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have no doubt of each being ableto gain and to main- lesson be taught? It will be taught, so far as of sunshine and fog. As we become more actain a footing for itself. The Foreign Review' has experience can teach any thing, by our discover- quainted with great foreigners, we shall become greater vivacity than its contemporary ; its articles ing in the history of foreign literatures that they more impregnated with their spirit ; and the are written with less care, and, to general readers, have risen into greatness or waned into insignifi- strongest feeling in the spirit of each of them was are more amusing ; they are probably in most cance, just in proportfon as they have nourished a wish to form the loose elements of thought and cases, the workmanship of younger, more active, or have repressed their individuality; and it will feeling which lay scattered over the countries and more ardent artificers. Speaking thus, we be impressed upon us far more potently and feel which he adorned into a firm, concentrated nu. allude to the majority, for every here and there ingly by the study of those literatures themselves, tional mind. it is evident that very grave and ancient persons which, stirring up the activity of our minds, and
THE ELLIS CORRESPONDENCE. are willing to lend a hand. Mr. Southey is no urging us to create something, but presenting to chicken, as we all know ; and even if the subject us forms borrowed so entirely from circumstances The Ellis Correspondence. Letters written during the did not convict him, there are tolerabile traces in with which we are unacquainted, that we cannot years 1686, 1687, 1688, and addressed to John Ellis, the style of one article, On the Expulsion of the have the slightest right to them as models, will Esq., Secretary to the Commissioners of his Majesty's Moriscoes' from Spain, that the number which compel us, after a few ineffectual essays at copy- Revenue in Ireland: comprising many particulars has just issued from the press owes him 56 pages ing, to draw the materials with which we wook of the Revolution, and Anecdotes Illustrative of the worth of obligation. The most lively, perse- from the world around us, from our own words, History and Manners of those T'imes. Edited, from vering, and able writer in this Review, is the trans- and lakes, and firesides, and the glorious events of the Originals, with Notes and a Preface, by the Hon. lator of Wilhelm Meister, if we are not mistaken our history.
George Agar Ellis. 2 Vols. Colburn. London, 1829. in attributing to that gentleman two articles, on In the 18th century, every one cried out that
The most worthless portion of English history, Goëthe, one on the life of Heyne ; and one in the last French literature must be the inost glorious lite- that portion which presents us with scarcely any Number, ‘On German Playwrights.' The most rature in Europe, because every nation in Europe characters that are not despicable, with scarcely obvious peculiarity in these articles, is their quaint had taken it in preference to its own. The plays any events that are not spots on the national esand lively style, a style which, though it sometimes of Corneille and Voltaire, screamed the Blairs cutcheon, is the very portion of which we possess degenerates into what an intolerant critic might and the La Harpes, are acted in every town from the most accurate and perfect knowledge. The call affectation, seems on the whole, a very ap- the Tagus to the Volga—what other proof do you Memoirs of the Count de Grammont, as the most propriate expression of the enthusiastic spirit want of their power and their universality? We perfect private court history in any language, of the writer, and posseses the power which want no other proof of their being the most beg- from the pen of one who could say quorum pars more regular styles often do not possess, of garly productions of the human mind that ever magna fui,—the diary of Evelyn as a view of inen communicating that spirit to the reader. But aspired to the name of poetry. If there had been and things from one who was just near enough to there are much greater merits than this doubtful any power and originality in these works, they form a tolerably right judgment of them, without one iu Mr. Carlyle's articles. Putting his opinions out of the question (and though the colouring of to which they were addressed, or have become of Pepys, a private still of gossip, absolutely these may be foreign, they are painted, as far as distasteful to those minds, because there was no
undiluted by the least mixture of thought we can judge, upon a ground of good old English congeniality
of feeling between them. There is or feeling : these works present us with a more feeling), his articles contain unquestionably the no instance on record-and it is impossible, from perfect picture than probably any
nation possesses most lively, and the most accurate picture of dif- the first principles of the human mind, that there of any period of its history. But the interest ferent phases of the German mind that has ever been should be an instance
of a work of genius conti- of the greater part of them ceases with the death of presented to our countrymen. The article on nuing to be admired by an individual or a nation,
the merry monarch. His hrother, though so very Wieland, which we mentioned as doing such infi- in whom none of the powers which produced it considerably engaged in the gallantries of Charles's nite credit to the Foreign Quarterly,' is interest
are consciously alive. It was because French court, seems, after he became religious, to have ing chiefly as the sketch of an individual mind; and poetry was so powerless, so ungenerative, that it contented himself with one mistress ; and there the light that it throws upon the national charac- continued to be relished by people who could
was not much leisure in that reign for any diverter is not so much a direct as a reflected light. fashion nothing for themselves. There was a
tions except executions. The loss too of the great On the other hand, the main purpose of Mr. Car- sympathy of deadness between the mind and the star of chivalry, of him, lyle's article is to elucidate the peculiarities of literature. The two corpses clave to each other, till
• With whom alone 'twas natural to please,' German feeling and life; and the men to whom
the embrace was broken, as in the case of Germany, had thrown a damp upon the court at the close of he introduces us are brought forward chiefly be by the dead public mind acquiring life, and the preceding reign; and its liveliness was not cause they embody, better than any thing can, throwing off the incubus that encumbered it; as likely to be restored by his rebellion and death. these peculiarities. This idea is a happy one- in the case of Spain, by their both putrifying In short, those who cannot be satisfied to exchange especially happy with regard to Germany—a together. The French, of all the literatures in the sinile of Jermyn for the frown of Jeffries, country which both we and its own inhabitants
Europe, we apprehend, is the only one that could and to consider one revolution some compensation are too apt to regard as a region of systems and maintain long an ascendancy in any country, be- for the loss of five hundred faux pas, may as well not of hunan beings. On the whole, the ' Foreign cause it is the only one which, meeting with a nation close the volume of history at the accession of Review' is, like its rival, a decidedly in proving capable of enjoying it, would not have been the the last Stuart, and, therefore, need not take up work. The article on Russian Literature, in the means of summoning forth that hidden native
The Ellis Correspondence. fourth number, (in spite of some inaccuracies, in strength which would endure no foreign donnina- This work is a collection of letters, written the original as well as the translated parts, which tion. The feelings of Frenchmen at the present mo- generally by unknown correspondents, to a colla
ve think could scarcely have proceeded from the ment, with regard to our literature and the Ger-teral ancestor of the editor, Mr. Agar Ellis, who able writer of it,) was valuable, and in a great de- man, seem, but only seem, to be an exception to was Secretary to the Commission for the Public gree novel; and the present number contains a this truth. Shakspeare and Göethe, it is true, are Revenue in Ireland, in the reign of James II., very interesting communication respecting Turkey, beginning to be admired, after a fashion, in that and became Under Secretary of State after the from the pen of a person who seems well ac- country, and it is true that no national poetry Revolution. The remarks we have just made will quainted with the subject. This number we think has yet appeared there which the impulse of that account for the letters containing little besides is the best that has yet appeared of the 'Foreign admiration can have created. But this is only a dry news, the age of lively private scandal being Review.'
temporary state of mind, which will speedily pass at an end, even if there had been a Count AnWe had intended to conclude with some re- away: after a short struggle, they will either vomit thony Hamilton to describe it. The writers of these flections on the particular advantages which ought up the new food, and return to the diet of their letters, too, (some of whom Mr. Ellis conjectures to result from the existence of both those works, fathers; or, it will be really digested, and, losing to have been persons bired for the purpose of rebut as our article has already run to a consider- all its primary qualities, will mix with their life's porting,) seem to observe considerable caution in ! able length, we will content ourselves with men- blood, and become a part of their system.
expressing their opinions about the measures of tioning one, and it appears to us the most import
Away then with the notion that we shall be which they speak. ant, good which they are likely to work out for Italianized by studying Ariosto,--Hispanicised by Whether this arose from the correspondents us, and which has never been sufliciently dwelt delighting in Calderon,--Germanised by loving being aware of each other's sentiments, and not upon, even by the founders of these valuable Schiller. No!-the Spanish scholar, because he thinking it necessary to refer frequently, to periodicals. We think they will assist in making has become enamoured of the Castilian or the them, or from their having shrewd suspicions us more strictly, more genuinely, more completely Morisco costume, for its picturesque adaptation to that excessive loyalty to an imprudent court national. This is no paradox, nor are we using the people who wear it--will be just the inan most
was unwise, certain it is, that much of the intethe word national in a different sense from the
superstitiously, to clothe his English children in rest which might have belonged to such letters is ordinary one. We mean, that as we advance in plain broad cloth and stout hose-the greatest lost by this abstinence, and they add but little a knowledge of foreign literature, we shall become enthusiast for Johannisberg amid the scenery of either to our stock of facts, or to our concern more wedded to our own truly national literature; the Rhine, will cling most devoutly to Port on about those with which we were acquainted prewe mean, that we shall be more avérse from
the banks of the Thames-the admirer of blue viously. We will endeavour to make a few eximitation ; we mean, that we shall be more earnest skies, as harmonising so well with the musical tracts which may be interesting to our readers. to cultivate a certain idiosyncracy in all our indolence of an Italian's mind, will be just he who The following is more lively in its style than thoughts, habits, and feelings. And how will this I would hold out most stoutly for our alternations | most letters in the collection :
during the John Ellis,
Majesty's particulars tive of the lited, from
the Hon. don, 1829. h history, arcely any
scarcely atioual ese possess Ige. The
the most language, orum pars w of men enough to
without --the diary absolutely
thought h a more
possesses e interest e death of h so very Charles's
to have and there ny diver.
" London, March 27th, 1686.
too high for them. His Majesty, as a piece of gallantry, the other Bishops was not otherwise made out than by "Yours are of so old a date and filed np, that I made all his 4000 horse march at two in the morning the belief and supposition of the witnesses, though cannot tell when I last heard from you. I hope my into Staines Meadow, and attend the Queen from thence their own servants were subpænaed against their masquarrel may most justly be laid upon the ill weather, to the Heath, where she honoured Lord Arran with ters, so that the Court was of opinion there was not for all blows rank storms here these sixteen last days ; dining with him. But his Sacred designs a farther sufficient proof of their hand-writing. yet his Majesty to-day (God bless him) underwent the graciousness in a few days, viz. to go and let all his As to the Archbishop, it was objected, that he could fatigue of a long fox-chase. I saw him and his fol- good friends of Bristoll, Taunton, and the towns about not be within the indictment, for that it was laid in lowers return, as like drowned rats as ever appendixes see him, and judge how decent an attendance 4000 men Middlesex, and his grace had not been out of Surrey in to royalty did. I can send you little certainty of matters, at arms are. The Chancellor of Scotland stays here to seven or eight months. To this it was answered, but that ihe Navy Commission is filled up according to take Lord Middleton down with him President of the that his signing and writing of the petition, and sendPepys's good liking. I went on purpose this afternoon Council of that kingdom; poor Middleton hangs back, ing of it over to be delivered in Middlesex, was a suffito your monkish brother, and spent some hours with thinking of Cleveland's judgment, and of Cain's doom. cient publishing of it there. But the Court was divided him ; that sort of interest is strong, and a sort of ne. The chief reason is to admit Lord Montague into his in this point. cessity for using it. The chief of my aim was to urge room, who is come in with the Jesuits, and will be Then the King's Counsel alledged, that the Bishops him to attack Pepys, in order to make you a Commis- Secretary. We little value the Austrian fashion, and had owned their hand-writing in the Council, and had sioner on this side the water in the Navy; he has pro- keep close to the French. All our old bags are routing also confessed the delivery of the petition. It was replied mised me to go speedily to him, with whom he has a out to rig up a fleet against spring; 5000 men at work on the Bishops' side, that they had owned their hands, fair acquaintance, and the high channel your borther's in the yards : the Hollanders see the storin and dread but after that the Lord Chancellor had required them credit runs in makes not the worse for you. We often it, for we are much beforehand with them. When to do it; and that they had done it, trusting to his Mabelieve men have greater credit with Princes than really matters are riper, the Treasury will run into commis- jesty's goodness that no advantage would be made of they have, which undoubtedly capacitates them to do sion, and Powis preside.. The Monk and Jesuits pull their confession against themselves. But they denied us greater services with equals; as in this case I hope hard, the first by the King's sleeve, the other by the they had owned the delivery of the petition, wuch less to your satisfaction you will find. Neither are you by Queen. I think they will shuffle out Pere Mansuete that they had published it; and there being no other aby means to find fault with the way taken to attain from Confessor to the King, and Peters the Jesuit get evidence of it than that they had been with the Lord this, for St. Paul refused not to go in the ship, though in, who is also made President of Whitehall new Chapel. Sunderland, and had offered his Lordship a sight of a dedicated to Heatben Gods. He harped at something Your brother and Marsh and Mansuete make a sort of petition, which he had refused, nor did he see them of your backwardness to lay down some money for triumvirate of it at present. Have a care how you let deliver it to the King, the Court said it was only a Sam. Pray let me intreat you, if your convenience any of this be seen. The gazette will tell you foreign presumption, and no proof. will in anywise admit of it, consult with Will, and do matter. it; there is the indelible obligation and affection of a
• As to the matter of the petition, whether a libel brother on the one hand to urge yon, aud the insuring forces, to better model them, and not let them stay
'Lord Carlingford will go General of our Holland upon the Government or no, the Attorney and Solicitorone that is both forward and able to do you offices of long there.'—Vol. i. pp. 152–155.
General maintained it was; for that it boldly meddled value on the other.
with the acts of the Government, declaring his Ma• The matter now grows somewhat barefaced which These absurd verses are quoted in one of the jesty's toleration to be illegal, and thereby tending to
diminish the King's authority and prerogative royal. way the Catholic cause is to be advanced, for the Pala- letters, and are specimens of the trash with which tinate's envoy has taken a house in the city, and is Dryden was assailed by his Wbig opponents :
• To this the Bishops' Counsel replied, that they had making conveniences for a mass chapel, that looks
done but what was the right of every subject, to peti
'On the Author of " The Hind and Panther." like something else than a place of prayer for his pri
tion the King, and that in matter of conscience, and vate family; whereupon the Lord Mayor, by some
• Predestination how can he deny
upon the account of religion, which they were by their damned Protestant instigation, goes and forbids farther
Whose nimble Hind is “fated not to die?”
oaths and by the laws of the land to take care of; and workings, locks up the place and takes the keys; but
Yet how can she who this receives from fate
quoted several laws and statutes to that purpose. They last night, his Majesty (not being to be so used) sent
Of her own strength receive immortal state ?
urged also, that they did not declare the King's Declafor Lord Mayor, and bade him return the mau his
But in that faith it is not strange to see
ration of indulgence to be illegal, but said only that the goods, and ask pardon of the public minister. It may
Choice transubstantiated to decree ;
Parliaments of 62, 72, and 89, had declared so ; wherereasonably be expected that in a little time a great
Our Poet's choice is mere necessity.
upon the Journals of Lords and Commons were read. many so charactered may follow the example ad
His vocal wants admonish bim to range, propa
'The Court was also divided in this point. The gandam fidem. It looks with an odd face, and pro- And 'twere great pity he should starve and change. Chief Justice and Judge Allibone said that it was a voking to the mobile, and ours have as weak a pretence
His praise of Nol obtain'd no lasting boon,
libel, but Judges Powell and Holloway were of a conto prudence upon such occasions as any mobile in the
Because his hated memory stunk so soon.
The Attorney and Solicitor were only for the King, will succeed in one or both the commands, as I guess.
From a rich mother? fated ne'er to die.
and kept their ground against Pemberton, Sawyer, Sir Edward Hales made Governor of Barbadoes. Me
But how can he receive it from the Cowls,
Finch, Pollexfen, Treby, and Sommers, who were for rideth, a sort of Privy Councillor to Lord Sunderland,
Who likens their beloved Nuns to owls ?
'This morning, between ten and eleven, the Jury of Northumberland's affair, I believe, is accommodating
Who counts it his prerogative to wrong.
brought in their verdict, the Bisbops attending in in the mouth of the river ; a wise undertaking always The lawyers' maxims he's allow'd to blame,
Court, Not Guilty in part or whole : which causes ends thereafter.'-Vol. i., pp. 81–86.
“Whose old possession stands till th’elder quits his great joy.'-Vol. ii., pp. 7-11. The importance attached to such an event as that claim,"
We will take one letter out of a number, which mentioned in the next extract is characteristic of
Which since the elder is not pleased to quit,
describe the alternations of hope and fear respectthese times :
That this should yield unto its fate 'tis fit,
ing the Orange invasion :
Like the crazed ruins of his monumental wit,
"London, Oct. 23d, 1688.
Our Irish tall fellows came into Holborne, where behaviour to be of that religion. He said he would not
« On the same.
they quarter, on Saturday; on Sunday a squabble with go out, and if they said much to him, he would break
* To put religion into doggrel rhyme,
the neighbourhood, but not much hurt, though the their crosses and juggling-boxes down ; whereupon a
world talk of murder, ravishment, &c. There seems
May well become the Trent-ists of our time; riot seemed to form ; a constable was charged with
to be little use for them at last; for our last accounts him, and the Militia officer on the guard called, but
For being naked found in holy writ,
from Holland say a mighty sickness among men and between them the fellow in fault slipped away ; yet
They fly for refuge to her fig-leaved wit.'
horses, and the Prince of Orange very melancholy. not so far but he watched the outcoming of either the
Vol. i. pp. 318-319.
They were much shattered, to be sure, and concealed priest, or an appendix of the Chapel, and beat and
The trial of the Bishops is described in the fol- their harm what they could. We begin to vapour here dragged him through the kennel. The Lord Mayor lowing newspaper style :
apace, and strive for troops. I wish myself quit of was yesterday called before the Council upon it, and
London, June 30th, 1688.
some burthensome horses ; for I look upon the terror told, if he kept not the peace better, the King would • Yesterday the seven Bishops came to their trial,
over, but what they will have by our fleet sand firesend some of his regiments to do it, and in the mean time, that the negligent Militia officer be taken and
which held from morning till seven at night. We ships, if the wind would shrink but to a moderate galc. secured to answer the law.'— Vol. i. pp. 111-112.
gave you an account of the jury in our last. The first Yesterday, before the preceding tidings came, was twelve stood, only Sir John Berry was not there :
held a high Council here. There were summoned the The following letter goes greater length than they did not bring in their verdict last night, and it is
Lords Spiritual and Temporal here or hereabouts, the almost any in the expression of opinion, and our said they had not agreed upon it this day at four in Judges, (whereof Sir Thomas Stringer, to-day a new readers will observe the caution at the close : the morning.
one, in the place of Allibone, dead,) Lord Mayor of
London, Aldermen, and Sheriffs, and the eminent lawLondon, July 27th, 1686. The Counsel, in handling the matter for the Bishops, yers; where the King, in short, told them, that he did “We have many packets due here; none since Fridivided the substance of the information into two parts,
not doubt but they were all satisfied the design of Holday was severnight. My Lord Ormond stays here in whereof the same consisted ; the first was, that they land was to invade him ; that he was firmly resolved to expectation; my poor Lord's concern is the chief cause had maliciously, seditiously, and slanderously made,
oppose them in person ; and because he knew not how of it. I was at Windsor last week, and was once in contrived, and published, a false and seditious libel
Providence might dispose of him, he had called them the mind to have carried the reference of the Carriages against the King, which tended to diminish his regal there, he hoped, to convince them of the barbarity of to the Attorney-General, but was kept back, and re- authority and prerogative : the second part of the plea the report that had painted him so unnatural that he solve to let it sleep till after Michaelmas. Your great for the Bishops was as to the special matter of their would debar his own daughters from the right of sucLord Tyrconnell we expect here next month to turn petition, which showed there was no malice or sedition
ceeding hiin, to give his kingdoms to a suppositious his pancake, for we are assured he only thinks it enough in it.
son; therefore, he offered the proof to be scanned on one side yet. High doings at court and camp: the As to the first point, much time was spent in prov- before them of the legallity of his son the Prince's officers all ready to look out for purchases;
but they ing the hands of the Bishops : that of the Archbishop birth, which was the Queen Dowager's oath, must keep in the high-ways for them, inclosures being was proved and well known by several ; but that of Lady Roscommon, Lady Bellasis, Arran, and Sun
. " por
MEMOIRS OF JOSEPHINE.
Sunderland, and many others, that swore very plainly The authoress having then noticed her extreme the grounds of the palace by herself, or with a and positively in the matter; and his Majesty at last ignorance in every thing not immediately relating single companion. declared, upon his honour, that he had often laid his to dress, adds
“The conversation that at any timeensued, turned naband upon the Queen's belly, and felt the child stir. This will be registered in Chancery after the same
At a later period, when she was known as the turally upon the political state of France, or the situation manner the late King's declaration was of the Duke of Princess Borghese, flattery, carried to the most abject of Napoleon, of whom she took a pleasure in relating Monmouth's illegitimacy. We are low in the pocket
adulation, may have found the means of proving that anecdotes, with which she only was acquainted; but at Court, and so am I that lie now inthe neighbourhood perfect in every particular ; but at the time of which a sister of the great Napoleon was necessarily a woman
at the end of the walk she wonld appear overpowered of it: therefore, hereafter direct your's to me at Mr.
with the weight of accumulated grief, and constantly Michael East's, in Ax-yard, King-street, Westminster : I speak, the world went no further than to praise finished with these words, accompanied with a sighSarsefeild said he had not answered my note at Dub
with enthusiasm her admirable face. It was right-all" Ah! if he had ouly listened to me.”—p. 190. lin, but would do it here, which I faintly hope. If you can do any good with Mr. Eustace, send me a bill. Without desiring to enter here into details of her tion of women; to them, whatever may be their
mental endowments, society holds out few induce"I have been scandalised and used like a dog by private life, one must yet acknowledge the dissoluteLords Dartmouth and Preston : they casting out in ness of her manners.'-p. 20.
ments to desert the great circle of domestic life. their cups that I was a spy employed by the priests to
The princess's indiscretions survived her per- The transcendant abilities of some individuals of give intelligence and drive that interest. God knows
sonal attractions. They who beheld her a few the sex have indeed caused them to be excepted, how far I have been from such designs, or injuring years previous to her death, when a certain Rus- but they are few in number ; the generality of any body for the freedom of their private discourse;sian nobleman engrossed her attention, looked in those who have attracted the attention of mankind yet is this whispered about to my great trouble; and vain for that exquisite beauty of form and feature have owed that distinction rather to some forupon taxing Lord Preston, he denies all with impreca- which had once not merely excited the admira- tuitous circumstances of life or death, than to tions; and Mr. Musgrave pretends to answer for my tion of the Salon, but which the tasteful genius Lord 'Dartmouth, that he never either said or thought of Canova so much delighted to portray. Our
their talents or their virtues. And happy has such a thing. I could well enough sit down with this
been the woman who, chosen by fortune to rank dirt thrown at me, knowing that it will rub off when it next extract is of a different character.
and station above her fellows, has shown herself is dry; but that the thought, I fear, sticks with my M. Rabusson, the brother-in-law of Horace Vernet,
equally pre-eminent by the excellence of her unLord D. of Ormonde. You have known some of my evinced before Napoleon a presence of mind which
derstanding and the benevolence of her heart. nearest thoughts : if you think I deserve your good gained him two steps, and prepared for him the promo- Of this class was Josephine, she rose from a word, say something to him in your next.'—Vol. ii. pp. tion which he has since obtained. He was a sous- private place in society to the most exalted, and 255-259.
lieutenant in some regiment. The Emperor at a she was respected and beloved while among her review let fall his hat, which M. Rabusson pressed
equals, and when Empress she united all around forward to pick up. "Thank you, Captain," said the her in one common bond of delighted and grateEmperor, without paying attention to the rank of him
ful affection. whom he was addressing. Memoires sur l'Imperatrice Josephine, ses Contemporains,
"In what regiment, Sire ?" “Ah! true, in my guard,” replied Napoleon, smiling her daughter Hortense to the sovereigns, that Josen
It was in returning from an entertainment given by la Cour de Navarre et de la Malmaison. Vol. II. Colburn. London, 1828.
at his own mistake, and the coolness of the spokesman.
He asked his name, and learned that he was a brave phine experienced the first attack of that disorder We believe the work before us has excited man, whom various acts of merit had rendered worthy resisted the progress of the diseases. Her thoughts
which terminated in her death. For a long time she much greater attention in this country than in of the cross of the legion of honour. Afterwards, he
and her wishes were with Napoleon in Elba; and, could France. Indeed, however novel among ourselves kept his eye upon hiin, gave him some perilous oppor
she have joined him, it is possible that her life might might be the anecdotes it contains, we imagine tunities of distinguishing himself, from which he came
have been prolonged to a later date. “Never,” said they were by no means so among our neighbours,
out with honour, and granted him various successive and probably there are few of the writer's conrewards.'-p.
she, remarking on the situation of the Emperor in Elba,
"never have I deplored so grealy a divorce which has temporaries, frequenting good society in Paris, but The following anecdote of one of the old no- always been to me the source of affliction.” On the who inight have furnished us with memoirs of blesse of France, may perlaps surprise those of 10th of May, the Emperor Alexander dined at Malequal interest and importance. It is not our our own countrymen who have not been in the maison, but Josephine was obliged to retire early, in wish to represent the volumes as devoid of infor- habit of considering a declaration of bankruptcy hopes that rest would bring renovated health on the mation, far less do we design to impugn the credit an honourable means of obtaining distinction. The
morrow; but the morrow and the following days
found her so much worse that, on the 24th, when that is due to them. The authoress seems to father of our authoress one day surprised the
Alexander and the King of Prussia were to breakfast write with care, to believe what she has written Duke de Lauragueies in an agony of grief, and
with her, the physicians forbade her appearing ; this and to report of Josephine much which she had exclaiming that he was a ruined, a dishonoured order, however, she refused to obey, till weakness herself seen ; but to see and to observe are very
compelled her to leave her place to be supplied by different things. Our principal astonishment is, "“But how, M. le Duc! what has befallen you
Hortense. From this moment her malady took a that any one who possessed such opportunities of a frightful, horrible thing--have you lost a large sum
serious turn; on the 25th, the Emperor of Russia contemplating the illustrious woman to whom at play?-Pooh, I am used to that,--much worse,- proposed to send his own physician, but this she these memoirs owe their chief attraction, should
a fearful misfortune I tell you. You alarm me; I know declined. Indeed, any aid at this time seems to have , have found so little to record, about which the
not what to think, for the sorrows of the heart seldom been vain; all that was possible was done by her own
trouble world will ever care to be instructed. Many mistress? —but, alas! it is much worse than that. Twenty on the 28th, she received the sacrament
, and at that you, and-oh! if it were only the death of a medical attendants. Her sickness gradually increased. traits are indeed described of her, all tending to
years ago, I did all I could to effect my own ruin; time could scarcely articnlate, but her countenance had justify the respect and veneration which society eighteen months since I became bankrupt, very ho- lost nothing of its accustomed calm and kindness. will ever cherish for her gentle and amiable cha- nourably, very reasonably, and all Paris talked about Alexander paid his last visit on this day at Malmaison, racter, but any one who refers to these pages it. Well, but see now; has not this rascal Guémené and at sight of bim Josephine seemed to revive. The with a hope of obtaining minute details of her thought proper to fail for fourteen millions! I am com- Prince Eugene on his knees near the bed, with his private life, or fresh expositions of her sentiments, pletely shoved aside ; I shall pass along unnoticed now; sister Hortense, received his mother's benediction. “At feelings, and opinions, will certainly be disap- 1 shall now be talked of no more than a citizen of the least,” said Josephine, with an expiring voice, "I die pointed.
Rue Saint Denis—you must acknowledge that I am regretted ; 1 have always desired the happiness of The book is entitled 'Memoirs of Josephine,' most unfortunate."'?— pp. 156, 157.
France; I have done all that was in my power to
contribute thereto, and I can say to you with truth, to but Josephine occupies a scanty portion of its
The fifteenth chapter of this volume contains an
all you who are present at my last moments, that the chapters ; in her absence, however, it must be animated and lively account of the alarms that
first wife of Napoleon has never occasioned any tears confessed other characters figure on the scene must have agitated the inhabitants of Paris at the
to be shed.” Such were the last words Josephine who are not altogether unworthy of attention. advance of the the allies on that city in 1814. pronounced, and the next day, 29th May, 1814, at Let us take one of the most interesting, the * Previous to the entrance of the allied armies half-past eleven in the morning, all her sorrows Princess Pauline. Pauline Buonaparte as it is well into Paris, the whole disposable force of every terminated.'—p, 241. known, was at first married to General Le Clerc, description was called forth for its defence. To At the conclusion of the volume there are a and on his death to the Prince Borghese, one of free themselves from the trouble of mounting guard, few letters which will be perused with considerable the richest nobleman of Italy :
the most distinguished performers of the capital interest, rather on account of the distinguished
enrolled themselves in the principal military bands, characters to whom they relate than the matter "Madame Leclerc, was, without doubt, the most
of which Mehul, Cherubini, Berton, and Paër, lovely person I have ever beheld. Jealousy and envy,
which they contain. In concluding our remarks, were leaders ; Nicolo, clarionet; Boyeldieu, chapeau so ready to observe defects in that which is admired, Minois ; Nadermann, big drum ; Talon, fifer, &c. All
we must say one thing respecting the style which pever succeeded in finding the slightest imperfection these distinguished characters, beating and blowing in the authoress has adopted; she has not indeed fallen in that exquisite countenance, to which were united
amusing emulation, created a fearful discord; and, in into the sin of fine writing which is generally so the utmost elegance and perfection of form, and the listening to these harsh sounds, it would have been dif- fatal to authors of journals, memoirs, and tramost fascinating grace. To censure her exterior was
ficult to believe that the different parts were entrusted vels. But her book is entirely devoid of that absolutely impossible; it was requisite either to be
to men of celebrity in the musical art.'—Note, p. 172. naiveté and simplicity which constitute the legitisilent or to add ones own eulogies to those which that surpassing beauty every where excited. Happily for
After the capitulation of Paris, Josephine, un- mate grace of narration. Still we can recomthose women who repine at the success of others, certain of the result which events might have upon mend the work on many accounts to our readers, they found opportunity enough of revenging them her own fortunes, fled from Malmaison, and took and we feel assured that those who have found selves on the mind, the character, and the conduct of up her abode for a short period at Navarre. Her amusement in the former volume, will be much Madame Leclerc.'-p. 19.
only amusement seems to have been wandering in 1 more gratified with the present.
Those strains that prompt the bosom's sigh,
CONSPIRACY OF BABEUF.
to regard certain faults with a too jealous eye,
because they are those which have most kept out Scenes of War; and other Poems. By John Malcolm. 24mo. Pp. 191. 78. Oliver and Boyd, Edinstituted the worst counterfeits for it; but, in indi
of view the real essence of poetry, and have subburgh, 1828. Scotch philosophers lecturers at the Royal faults ought to meet with great tolerance; for that
vidual cases, we are willing to allow that these Society-authors of prize-essays at the University --and writers in 'The Athenæum,'—in one word ous, has likewise made it exceedingly difficult to
very frequeney which has made them so mischievall those persons, who are expected to furnish avoid them. handfuls of reasons for every phenomenon which
• 'Tis eve, but on the mountain-head occurs in the world, that their hearers, readers,
No farewell sunny smile is shed; or sleepers may not complain of not having been The woodland choristers are gone, allowed a choice, would be hardly driven to ac- The hermit-robin sings alone; count for the circumstance, that soldier-poets The waning beauty of the earth should be as rare now as they were common in To musings sadly sweet gives birth ; many periods of English and classical history. Recalling from the past again What can have divorced two pursuits, between Of thoughts a pale and pensive train, which there is certainly no repugnancy,--between
And scenes that sun them in the rays which, at one time, there seemed to exist some
Reflected from departed days ;
And in the mellowed radiance wear thing almost like sympathy? Is it because the
A sainted aspect, sadly fair, age of chivalry is over? Alas ! in the Persian
O'er which the tints of time have shed and Samian war it had not begun. Is it gun- The mournful beauty of the dead : powder, then, the never-failing resource of hard
And there, while Memory wanders o'er run speculators? That would be plausible, if one The regions of a lonely shore, could only exterminate Surrey, and Sidney, and A moaning of the distant main Essex, and Raleigh, and Cervantes out of history. Is blending with my dreamy strain : Well, may it not be the disuse of heralds in de- In dying sounds of softened tone,
From music to its echo grown, clarations of war, which took place about the
From far away come back on me peace of Westphalia ? Yes; that must be the rea
The torrent's mountain melody; son,—the disuse of heralds is evidently the dif
And faint and low the murmurs mild ferencing point between Æschylus and the Duke
Of streams that warble to the wild. of Wellington.
* For there, beneath the evening-star, These premises being settled, we are somewhat
From home, and haunt, and man afar, surprised that, without that ancient custom hav
Oft have my wandering footsteps sought ing been resumed, a gentleman should come for
The scenes that wakened solemn thought; ward to proclaim himself one of a class which But ever dearest seemed to me ought, upon principle, to be extinct. Yet such a
Companionship of the lone sea, person is before us.
Mr. John Malcolm asserts Where, o'er the foam around them flung, that he is a soldier; and to convince us of the The world's grey fragments frowning hung, fact, he has chosen, for the subject of the poems
Dim-shadowed in a misty shroud, at the head of our article, the scenes with which,
Or hooded in the stooping cloud;
Where Ocean, with a quire of waves, in his military capacity, he has been conversant.
His anthem thundered through the caves, What are we to do? Shall we give up our theory?
And rolled through Nature's vaulted piles Perish the thought! Or shall we deny that Mr.
Like organ's down cathedral aisles. Malcolm is a good soldier? That were impossible, for he has scars. Shall we then deny that
• There, when the wintry storm was o'er, he is a poet? That, indeed, is a tempting pro
I loved to linger on the shore,
And gaze upon the floating wreck posal to a critic, and we must consider of it.
On Ocean's breast, a darkening speck, We have considered, and we have generously
And muse on its pale crew, who found decided in the negative. We will not deny that Mr. No rest in earthly burial-ground; Malcolm is a poet--for we hope and trust he is one; But sunk, perchance, 'mid tempest's roar, and, did we not see one or two symptoms in his A thousand miles from every shore ; verse that are rather alarming, we should say very Or on some night of fate and fear
Went down when their sweet homes were near; decidedly that he is one. The symptoms we al
And while around each native hearth lude too are a little too much carelessness (or
Pealed songs of joys and sounds of mirth, else trouble, for opposite causes often produce
Perchance arose from sea to sky similar effects) in the use of diction; a dangerous
Their shriek of mortal agonyhabit of running into the muses' shop, and buying "Tis thus the rolling world doth run, a ready-made phrase, rather than stop to be mea
One half in shade and one in sun; sured for one, and too little caution even in the Thus some rejoice while others weep, choice of these
prepared articles, about their size And some must wake while others sleep. and fitness. These things do, as we have said,
And oft upon the silent hill, somewhat frighten us, (being cowards not merely
While evening brooded bright and still, by instinct, but from reviewing experience) and
And shed a dying beauty o'er make us besitate in uttering the words that were The beetling cliff and ruin hoar, just rising to our lips, that this gentleman is doctus I watched the snowy sails at rest utriusque lingue-one who can express his Far off upon the billow's breast, meaning, and make impressions either with his And thought how blest the crews they bore
To many a sweet aod summer shore, sabre or pen; and who, as he has not feared Mah
And longed for that expected time ratta soldiers, must not fear English critics.
When I should seek a brighter clime, In spite of this fault, however, we do trust Mr.
And scenes that Fancy painted there Malcolm has the root of the matter in him ; he is Of dying saints as visions fair.evidently an amiable, right-hearted man, and such Delusive were the happy dreams a man has, no doubt, a stock of thoughts which he As those of childhood, when it deems will be able to pour forth into true poetry, if he will That earth is circled by the eye,
And wedded to the azure sky. only forget that he is writing for any purpose but to express his thoughts, and will just take the • When eve, of day and darkness born, plainest, most straightforward, soldier-like lan
Paled like the spectre of the morn, guage, for the clothing of them.
And from the hearth the blazing pile The following passage, from a poem called Re
Shed round the pictured wall its smile,
Whose silent dwellers there would seem trospective Musings,' is a fair specimen of Mr.
More life-like in the sportive beam,Malcolm's writing ; and, if our readers should
How sweetly then the cares of day think, upon perusing it, that we have not done full
From weary bosoms past away, justice to him in our remarks, we shall be half in- While music's witching accents rung, clined to their opinion. We are given, perhaps, And a fair seranh sweetly sung
Conspiration pour l'Egalité dite de Babeuf, suivie du pro
cés auquel elle donna lieu, et des Pièces Justificatives, &c. &c. Par Ph. Buonarotti. Deux Tomes in 8vo. Bruxelles. A la Librairie Romantique. 1828.
(Concluded from page 930.) The political dogmas of that levelling sect, whose formation and proceedings we have sketched in a former Number, were identical with the most violent of those to which a inoment's triumph had been given by the short and terrible reign of popular frenzy; and, indeed, are pretty much the same with those which are, at all times, most favourite with a certain class of morbid mock moralists, and with the coarser, if not more criminal disciples, who receive and better? their instructions. The civic order, which was finally resolved by Gracchus Babeuf and his patriot band of brothers, had received its finishing touches (in theory) in the mysterious atelier of a secret committee, which met at the house of Amar, Rue Cléry, 'to prepare an insurrection against the tyranny, of which the iron hand pressed hourly with more weight upon the neck of the French people. In this political lyceum,' after laying bare the causes of the evils which afflict nations, they arrived at a clear insight into the principles of that social order which offered the strongest remedies and securities.
• Never, it was observed, “had the mass of the people attained to that degree of instruction and independence needful for the exercise of the public rights essential to its liberty, its safety, and its well-being. The wisest nations of antiquity had slaves who put them incessantly in peril ; and, with the exception of the Peruvians, the inhabitants of Paraguay, and other imperfectly known tribes, never had civil society been able to discharge from its breast that imposthume of the commonwealth, that herd of men made miserable by the idea of advantages of which they are deprived, and of which they believe that others are in possession. Every where the multitude is bound beneath the rod of a despot, or of privileged classes. And, if we take a less extended range, we view the French nation enslaved, by the machinations of victorious egotism, to the possessors of inherited or acquired riches.
The cause of these disorders was discovered in the inequality of fortunes and conditions, and was traced to its true origin in the institution of private property, by aid of which the most adroit or fortunate have despoiled, and still despoil, the helpless multitude, which, compelled to long and painful toils, ill fed, ill clothed, and ill lodged ; deprived of the enjoyments which it sees multiplied for the few, and undermined in physical and moral strength by misery, by ignorance, by envy, and despair, -sees nothing but hostile elements in society, and loses even the possibility of having a country.
“The history of the French revolution came to corroborate the reflections of the committee. It saw the class formerly rich, and that which had become so, assiduously engaged in securing their own pre-eminence; it saw ambitious pretensions ever marching in line with hatred of labour, and desire of riches; it saw the attachment of the people to their political rights, chilled in proportion as the system of equality
aristocrats consisted in impoverishing, dividing, dis- personal invectives launched against their own
LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF SELKIRK, gusting, terrifying, and keeping down the labouring body by the non-conforming club-men, as well as class, of which they represent the remonstrances as seriously alarmed by their increasing numbers and
The Life and Adventures of Alexander Selkirk; conthe most active cause of national disunion and decline,
taining the real Incidents upon which the Romance boldness, closed the Pantheon, as we narrated in
of Robinson Crusoe is founded. By John Howell. * Consequent on these observations was the con- a former number. The suppresson of this, to 12mo, pp. 196. Oliver and Boyd. Edinburgh, 1829. clusion, that the ever-fruitful origin of servitude in speak plainly, somewhat heathenish synod, was Mr. Howell, besides being a Scotchman, is nations is social inequality, which, so long as it exists, entrusted to an officer, fated at no distant period also evidently a very meritorious man. must render almost illusory the exercise of their rights to effect the re-establishment of a more regular Robinson Crusoe when he was a boy, and herein
He read to a crowd of men which our civilization has sunk hierarchy; and the club-law of the great Grac- he differed not from many of his contemporaries ; below the level of human nature.
chus Babeuf rose in the scale against the sabre-but the reading produced one effect upon ordinary * That to destroy this inequality was the task for a
law of General Buonaparte. virtuous legislator, was the principle which resulted
men, and another upon Mr. Howell." He did not from the views of the committee,-and how to accom- Thus baffled in their devout imagination of new
dream as we, or any body else might have done, plish this, became the subject of renewed deliberations.' fashioning religion on political principles, the about the scenery of Juan Fernandez, Friday, and
Communauté des biens et des travaux was de ex-members of the Pantheon now determined to so forth; nor did he conceive the intention of cided to be the true scope and ultimate per- supersede the existing government by a secret visiting Juan Fernandez, and procuring a footman fection of society, the only public order Directory. This laudable design, however, not with a cognomen derived from one of the days of capable of crushing oppression in every form, being of a nature to transgress with impunity the the weeks; nor did he seclude himself from his by rendering impossible the ravages of am- 'secrecy of its title, was carried on by secret family, and endeavour, so far as might be in a bition, and of avarice, and by securing to channels of communication with the populace of Scotch parish, where there is much butter-milk, every citizen the greatest possible portion of Paris, with the troops of the government (whom and many things else that make glad the heart of happiness? It was decided in the committee, to seduce from their employers was one principal man, to realize the discomforts of his hero's that no useful application of the laws of liberty object,) and with the Republicans of Lyons, a situation. His thoughts were of higher matters : and equality was possible, without a radical reform small number, one wonld think, after the horrible he was resolved to find, not the paltry island in the division of property.
extemities which their city had undergone be- which had been merely the theatre upon which
neath the Jacobin ascendancy. The Tribun du Robinson had acted, and which might as well have ' In developing these ideas, much was said of the phi- Peuple, the Eclaireur,
and the Journal des Hommes been any other place not in the Pacific, but the by whom their justice had already been recognised. Libres, were the avowed and published organs of very man himself, the identical Crusoe. For this Of this number were Robespierre, and his com- the party. In addition to these, a quantity of fly- purpose, early one morning, in the year 1823, Mr. panions in martyrdom, who, in the eyes of ing sheets, placards, and pamphlets, were diffused Howell journeyed forth in search of the parish of those whose doctrine has been just explained, had throughout the country with incredible industry; Largo, in which Robinson Crusoe, there better clearly aimed at the equal distribution of rights and counting the brood of anarchy before it was known by the name of Selkirk, first saw the light. burthens. At the name of Robespierre, Amar, who, hatched, the secret directors agreed that the Great were the rejoicings of Mr. Howell when he on the 9th Thermidor, had been one of his most violent populace of Paris, on whose habits of revolt they discovered his name entered at full length in the persecutors, acknowledged his error, expressed his pe- reckoned confidently, should nominate the pro- parish books: but there were yet happier days nitence, and only endeavoured to excuse himself by visional authority to which the government in reserve for him than this; the cups and the alleging the ignorance under which he had laboured of the nation was to be trusted on the suc
chest in which Alexander Selkirk had kept his with regard to the beneficent views of him whom he
tea were revealed to him, probably by some mira cess of the intended insurrection. The new had aided to calumniate and to sacrifice.'
Government was to consist of a national as- culous interposition; and not long after, an aged Hitherto, says M. Buonarotti, we had con- sembly, composed of one democrat for each de- person connected with this world, we believe, fined ourselves to rallying and re-animating the partment of France; and the new revolution though that point is left in some mystery, who most active elements of revolution. It was now
being completed, the secret directory was still to knew some stories-not very good ones, but that time to agitate the people of Paris.
keep its seat, and to watch over the conduct of signified but little of the wanderer. • Endeavouring to conciliate the publicity indispens, the national representative, as the Committee of passed over the head of Mr. Howell, and the end able to our sittings with the regulations of police, and Public Safety had done before it. The prepara- of them still found himn an unquiet man, for as yet above all with the menagemens inculcated by prudence, tions were completed, the conspirators assembled, the character of Robinson had obtained but little we at length became convinced that our political docthe day of insurrection fixed, and a member of elucidation from his Jabours.
But now trine being a rigorous deduction from the laws of nature, it was equally rational as easy to present it as
the revolutionary committee had, under its coming the crowning joy of his existence. Mr. the code of the Divinity, that is to say, as the object dictation, written the first line of a pro- Howell
, while walking to and fro in search of of natural religion.' clamation to the French people-Le peuple a
facts, met with a great-grand-nephew of the • In fact, the practice of a worship which represents vaincu, la tyrannie n'est plus, vous êtes libres—when adventurer. This apparition, we confess, would the Supreme Boing as the Creator, as the Legislator, his own freedom was unfortunately violated by have overpowered us; we could not have apand the protector of equality, afforded the incalculable the arrest of that tyranny which he was thus un proached such a being for the world ; the departed advantage of pleasing all who only hold Christianity ceremoniously denouncing as having ceased to Robinson is almost a too insupportably living for the sake of its morals,-all who reject Atheism exist. The whole documents and proofs of the creature for us, but an actual bodily great-grandwhile abhorring superstition. Besides, it was founded conspiracy were discovered at the house of Ba- nephew of his would have completely upset us. on the opinion of sages whoin humanity, reveres, and beuf, who addressed from his prison an epistle Mf. Howell, however, is a very bold man. He not reasonings impossible to be refuted; it might become,
to the Directory, in which he offered them terms only came near the man, but literally (we almost in the hands of reformers, a powerful lever for the with all the coolness of a demagogue at the tremble while we repeat his words) made his erection of democratical institutions, it was the only head of an unsubdued and powerful party. Im- acquaintance, and found him, strange to sa legal method of addressing large assemblies of people.
pelled by an equally invincible fanaticisin, his very pious, humble sort of man. * It was therefore resolved to appear in the public partisans, in the night of the 23d Fructidor, Howell learnt much; but his insatiable love of temples, under the title of deists, preaching exclusively (August,) marched at midnight, about 600 or truth, as he rightly calls it, caused bim to the moral system of nature.
700 in number, to the camp of Grenelle, where hunger for more. After reading files of all the * And in order to accustom the multitude to replace they expected to be abetted in their projects on English periodicals, looking through most of the hy new observances the ritual of the Catholic church, the rest of the troops by a battalion of the depart- newspapers published in the last century, diving an object which the government itself was endeavouring to accomplish, by introducing fetes décadaires, ment of Gard, which, unfortunately for them, had into Mss., reading through folios, be at last it was resolved to celebrate these festivals publicly, and been displaced from its station. Alarm was given, succeeded in collecting the facts that he deemed
—the dragoons, half-naked, charged the insurto ask of the Directory a large church for the pur
a life of Selkirk, and thus, having pose.'
gents, and military commissions finished after first committed this very entertaining little volume The Directory, whose articles of faith, however
wards the work which their sabres had not time into the hands of the printers, he reposed from liberal , were not exactly comprehensive enough after a summary trial, which they signalized by His first feats are thus described :
to complete. As for Babeuf and his accomplices, his labours. Alexander was a sadly unruly boy. to include the new church militant of Tribune the boldness of their defence, and by singing the
When the accounts reached Scotland of the Revolu. Babeuf, returned a civil answer, that they themselves, anticipating the devotional propensities of the two principal plotters (Babeuf and Darthé; clergy, who were in general, much disliked by their
Marseilloise in chorus at the close of each sitting, tion, and of the expulsion of the Stuarts, the complying that moment in preparing the celebration of the attempted to anticipate by suicide ; and seven
received the sentence of death, which they vainly Churches with tumult and reproaches. In no part of decadary festival. The Pantheonists, thus placed others , amongst whom was the author of these non-complying ministers than at Largo. On the first
Scotland was more zeal shown at this time for the in the position of dissenters from the national establishment, resolved to hire a temple,' and get volumes, were transported to Cayenne.
Sabbath-day, the people assembled in the churchyard, up, without loss of time, a catechism and ritual of Want of space forbids us to translate for our
with such arms as they could master, to resist the their system of nature. But by this time the readers the farewell letter of the Tribune to his clergyman's entry into the church to do the duties of
Alexander's eldest brother, Jobn, was Directory, vot unnaturally jealous of this schis wife and sons, Emilius, Camillus, and Caius, be- ringleader, and Alexander himself, though only thirteen matical secession from their own church in ginning Bon soir, mes amis ; Je suis prêt à ombrun and being scandalised moreover at the n'envelopper dans la nuit éternelle.
years of age, flourished his bludgen by his side. But no attempt was made to resist the mob, and their