with his comrades, and bade them and unnatural propensity, as it appeared to thein, Etonian. pp. 26. Wilson. London. 1929. adieu in a hearty manner, wbile Stradling sat in the was cause of great grief to his parents, who often rebost urging their return to the ship, which order they monstrated with him, and endeavoured to raise his
We wish we had any authority for saying, that instantly obeyed; but no sooner did the sound of their spirits. But their efforts were made in vain ; nay, he the writer of this pamphlet had impudently and oars, as they left the beach, fall on his ears, than the sometimes broke out before them in a passion of grief, falsely assumed the designation of an “Etonian.' horrors of being left alone, cut off from all human so- and exclaimed, “O, my beloved island ! I wish I had It would be perfectly consistent with the whole ciety, perhaps for ever, rushed upon his mind. His never left thee! I never was before the man I was on spirit of his pamphlet that he should have done heart sunk within him, and all his resolution failed. thee! I have not been such since I left thee! and, I $0; yet it has so often been our misfortune to He rushed into the water, and implored them to return fear, never can be again!”
meet with young men combining, in a remarkable and take him on board with them. To all his entreaties
• Dr. Lamond, who resided in Largo, and died there degree, the brains of idiots and the hearts of coxStradling turned a deaf ear, and even mocked his a very old man, used often to point out to John Sel-combs, who, we were positively assured, did despair; denouncing the choice he bad made of re- craig, the teacher, the spot where the cave was formed issue from that ancient foundation, that we should maining upon the island as rank mutiny, and de- as be remembered, when a child, to have seen the soli- be afraid to impeach the veracity of any new scribing his present situation as the most proper state tary Alexander seated under its roof. for such a fellow, where his example would not affect others,--pp. 62-64.
"Haring plenty of money, he purchased a boat for person similarly endowed, who should put forth
the like pretensions.
Fortunately the true Etonians, gentlemen alike
because, as the name does not make day he spent in fishing, either in the beautiful bay of in feeling and in exterior, are also very numemuch difference in this matter, we take it that Largo, or at Kingscraig Point, where he would loiter rous; and to those we must trust the defence of Defoe's account of them may be altogether as till evening among its romantic cliffs, catching lobsters, their venerable institution from the disgrace true. His rescue we give :
his favourite amusement, as they reminded him of the which such a person as this would entail upon · Alexander saw the boat leave the Duke and pull for crawfish of Juan Fernandez. The rock to which be it, if he could be believed, for a moment, to be the beach. He ran down joyfully to meet his country- moored his boat is still shown. It is at a small dis
a fair representative of its feelings. In his men, and to bear once more the human voice. He tance from Lower Largo, to the eastward of the Tem- attempt to answer the excellent pamphlet of Sir took in his hand a piece of linen tied upon a small pole ple-house.
Alexander Malet, this very foolish and very illAs a fag, which he waved as they drew near to attract * It was thus he lived during his short stay at home, their attention. At length he heard them call to him, evidently far from being happy or contented. The vi- meaning, person maintains that fagging is to be inquiring for a good place to land, which he pointed sions he had formed of domestic life could not be rea- preserved, because it is not expedient to part out, and, flying as swift as deer towards it, arrived lized, and he remained among his friends only because with our public schools, and to substitute modern first, where he stood ready to receive them as they he knew not what better to do with himself. He found schemes of education for the schemes that were stepped on shore. He embraced them by turns ; but that he was not fitted for society; his enjoyments were contrived by our forefathers,
We should not have conceived it possible for monstrous than that of other materialists; for if Mozart's Operas, arranged with embellishments for the
That a human brain should be found capable of if he once admits that he can be argued out of his
Twelve of the most estimable beauties from Mozart's
inimitable 'Le Nozze di Figaro,' form the first book
very desirable work, comprising the essence of
the whole opera. The embellishments are not so in-
trusive or overwhelming as to obscure or deteriorate
the simplicity of the original, but are conceived in the
No. IV. of Select Subjects from Haydn's Creation and
Seasons, newly adapted as Divertimentos for the Piano-
An awful statue, by a veil half hid,
At Sais stands : one came to whom was known
All lore committed to Etruscan stone;
It was with much pleasure we noticed the three pre- And all sweet voices that dull time has chid
an interesting variety of movements
lightful Seasons, and the indefatigable Cramer has very He came, and raised that yet unlightened veil
With hands not pure, but never did unfold
minor, expressing the passage from winter to spring ; On his few days, before he went to dwell
Hermes Britannicus. A Dissertation on the Celtic Deity trasted with the pastoral finale, “ From out the foldthe
Across the main my spirit was beguiled :
Amid the blackness of a cypress wood,
By the slow windings of a sable food,
An ancient mound, o'ergrown with flowers, was piled:
This learned treatise, by a learned man and a poet, Sinclair ; the Music composed and dedicated tu Miss
Whose sires, the hunters of the western wild,
Beneath them lay in the dim solitude.
being within the compass of nine notes only, the Then, with untrembling arm, the hatchet raised,
highest being F on the fifth line,) quite applicable to And sternly whisper'd “ 'Tis the hour to die !"
the voices of amateurs in general. The author is a He hid his son in that ancestral tomb,
sued in that Colony : and other Important Matters
are published by himself at both places.
Cheap Pleasures.--How little is requisite to supply
the necessities of nature ! and in a view to pleasure
conversation, society, study, even health and the com-
mon beauties of nature, but, above all, the peaceful
reflection on ones own conduct : what comparison I
say, between those and the feverish empty amusements
of luxury and expense? These natural pleasures, in-
deed, are really without price, both because they are
below all price in their attaintment, and above it in
ardent mind. The writer, we think, has had a strong solved, or made to ascend.
A book is the most singular production in the world :
printed by people who do not understand it, sold by
people who do not understand it; bound and read by
people who do not understand it, and I had almost
space of sixteen pages to explain the origin of life--the rose vezzose,' a very pleasing chorus in A minor, and vol. ii.
A Proposal for the Consi.
molishing the hypothesis of a soul, which such weak
6 | King's College
tertain. This is done in two lines; and the rest piece published but one of the best. It is unusually Fagging at Winchester Popular Literature
NOTES. ON LISBON.
head, so as to entirely conceal his face, and then prised and pleased, upon hearing and seeing the No. IV.
passed a circular rope over his head, bringing one clergy in Lisbon address their congregations.
part of it round the front of his neck, and passing the Sermons are not considered in Portugal as church EXECUTIONS.
other part (or bite) of it through a hole in the post fixtures, but are only given upon particular ocCAPITAL punishments are very rare in Portugal,
behind, and then through the loop of that he passed 'casions, such as some remarkable saint's day,-
a short stick, by turning which round he gradually perhaps not once in two years. The usual mode is tightened the rope round the man's neck, and
some public rejoicing, or grieving, &c.; and the
report that a sermon is to be preached on such a ladder, as was formerly the practice in England; I then, instantly, with all his might, and with the day, in such a church, ia sure to attract as full an
utmost velocity, twisted the cord, by means of the attendance as ever Garrick or Siddons could combut here, the moment the unhappy wretch is
stick, till it not only strangled the man, but aclaunched into eternity, the hangman jumps off the tually broke his neck, as was perceived by his head wonder at it. The discourse, which I believe is
mand in even their happiest efforts. "Nor do I ladder after him, and, by throwing himself upon suddenly
falling forward on his breast with a jerk ; actually studied and weighed prior to delivery, is his shoulders, breaks his neck, and terminates his indeed I thought I heard the neck break. In this always conveyed to the hearers by speech, not read struggles in an instant.
situation he was left for twenty minutes, after from an ill.written manuscript, and therefore has But for very heinous offences they have a more which he was unbound from the post and seat, this advantage, that it leaves the body and every imposing execution, well adapted to impress the and laid on his back on the stage by the side of limb at liberty. Whereas, I have in England fest the mind with awe, though not more painful the post.
a kind of painful fidget, when I have seen the to the suffering party than the other. The fol
The other criminal, who had stood a miserable, preacher in evident fear of not reading it right, lowing is an account of an execution of this kind trembling spectator of his associate's execution, or, as sometimes happened, of turning over two which I witnessed : Two men had been found guilty of forging the this time terror had rendered him too feeble to cross-reading, calculated to call forth any thing
was then supported up to the same place, for by leaves at once, which would produce a kind of paper currency of the country to a very consider- walk without assistance ; and the horror he had but serious attention in the auditors; or, shoulă able amount, and to make a proper example of endured for the last hour, in being obliged to he be near-sighted, and not quite inaster of his them,
an old law, which had lain dormant for witness such a scene, and in which he was soon subject, you might imagine he was smelling nearly a century, was put in force; this law submitted them to be burnt alive. But as even the ment far greater than the death itself. to bear a principal part, must have been a punish- as well as looking at it. Here, on the contrary,
the orator being made fully acquainted with what Portuguese, (as well as ourselves,) are too refined
The same ceremony and execution again took he intends to say, having his head, body, and now to relish roasting our fellow creatures, as an epicure does a lobster, they were first allowed to be place ; and after this man was also laid
on the limbs free from restraint, besides being possessed of
stage the executioner left it, and the fire was ap- a full clear voice, * it is no ways astonishing that strangled.
plied to the fuel beneath. The flames soon rose they should at once instruct, dlelight, and claim These wretched men were, on the day of exe-through the openings of the floor, which had been our unqualified approbation. cution, brought from the prison accompanied by left for that purpose, and seized the linen robes Though by no means a proficient in the Portuseveral priests, and attendants, bearing the ban that covered the bodies, which in about half an ner of some saint, preceding the criminals, and hour, were entirely consumed.
guese language, yet their delivery is so distinct,
their emphasis so just, and their action so accormarched very slowly to the Caes do Soctrè. * They
Their ashes were then collected and thrown in-dant with their subject, a person may always unwore only a long loose white dress, which reached from the shoulders to the ground: it hung very to the river, according to the sentence.
derstand the substance, and much of the detail of full, and was confined round the middle by a
One curious circumstance attended the burn- their discourses, which, as with us, last about white sash. They were bareheaded and bare- ing of these men. They were placed on the plat- twenty minutes. form side by side ; and after the rope, which con
STREETS AND Houses. footed : indeed, they had no article of dress on
fined their arms behind was burnt, the contracbut the white robe.
The streets in Lisbon are, to a stranger, the tion of the inuscles of the arms by fire, caused greatest obstacle to his pleasure, comfort, or exIn the centre of the square stage was erected, the flooring of which was of thick oak; but the them gradually to rise in a perpendicular direcercise. Like Rome, Lisbon may be said to stand on planks were left about an inch asunder, to admit and the cords, which confined the wrists together
, exception of the three beautiful streets leading
tion from the stage, extending towards heaven ; its seven hills, or rather on its seventy ; for, with the placed beneath, should be lighted. The stage not being burnt through, the bands reinained from the Praça do Commercio to the Roçio, and
those crossing them at right angles, the whole city middle of it was a post about eight feet high, and continued in this posture till the whole of the is one continued jumble of up and down, nearly
bodies were consumed, when they fell into the every street being in itself a hill, and many of in front of that, and connected with it, was a seat
flames. The effect of this circumstance was unfor one person.
them are so steep that it would be extremely dancommonly awful ; even after death, they seemed gerous to ride down them with any other animal When the men arrived
at the place of execution, to implore mercy from their God, while one atom than a mule, being quite as much so, as the hill of a priest addressed them for some time, after which of their persons existed.
roly-poly-celebrity in Greenwich Park. They are one of them ascended the platform, and was
Upon the whole, I could not but consider the all paved in the same manner as the carriage-way placed on the seat with his back against the post method of thus strangling a criminal, infinitely in the streets of London, nor is there any part apThe executioner then bound bin, by a rope superior to our indecent mode of hanging. Here propriated to the accommodation of foot-passenpassed round his middle, to the stake; another
the whole person was concealed by a white full gers. It appears as if, in paving them, the la. rope confined his thighs to the seat, and his feet
bourers had chosen the sharpest point of the stone were also firinly tied down to the flooring; his drapery; and so secured that not a motion or hands were tied before him, secured at the wrists, convulsion could be perceived through the whole to place upwards, and such is really the case. The
time of their suffering ; whereas with us, every want of flagged foot-pavement, and the sharp and a cord behind him bound his elbows close to his sides. Thus secured, he could not by any struggle of agonised expiring nature is exposed roughness of these, at first annoyed me; and I felt
to view, with savage and indecent inhumanity. very much inclined, every time I walked out, to exertion or convulsion move a limb.
Never can I forget
quarrel with what I thought the perverseness and A priest then mounted the platform, and stood
laziness of the people, for they have inexhaustifor a long time talking to the poor wretch, who forced to witness. Three men were hung toseemed occasionally to answer to questions put together (for rebellion in Grenada, West Indies, in ble quarries of stone all round Lisbon ; but a little
consideration convinced me that they were right, him. The priest then came forward to the front they were necessarily hung rather close together; and, that I, like all those who form hasty concluof the stage, and addressed the multitude, in a
the consequence was, that in the spasmodic fact is, the streets are in general so very steep, sermon, for about a quarter of an hour of twenty struggles of death, by jerking up their knees, and minutes. His figure was commanding, his face
that it would be, if not impossible, at any rate exturning round and round, as suspended by the handsome, and uncommonly expressive, his action graceful, and his voice clear though deep rope, they were for five minutes alternately kick- tremely
dangerous, to walk on a smooth surface; The subject of his discourse was suited to the ing each other on the breech: an effect that, in while, on the contrary, by being thus roughsad occasion, and he sometimes turned towards spite of the solemnity of the scene, was indecently paved, every stone becomes a step, or hold for the ludicrous.
foot, both in ascending and descending. That and addressed the criminal. When this discourse
they have been thus paved from an idea of sewas ended, he once more approached the culprit,
I have often lamented the monotonous tone and curity is evident from the three streets aboveand receiving the cup and wafer from an attendant, administered the sacrament to him. He action of the generality of our clergymen in the mentioned, and all those lesser ones which cross then prayed over him, kissed him on the forehead, pulpit; the latter is most times wholly wanting, them at right angles, (on a level about half a mile and sprinkled him with holy water.
except in giving the unfortunate pulpit cushion square,) being paved the same as our best streets, The priest now quitted the scaffold, and the
a few cluinsy thumps, which generally produce
* I have been informed by themselves, that those executioner proceeded to his office; he pulled the should the reverend gentleman be the owner
who are brought up in the respective convents as public hood of the white dress the criminal wore over his of a very white hand, it may tempt him to display preachers, are always, besides other qualifications,
chosen from among those who possess, naturally, a A small square so called, near the river, and open that and his cambric handkerchief together.
clear, strong, and harmonious voice. Nor are the adtowards it. Cae's signifies a Quay.
How mucb, on the contrary, have I been sur. vantages of mauly beauty disregarded.
ADDRESSED TO THE PARISIAN ACADEMY OF INSCRIP
TIONS AND BELLES LETTRES.
with broad Aat stones. The channels for carrying SKETCH OF COUNT A. DE LA BORDE'S their diameter enables us to estimate their elevan off the rain, &c., run along the centre of every
TRAVELS IN THE LEVANT.
tion at fifty feet. On the declivity of the hill on street.
the opposite side are seen a theatre and stadium. But there is one abominable nuisance which can
There is not one solitary human being to be found never meet with justification in any shape, par.
in this once celebrated place. The tents of the ticularly when it is considered that perhaps no You have asked me, gentlemen, to afford you enliven the banks of the Pattolo; nor are any
indigent Uraks, a nomadic race, here and there city in the world possesses a finer supply of water, by means of which, notwithstanding the steepness duces me to regret that I have not availed myself mit of the rock of Cræsus, excepting the tombs of a narrative of my journey; a request, which in
other monuments to be discovered from the sum. of the streets, there are few parts in which sewers of the opportunities afforded me for rendering it the Lydian kings
. These consist of a species of and drains might not be made,* (though now the less unworthy of your attention, or at least more overflowings and waste water of all the fountains deserving of your indulgence ; shall
, therefore, huge mounds of earth, (tumuli,) about seventy in is supposed to run unprofitably down the streets.) proceed to acquaint you with its object, and trust
number; and amongst them may be recognised But that not being the case, every species of dirt to that circunstance as pleading my excuse.
the tomb of Alijattes, the father of Cresus, which is thrown from the windows of the houses into the
Having devoted myself particularly to my son's
Herodotus records to have been the most extenstreets, where what is not devoured by the city education, and being extremely desirous that be
sive monument he had beheld, with the exception dogs is left to putrify: This olio of filth is only should one day claim a place in your esteem, I
of the pyramids ; in truth, it bears a close resempartially taken away about once in seven weeks,
blance to an actual hill. As the historian adds, in their dirt-carts, or in hampers on mules, and thought I could not do better than subject him to a new, more extended, and more laborious system frail ones of Sardis, it is reasonable to infer from
that this tomb was raised at the expense of the the stench caused by disturbing it for removal is of education,-a system, indeed, which appears its size, that the morals of that capital were not insupportablet. In the lesser streets, lanes, and to me to be requisite at the present time of day, of the most rigid order. alleys, it is never removed, except when the vio- if we would have our childrens' education keep lence of the winter rains carries it into the pace with the ideas and attainments of the age. On quitting Sardis, and traversing the Hermo, Tagus.
To develope this system to you in all its bear- you reach the plain of Ircania, and enter the chain There is, however, a law, though it is very lit- ings would lead me into a discussion far too prolix of mountains known by the name of Youssouftle attended to, which strictly forbids the throw for the present occasion ; I shall merely remark Dugh, which extends from the Olympus to the ing of any thing from the windows before the that it consists, as respects its first portion, in Ida, and divides the waters of the sea of Marmora hour of ten at night, and then the person who combining with classical studies, and several mo- from those of the Archipelago. Along the whole throws it ought to give warning by first calling out dern languages, exploratory travels through the of this route we met with fountains from time to three times Aguva vai (water is coming); a trans- most celebrated regions of antiquity, or, in other time; they are the fruit of private beneficence, gression of this regulation incurs the penalty of a words, the periplus of the Mediterranean.
and their founders' names are graven upon them,
It fine, which, if not paid, is changed into imprison will be evident to you, that althongh such a design most commonly accompanied by a short verse Nevertheless you are in danger of, at as this does not exclude discoveries, it does not
from the Koran. Amongst other inscriptions of least, dirty water every hour in the day, though, contemplate them as a principal object.
this kind, we were much struck by the subseshould this happen, the occupier of the house,
With a view of rendering this undertaking more
quent distich :- The most perfect of men is he (or floor,) from whence the annoyance was attractive and less costly, I was desirous of asso
who is most useful to his fellow-creatures.' thrown, is obliged, on application, to pay you ciating several juvenile companions with my son, I shall not speak to you of Constantinople, genthe full price of the article which may be thus that they might, at the saine time, take a part tlemen ; it offers nothing which is more familiar wetted and spoiled, whether hat, coat, or any with him in the species of studies in which he was to the world than the beauty of its site, and the other part of your dresst. Should he refuse, the engaged; and I had the good fortune to meet paltry splendour of its public edifices. During party injured has only to fetch a police-soldier, with some young men, whose qualifications were our sojourn in that city, we were the witnesses who, on a further refusal, lugs him off to prison entirely such as I wished for. One of them was of three events, which fully display its peculiar till he complies; and, at all events, is himself enMr. Becker, the son of the worthy general of characteristics ; these were
the plague, titled to four dollars for being called in to settle that name, and himself an officer of the Etat- fire, and a revolution. After abiding for the dispute. The only difficulty is to ascertain majeur, a youth full of zeal and talent; a second seven weeks under the roof of Guilleminot, who from which window the offence was committed;
was Mr. Hall
, an Englishman of rank'; and the loaded us with attentions, we thought it was high for most of the houses being many stories high, third was the Duc de Richelieu, who was obliged time to start upon our expedition to Cairo, and every story inhabited by a different family to leave us much sooner than we could have through the interior of Asia. The success of you must be very sure that you fix on the right wished, fo the
purpose of discharging a debt of this journey depended upon the manner in which Hoor, before you make your demand or coingratitude.
we set about it; and, for this purpose, it was nceesplaint; and, in general, the offending person
After devoting a considerable space of time to sary that we should deviate from the plan usually withdraws from the window so quick, that it is
studies in Italy, and making a short stay in the adopted by preceding travellers, to which Seetalmost impossible to detect him.
Ionian islands, we set foot on the classic soil of zen and Colonel Boutin had fallen victims. We, The surest way of avoiding a salute of the kind, Greece, where a galaxy of interesting scenes therefore, determined upon supplying ourselves which at night is doubly unpleasant, is, in passing awaited our inquiries. The political state of the at Constantinople with horses and fire-arms; atthrough a wide street, to walk in the middle of country, however, compelled us to invert the tired ourselves in the Moslein costume ; took with it, and in narrow streets to keep as close as pos- order of our labours, and to commence them us a firman, drawn in the most expressive terms, sible under the houses, at the same time being on from another quarter of the Ottoman territories. through the intervention of the French embassy ; the watch whenever you see a dirt heap; for as
The first of our researches, therefore, which can and, independently of an official Tater and an Inone window on each floor is ever used to throw pretend to any thing like a character of import-terpreter, added several experienced servants to their filth from, (generally a passage window,) it ance, dated from Smyrna, where we arrived on our convoy. By these means our troop consisted consequently always falls in the same place, and the fifteenth of July.
of twelve horsemen, each of whom was armed there accumulates. The window set apart for
You are well aware, gentlemen, that Asia Minor with a double-barrelled gun; so that our weight this purpose may always be known by the filthy is not altogether so familiar to us as it might be; of metal was superior to what could be brought wall of the house under it.
and yet, what other region is there which excels it against us in any of the places where we were un
in recollections and meinorials of the deepest in der the necessity of making our halts. Thanks * Though there are numerous wells, and might be
terest ? Former travellers have confined their to the judicious application of an occasional as many more, I never could learn that there was a
visits chiefly to its coast, and have not penetrated handful of paras, (a small Turkish coin,) we consingle pump in all Lisbon.
further inland than twenty or thirty leagues. We ciliated the good-will of all classes so effectually, + I should imagine that this prevalence of offensive have essayed to complete their labours by ex
that in those parts where, if unattended, we should smells may have originally been the cause that produced ploring its interior, and thence rejoining them at scarcely have been permitted to take down a single the disgusting custom of spitting I have mentioned. the stations, at which their steps were arrested. memorandum, we were allowed peaceably to so1 certainly think, that very strong efiuvins may be Our first voyage was from Smyrna to Constanti- journ whilst we made drawings and took adnieatasted as well as smelt, and then spitting instinctively nople, taking Sardis on our way. This, which was
surements of monuments, and neither roused susfollows. Thomson had the same idea relative to sweets, the most interesting town on our route, lies upon picion on the
part of the inhabitants, nor received • Or taste the smell of dairy.'--Spring-Tuompson. a height, which commands the plain of Hermo: molestation
from their enmity. The low price of I had an opportunity of knowing that the same penalty is incurred if a person's dog injures pour at the Pattolo, an insignificant rivulet, which, even velling by no means expensive.
the ruins of its walls extend from either bank of provisions in the Levant renders this mode of tra-
Such was the plan we pursued in traversing the
, the volutes of arising
out of them, I must content myself with the time.
which are ornamented with small palms; they do adverting to the leading discoveries or researches (To be continued.)
not rise more than a yard from the ground, though which we achieved.
When we had taken our departure from Nico- A PROPOSAL FOR THE CONSIDERATION evil of the imperceptible diminution of our funds, media and Nicæa, which offer many noble ruins to
OF MR. PEEL.
would be prevented by the substitution of the pethe inquiring eye, we took an easterly course
coral for the pecuniary medium. You could never towards the banks of the Sangar, and had scarcely
be bored into the payment of a small bill, because reached the vicinity of lake Sobariju, the ancient dium has generally been regarded as the founda- you never would have any coin sufficiently small to
, in with
tion of that extended system of commerce which pay it with. Suppose a tradesman came to ask you arches, preceded by a triumphal arch, and termi- mankind. Whether it was expedient, in barbarous but it won't be fat for a couple of months. 'I has contributed so largely to the happiness of be, I have got a line ox do'vn in Devonshire,
him six and eight-pence; your answer would nated by a similar structure in the form of a vault, resting against a hill, and opening on both sides for times, to use such a method of facilitating ex
make it a rule,' he would answer,' never to book the thoroughfare of a Roman road. At a distance is not the best adapted to the present times, may your reply. In that case, you have probably got
changes, we cannot pretend to decide ; but that it these small accounts.' *Very well,' would be of ten leagues, south-west of Cutahia, the most elevated point of this part of Asia, we reached a
be made obvious to the meanest capacity. The change for a ram which you'll find down at SmithRoman town, which has never been visited by any
matured commercial energies of the nineteenth field. Here you have made him a legal tender. former traveller; nor is it adverted to by any of the century need not lean on the props which assisted ( Is it likely that he can give you change in wethers ancient Itineraries. Its principal structures conthe infancy of traffic,
or lambs? He mutters out that he has'nt the sist of a large theatre, a stadium, several porti: tical and all theoretical men, the divisibility and rids you of his odious
presence, and you are frame To vulgar minds, and such are those of all prac-change about him; it will do another time-he minutive elevation, and an Ionic temple of the portability of the precious metals have always ap- less of any recurrence of his importunities. The most elegant style of architecture, the columns of peared the qualities which particularly adapted other evil would of course vanish with the first. which are fluted, and composed of a single slab of them for a medium of exchange. These we have No man would fing away sheep and calves, as he marble, thirty feet in heighth ; they sustain a long considered as precisely the causes of some of does half-crowns and shillings: and the most frieze, decorated profufely and with the most ex- the greatest evils of our social intercourse; evils thoughtless could hardly spend a herd of oxeu quisite taste. From the fragments of an inscrip- which we can see no mode of obviating, except without thinking of it. tion belonging to the facade, we gathered that this that of boldly renouncing the dangerous use of It be suggested, that it would be incontemple was restored during the reign of Adrian metals, returning to the wise customs of our ante venient to tradesmen to be kept so long out of and was dedicated to Apollo. The Turks call diluvian forefathers, and effecting all exchanges their money. The experience of all London this place Chapder; it is watered by a stream, by the natural process of barter, or, at any rate, shows that the wish for payment so prevalent which is crossed by a Roman bridge of five arches, permitting no other than the ancient circulating among that class, is a mere vulgar prejudice; and in as perfect a state at this hour as the Roman medium, horned cattle.
that a shop-keeper is just as well off when he is vault to which it leads.
Pounds, we are ready to admit, would not be unpaid as when he is paid. And at any rate, the From Chapder, we journeyed to the Phrygians such bad things, if it were not for their detestable interests of a class comparatively so small as that ruins, described by Colonel Leake, and had the division into shillings and pence. There would of sellers, can never be put in competition with good luck to discover a second ruin of the same
be few objections to the revival of the ancient the welfare of the many, that is the purchasers. description in the same valley: nay, six leagues talent; but, as long as we have our present scale But the use of cattle, or other heavy goods, as beyond this, we found a third, having an inscrip- evil of existence, the demand for ready money of small monies, so long must the great practical money, would produce even greater benefits by
reason of their not being portable. No man could xieties were directed, and two months of our time and prompt payment, harass that unfortunate be expected every time he walked out, to drive a nccessarily devoted, to exploring the region com
class of men, the payers. The payment of small herd of live stock' before him through the streets. prised between Alfiom-Karahissar, Denislu, and bills is the greatest annoyance of man in a civil- | A tradesman thinks it now no impertinence to Isporta : our object was to determine the sources ized state. For large bills'le inakes up his mind; ask you to put your hand into your pocket, and and course of the Meander, the Lico, and the these he generally incurs with some deliberation, pull out a few shillings, to pay for any article you Marsia, and the sites of a variety of ancient towns, and the prospect of being called on to pay them have bought. But even if he should have the seated on their banks ; especially those of Hiera: is always present to his mind, and induces him to hardiness to make such a request after the subpolis and Aphrodysia. The former, which was
shape his expenses accordingly; and, at any rate, stitution of flocks and herds for gold and silver, constantly celebrated for its mineral waters, still he is generally allowed to take time to discharge the purchaser would, of course, answer, my
Tetains the inephitic cavern, mentioned by Strabo, them. But a small bill is an active poison ; no good fellow, do you think I carry horses and cows in which birds fall lifeless to the ground; the long day is allowed by it to its victim, and their in my breeches pockets
, or bales of cotton in my ruins of the temple of Apollo, and a long list of number makes up for their diminutive size. Their purse. Send your man with the things, and his magnificent tombs. From the centre of Aphrodysia, the present Guera, rises the temple of succession, like the train of phantoms that haunt of beef at the next Taunton fair. What could Venus, which is of the Ionic order, and of which the opium-eater. They do not, once and calmly, he do but obey? Every other customer would a considerable portion is still existing: On its
drain the life-blood from you with the deadly make him much the same answer. left are the Theatre and Stadium : and from side avidity of a vampire, but haunt your waking and
There would then be no need for a Mendicity to side extends an Ionic portico of the most con
sleeping hours with the pertinacious sting of the Society, because beggars would get nothing for summate elegance. Aphrodysia is indisputably mosquito, and render life a constant and burden their begging. The wretches who bore us at the the city of Venus; a sort of Cupids support the
some succession of petty but maddening annoy- crossings of the streets, would be heard with congarlands which decorate the frieze of the portico; and a chase, which is led by Loves, in pursuit of
tempt by the pennyless proprietor of cattle.
And then, who is there on whom they produce Guards and coachmen would learn the futility of all kinds of animals, adorns the internal
frieze of that impression which the payment of money ought demands which could not be gratified. Donations the temple, many fragments of which still exist always to make on those who possess it in hut to servants would not exhaust the finances of the in a good state of preservation : a bundred Greek a limited supply? Alas! it is in these small drib- visitor of country friends. And the unblushing inscriptions, scattered among the ruins, serve to lets that our money imperceptibly glides from our importunity of the lower orders would fail of exenhance the intense interest which the sight of
hands. We forget that great law of nature, that torting the ponderous bulk ofa Christmas box, or such a spot cannot fail to inspire.
the sum of the parts makes up the whole : we a 'summut to drink.' The road from Guera to Konïe, through Is heed not the evanescence of our 101. and 81. notes
The security of property would be greatly inporta, traverses a region of mountains, intersected in the shape of small change, ---we convert the
creased by every increase in the size of the mewith spacious lakes. This district may be styled solidity of sovereigns into the fluidity of shillings, –
solidity of sovereigns into the fluidity of shillings, dium of exchange. Horse-stealing and sheepEverdir re
the pence-table is not before our eyes. Who stealing abound much in this country, but they sembles the · Isola bella’ of the Lago Maggiore. pounds who counteth
the outgoings of shillings commission than the picking a packedivideha
are at any rate crimes much more difficult of This great chain of mountains incloses several ancient towns, which had not been previously recog
and sixpences ?—who cherisheth the peony and its nized, and the site of which it became our task io moiety as the seeds of greater coins ? few, in
in Lancashire cattle, might safely commit his ascertain ; amongst them are Salagasso, Antioch deed, there be, who are endowed with such wis
horned balance to a driver, and return to the of Pisidia, Grenna, and Selga, though nove of dom, and few who do not repent over the empti- White-Horse-Cellar without fear or the necessity them were so deservedly entitled to our researches ness of a gradually eviscerated* purse.
of keeping his hands in his breeches pockets. as Konie, the ancient Iconium. This city con
Both these great evils--the evil of constant de
The banker and the philanthropist will observe tains curious vestiges of all its various stages, and
mand and constant payments, and the consequent with delight that this change in the monetary sysparticularly the Arabic remains of the Seljuk Sul
tem would put a simultaneous end to the crime, 'tans, which are no ways inferior to the Moorish * This singularly beautiful and expressive word is and the sanguinary punishment of the forgery of edifices of Spain, whether for the elegance of adopted from Blackstone's Commentaries.
bank notes. Bauk notes there would be none; their strueture, or the excellence of their archi- hope that the application of it to the redueed form of and who could forge sheep, or pass off forged
empty purses will be considered as a less jarring stroke
The confidence in banks would be greatly