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and it is their duty to apply for and receive from the county treasurer and town collector respectively,all school money apportioned or belonging to their town; and on or before the first Tuesday in April of each year to apportion the same among the several districts of their town, according to the number of children between the ages of four and twenty-one, residing in each, as reported to them by the trustees, provided such districts have in all respects complied with the directions of law during the preceding year, and made the annual report required of them. No district, without the special permission of the state superintendent. can participate in such apportionment, which has not had a school taught within it for at least six months during the year reported, by a duly qualified teacher; which has not faithfully expended all its public money in the mode prescribed by law; or in which a school has been taught for a period exceeding one month by an unqualified teacher. In making such apportionment, the town Superintendents designate the respective sums applicable to the payment of teachers, and to the purchase of libraries and school apparatus; and hold the former subject to the order of the trustees, or of a majority of them, in favor of the teachers employed by them and duly qualified according to law; paying over the library. money directly to the trustees. They are also to examine candidates for teachers and to grant certificates of qualification, which are valid for one year only, and may at any time be annulled by them, on notice to the teacher holding such certificate; and to visit and inspect the several schools of their town at least twice in each year, and oftener if they deem it necessåry. On the first day of July of each year, they are to make and file with the county clerk, a report in the form prescribed by the State Superintendent and containing such information in reference to the condition of the schools in their town, as he may from time to time direct. At the expira: tion of their term of office they are to account to their successors for all the school moneys received and disbursed by them, and to pay over any balance remaining in their hands. For their services they are entitled to receive $1.25 per day for every day actually devoted by them to the discharge of their official duties. -At the seat of government, the STATE NoFMAL ScHool, semi-annually receives under its instruction from two hundred to two hundred and fifty pupils of both sexes, selected by the Board of Town Superintendents of the respective counties, each county being entitled to two pupils for each member of Assembly. After spending from two to three years in the institution, the graduates return to their respective counties, and enter upon the active discharge of their duties as teachers; communicating, as often as may be practicable, through the agency of the TEACHERS INSTITUTEs, in the spring and fall of each year, a general knowledge of the modes of teaching, government and discipline attained by them in the Normal School. These INSTITUTEs, under the supervision and general direction of the most experienced guides, enable every teacher to acquaint himself practically and familiarly with the duties devolving upon him, and secure to each one of the eleyen thousand districts of our State, a faithful and efficient teacher. At the head of the whole system—controlling, regulating, and giving life. and efficiency to all its parts is the state Superintendent. He apportions the state tax of $800,000, and the public money among the several, Counties and towns,—distributes the laws, instructions, decisions, forms. &c., through the agency of the town Superintendents to the several districts, —has final jurisdiction, on appeal, from all the acts and proceedings of the inhabitants of the several districts and their officers, as well as of Town. Superintendents, keeps up a constant correspondence with the several officers. connected with the administration of the system in all its parts, as well as with the inhabitants of districts seeking aid, counsel or advice; exercises a liberal discretionary power, on equitable principles, in all cases of inadvertent, unintentional, or accidental omissions to comply with the strict requisitions of the law ; grants state certificates of qualification to such, teachers as he deems worthy: reports annually to the legislature respecting the condition, prospects and resources of the Common Schools, and the management of the School fund, together with such suggestions for the improvement of the system as may occur to him; and vigilantly watches: over, encourages, sustains, and expands to its utmost practicable limit, the vast system of common school education throughout the state. | Such is a condensed view of our present system of CoMMON SCHOOL EDUCATION –a system elaborated and matured to its present state, by the exertions of the highest minds among us, during a period of forty years; a system comprehending the best and dearest interests present and prospect: ive of an enlightened and free people—full of promise for the future, and containing within itself, the germs of the most extended individual, social and national prosperity; a system identified with the highest hopes and interests of all classes of the community, and from which are destined to flow those streams of intelligence and of public and private virtue which alone can enable us worthily to fulfil the noble destinies involved in our freeinstitutions. . . . But in this country, no systems, however perfect, no enactments, however enlightened, and no authority, however constituted, can attain to the full accomplishment of their object, however praiseworthy and laudable, without the hearty and efficient co-operation of public sentiment. Aided by this co-operation, the most important results may be anticipated from the most simple organization. The repeated and solemn recognition by the representatives of the people, of the interests of popular education and public instruction; the nearly unanimous adoption of a system, commended to the public favor as well by practical experience, as by the concurring testimony of the most enlightened minds of our own and other countries; and the simplification of much of the complicated machinery which served only to encumber and impede the operation of that system ; these indications afford the most conclusive evidence not only of the importance which the great mass of our fellow citizens attach to the promotion of sound intellectual and moral instruction, but of their determination to place our common schools, where this instruction is chiefly dispensed to the children of the state, upon a footing which shall enable them most effectually to accomplish the great objects of their institution. It is upon the extent and permanency of this feeling, that the friends of education rely ; and this spirit to which they appeal, in looking forward to the just appreciation and judicious improvement of those means of moral and mental enlightenment which the beneficent policy of the state has placed at the disposal of the inhabitants of the several districts. The renovation of our common schools, distributed as they are, over every section of our entire territory, their elevation and expansion to meet the constantly increasing requirements of science and mental progress, and their capability of laying broad and deep the foundations of character and usefulness, must depend upon the intelligent and fostering culture which they shall receive at the hands of those to whose immediate charge they are committed. There is no institution within the range of civilization, upon which so much, for good or for evil depends—upon which hang so many and such important issues to the future well being of individuals and communities, as the common district school. It is through that alembic that the lessons of the nursery and the family fire-side, the earliest instructions in pure morality, and the precepts and examples of the social circle are distilled ; and from it those lessons are destined to assume that tinge and hue which are permanently to be incorporated into the character and the life. Is it too much then, to ask or to expect of parents, that laying aside all minor considerations, abandoning all controversies and dissentions among themselves in reference to local, partisan and purely selfish objects, or postponing them at least, until the interests of their children are placed beyond the influence of these irritating topics, they will consecrate their undivided energies to the advancement and improvement of these beneficent institutions. Resting as it does upon their support, indebted to them for all its means of usefulness, and dependent for its continued existence upon their discriminating favor and efficient sanction, the practical superiority of the existing system of public instruction, its comprehensiveness and simplicity—its abundant and unfailing resources—and its adaptation to the educational wants of every class of community, will prove of little avail without the invigorating influences of a sound and enlightened public sentiment, emanating from, and pervading the entire social system. The district school must become the central interest of the citizen and the parent, the clergyman, the lawyer, the physician, the merchant, the manufacturer and the agriculturist. Each must realise that there, under more or less favoring auspices, as they themselves shall determine, developments are in progress which are destined, at no distant day to exert a controlling influence over the institutions, habits, modes of thought and action of society in all its complicated phases; and that the primary responsibility for the results which may be thus worked out, for good or for evil, rests with them. By the removal of every obstacle to the progressive and harmonious action of the system of popular education, so carefully organized and amply endowed by the state, by a constant, and methodical and intelligent co-operation with its authorized agents, in the elevation and advancement of that system in all its parts, and especially by an infusion into its entire course of discipline and instruction of that high moral culture which can alone adequately realize the idea of sound education, results of inconceivable magnitude and importance to individual, social, and moral well being may confidently be anticipated. These results can only be attained by an enlightened appreciation and judicious cultivation of the means of elementary instruction. They demand and will amply repay the consecration of the highest intellectual and moral energies, the most comprehensive benevolence, and the best affections of our common nature. . . Of the con

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COMPARATIVE STATEMENT dition of the Common Schools, from 1815, the period

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of the first Statistical Report, to 1850.

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1815
1816
1817
1818
1819
1820
1821
1822
1823
1824
1825
1826
1827
1828
1829
1830
1831
1832
1833
1834
1835
1836
1837
1838
1839
1840
1841
1842
1843
1844
1845
1846
1847
1848
1849
1850

May 1,
6&
«
«
&

Jan. 1,

{{

1 1 1 1 1 1 1.

I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

8,298

10,893

2,755 3,713 3,264 4,614 5,763 6,332 6,659 7,051 7,382 7,642. 7,773 8,114

8,609 8,872 9,063 9,339 9,600 9,690 9,865 0,132 0,207 0,345 0,583 0,706 0,769 0,886

0,875 0,990 1,018 1,008 1,052 0,621 1,191 1,397

.507,105

140,106
170,385
183,253

210,316
271,877
304,559
332,979
351,173
377,034
402,940
425,566
431,601
441,856
468,205
480,041
499,424

494,595
512,475
531,240
541,401
532,167
224,188

7|572,995

10,656
10,357
10,812
10,796

528,913
557,229

603,583
598,749
667,782
709,156
736,045
742,423

10,859

10,494;475,723
#:

10,928
11,173

748,387

794,506.

176,449
198,440
218,969
235,871
302,703

317,633|

339,258
357,029
373,208
383,500
395,586
411,256
419,216
449,113
468,257
497,503
509,967
508,878
522,618
534,002
540,285
538,398
536,882
539,747
564,790
592,564
583,347
601,765
677,995
696,548
690,914
703,399
700,443
718,123
739,655
735,188

$48,376
46,398
54,799

59,933

59,968 59,930 79,957 80,104 80,000 80,000 80,000 80,000 80,000 100,000 100,000 100,000 100,000 100,000 100,080 100,080 100,080 100,000

100,000

110,000
113,793
*275,000
*275,000
#285,000
*275,000
275,000
275,000
275,000
275,000
275,826
284,902
285,000

$55,720
64,834
73,235
93,010

117,151

146,418 157,195 173,420 180,820 182,741 182,790 185,720 222,995 232,343 214,840

238,640

244,998 305,582 307,733 316,153 312,181 313,376 335,895 335,882 374,411 633,685 658,954 676,086 660,727 639,606 725,066 772,578 829,802 858,594 846,710 767,389

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© o e o o to e o to go o o o
• * * * * * * * * e o e

• * * * * * * * * * * * * *
• * * * * * * * * * * * *
to o o e o e o 'o e e o o, ø
- e - e o 'o & e o e is e Q

e e o e o e o e e o 'o e

346,807 20 374,001 54 358,820 17 369,696 36. 398,137 04 419,878 69 425,560 86 436,346 46 477,848 27 521,477 49 476,443 27 483,479 54. 468,688 22. 509,376 97 447,565 97 458,127 78 460,764 78. 462,840 44 466,674 44 489,696 63 508,724 56

*Including revenue from United States Deposit Fund.

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AN ACT TO ESTABLISH FREE SCHOOLS THROUGHOUT
THE STATE. -
Passed April 12, 1851.

The People of the State of New York, represented in Senate and Assembly, do enact as follows:

§ 1. Common schools in the several school districts in this State shall be free to all persons residing in the district, over five and under twenty-one years of age, as hereinafter provided. Persons not resident of a district may be admitted into the schools kept therein, with the approbation, in writing, of the trustees thereof, or a majority of them. . . .

§ 2. There shall hereafter be raised by tax, in each and every year, upon the real and personal estate within this state, the sum of eight hundred thousand dollars, which shall be levied, assessed and collected in the mode prescribed by chapter thirteen, part first of the revised statutes, relating to the assessment and collection of taxes, and when collected shall be paid over to the respective county treasurers, subject to the order of the state superintendent of common schools,

§ 3. The state superintendent of common schools shall ascertain the portion of said sum of eight hundred thousand dollars to be assessed and collected in each of the several counties of this state, by dividing the said sum among the several counties, according to the valuation of real and personal estate therein, as it shall appear by the assessment of the year next preceding the one in which said sum is to be raised, and shall certify to the clerk of each county, before the tenth day of July in each year, the amount to be raised by tax in such county; and it shall be the duty of the several county. clerks of this state to deliver to the board of supervisors of their respective counties, a copy of such certificate, on the first day of their annual session, . and the board of supervisors of each county shall assess such amount. upon the real and personal estate of such county, in the manner provided by law

for the assessment and collection of taxes. - $4. The state superintendent of common schools shall, on or before the first day of January in every year, apportion and divide, or cause to be apportioned and divided, one third of the sum so raised by general tax, and one third of all other moneys appropriated to the support of common schools, among the several school districts, parts of districts, and separate neighborhoods in this state, from which reports shall have been received in accordance with law in the following manner, viz: to each separate neighborhood belonging to a school district in some adjoining state, there shall be apportioned and paid a sum of money equal to thirty-three cents for each child in such neighborhood (between the ages of four and twenty-one); but the sum so to be apportioned and paid to any such neighborhood, shall in no case exceed the sum of twenty-four dollars, and the remainder of such one-third shall be apportioned and divided equally among the several districts; and the state superintendent of common schools shall, by proper regulations and instructions to be prescribed by him, provide for the payment of such moneys to the trustees of such separate neighborhoods and school districts. $ 5. It shall be the duty of the state superintendent of common schools, on or before the first day of January in every year, to apportion and divide the remaining two-thirds of the said amount of eight hundred thousand dollars, together with the remaining two-thirds of all other moneys appropriated by the state for the support of common schools among the severas counties, cities and towns of the state, in the mode now prescribed by law for the division and apportionment of the income of the common school fund; and the share of the several towns and wards so apportioned and divided shall be paid over on and after the first Tuesday in February, in each year, to the several town superintendents of common schools, and ward or city officers, entitled by law to receive the same, and shall be apportioned by them among the several school districts and parts of districts in their several towns and wards, according to the number of children between the ages of four and

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