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sets; though they unjustly had made warr upon Uncass, (as is before declared,) and had, the winter before this, ernestly presed the Gove[rno]r of the Massachusets that they might still make warr upon them to revenge the death of their sagamore, which being taken prisoner, was by them put to death, (as before was noted,) pretending that they had first received and accepted his ransome, and then put him to death. But the Gove[rno]r refused their presents,1 and tould them that it was them selves had done the wronge, and broaken the conditions of peace; and he nor the English neither could nor would allow them to make any further warr upon him, but if they did, must assiste him, and oppose them; but if it did appeare, upon good proofe, that he had received a ransome for his life, before he put him to death, when the comissioners mett, they should have a fair hearing, and they would cause Uncass to returne the same. But notwithstanding, at the spring of the year they gathered a great power, and fell upon Uncass, and slue sundrie of his men, and wounded more, and also had some loss them selves. Uncass cald for aide from the English; they tould him what the Narigansets objected, he deney[ed] the same; they tould him it must come to triall, and if he was inocente, if the Narigansets would not desiste, they would aide and assiste him. So at this meeting they [263] sent both to Uncass and the Narrigansets,2 and required their sagamors to come or send to the comissioners now mete at Hartford, and they should have a faire and inpartiall hearing in all their greevances, and would endeavor that all wrongs

1 See Plymouth Col. Rec., 1x. 41. The present was sent by messengers from Pessacus, and left with Winthrop; but when the facts were laid before the Commissioners they directed its return. Captain Robert Harding and Mr. Samuel Wilbore carried the present back to the Narragansetts, with instructions to return it, but they did not carry out their orders, and for this, among other faults, they were declared worthy of censure.

2 Thomas Stanton was sent to Pessacus, Canonicus and other Narragansett Indians, and Nathaniel Willett went to Uncas, Sagamore of the Mohegans. The instructions given to the messengers are printed in Plymouth Col. Rec., 1x. 17. The names of the Indians who answered the summons are given on p. 375, infra.

should be rectified wher they should be found; and they promised that they should safly come and returne without any danger or molestation; and sundry the like things, as appears more at large in the messengers instructions. Upon which the Narigansets sent one sagamore and some other deputies, with full power to doe in the case as should be meete. Uncass came in person, accompanyed with some cheefe aboute him. After the agitation of the bussines, the issue was this. The comissioners declared to the Narigansett deputies as followeth:

1. That they did not find any proofe of any ransome agreed on. 2. It appeared not that any wampam had been paied as a ransome, or any parte of a ransome, for Myantinomos life.

3. That if they had in any measure proved their charge against Uncass, the comissioners would have required him to have made answerable satisfaction.

4. That if hereafter they can make satisf[y]ing profe, the English will consider the same, and proceed accordingly.

5. The comissioners did require that neither them selves nor the Nyanticks make any warr or injurious assaulte upon Unquass or any of his company untill they make profe of the ransume charged, and that due satisfaction be deneyed, unless he first assaulte them.

6. That if they assaulte Uncass, the English are engaged to assist him.


Hearupon the Narigansette sachim, advising with the other deputies, ingaged him selfe in the behalfe of the Narigansets and Nyanticks that no hostile acts should be comitted upon Uncass, or any of his, untill after the next planting of corne; and that after that, before they begine any warr, they will give 30 days warning to the Gove[rno]r of the Massachusets or Conightecutt. The comissioners approving of this offer, and taking their ingagmente under their hands, required Uncass, as he expected the continuance of the favour of the English, to observe the same termes of peace with the Narigansets and theirs.

These foregoing conclusions were subscribed by the comissioners, for the severall jurisdictions, the 19. of Sept: 1644.


EDWA: HOPKINS, Presidente.

The forenamed Narigansets deputies did further promise, that if, contrary to this agreemente, any of the Nyantick Pequents should make any assaulte upon Uncass, or any of his, they would deliver them up to the English, to be punished according to their demerits; and that they would not use any means to procure the Mowacks 2 to come against Uncass during this truce.

These were their names subscribed with their marks.




1 Bradford has omitted to record the promise of the Indians, which is in Plymouth Col. Rec., 1x. 30. The date is there given September 18.

? Mohawks.

8 Plymouth Col. Rec., Ix. 29. The Indian names are given differently in this publication, viz. Pawpiamet, Chimough and Pumumshe. Weetowish is described as a Narragansett sachem, and Pummunish and Pawpiamet as two Narragansett captains. The "mark" of Weetowish is reproduced in the Plymouth Col. Rec. at this place, but it is quite different from that for Witowash, the same Indian, given on p. 48 of the Colony Records and on p. 387, infra.

A glimpse is given of a division into parties in a letter from John Endecott to John Winthrop, June 23, 1644. "I understand by Mr. Thompson of our Towne, the sea man, that there is a great partie for the Kinge to the Eastward, and that they are making some preparations for some designes. They intertayned twoe of our Towne (Fayning themselues to be Caualiers) with much loue and good cheere, and they perceaue that something is in hand. They were plotting to take the Plimmoth pinnace, and were sorrie they missed their opportunitie. It is about Richmond Iland that which I speake of, but they haue a partie in all these partes." 4 Mass. Hist. Collections, vi. 148.

Anno Dom: .1645·


HE comissioners this year were caled to meete together at Boston, before their ordinarie time; 1 partly in regard of some differances falen betweene the French and the govermente of the Massachusets, about their aiding of Munseire Latore against Munsseire de Aulney, and partly aboute the Indeans, who had broaken the former agreements aboute the peace concluded the last year. This meeting was held at Boston, the 28. of July.

Besides some underhand assualts made on both sides, the Narigansets gathered a great power, and fell upon Uncass, and slew many of his men, and wounded more, by reason that they farr exseeded him in number, and had gott store of peeces, with which they did him most hurte. And as they did this withoute the knowledg and consente of the English, (contrary to former agreemente,) so they were resolved to prosecute the same, notwithstanding any thing the English said or should doe against them. So, being incouraged by ther late victorie, and promise of assistance from the Mowacks, (being a strong, warlike, and desperate people,) they had allready devoured Uncass and his, in their hopes; and surly they had done

1 The records describe this as an "extraordinary meeting," and was ordered (May 14, 1645) to be called by the Massachusetts government with particular reference to the French question. The Commissioners of that Colony were unprepared to state their case when the representatives assembled. The Commissioners from Plymouth were Thomas Prence and John Browne. John Winthrop presided over the sessions.

2 In this contest between the two French commanders New Plymouth took no part. But it called out the statement by Aulnay given in a note on p. 207, supra.

That negotiated at Hartford in 1644, by the Commissioners, and that entered into by the Indians and the magistrates of Connecticut at the same place, September 21, 1638.

it in deed, if the English had not timly sett in for his aide. For those of Conightecute sent him 40 men, who were a garison to him, till the comissioners could meete and take further order.


Being thus mett, they forthwith sente 3. messengers, viz. Sargent John Davis, Benedicte Arnold,1 and Francis Smith, with full and ample instructions,2

both to the Narigansets and Y? Humble Sizvant

Uncass; to require them

that they should either come in person or send sufficiente

Benedict Arnold

men fully instructed to deale in the bussines; and if they refused or delayed, to let them know (according to former agreements) that the English are engaged to assiste against these hostile invasions, and that they have sente their men to defend Uncass, and to know of the Narigansets whether they will stand to the former peace, or they will assaulte the English also, that they may provide accordingly.

But the messengers returned, not only with a sleighting, but a threatening answer from the Narigansets (as will more appear hereafter). Also they brought a letter from Mr. Roger Williams, wherin he assures them that the warr would presenly breake forth, and the whole country would be all of a flame. And that the sachems of

1 Arnold went to the Narragansett and Niantick Indians.

The instructions are printed in Plymouth Col. Rec., Ix. 32.

The instructions read "or whether they will assault the English now with the Mohegans."

The letter of Williams has not been preserved. The outbreak of the Indians threatened the Rhode Island settlement, because of its nearness to the tribes most deeply concerned. This proximity also placed Roger Williams in a proper relation to learn what were the real motives of the Narragansetts in undertaking a war with the English. To Winthrop he wrote that the Indians were seeking to avenge the death of Miantunomo. "The Narrigansets and Monhiggens, with their respective confederates, haue deepely implunged themselues in barbarous slaughters. For my selfe, I haue (to my vtmost) diswaded our neighbours, high and low, from armes, etc. but there is a spirit of desperacion fallen vpon them, resolued to revenge the death of their

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