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againe, to call them forth; but they said they would selle their lives their, and so shott at him so thicke as, if he had not cried out, and been presently rescued, they had slaine him. Then our men cutt of a place of the swampe with their swords, and cooped the Indeans into so narrow a compass, as they could easier kill them throw the thikets. So they continued all the night, standing aboute 12 foote one from an other, and the Indeans, coming close up to our men, shot their arrows so thicke, as they pierced their hatte brimes, and their sleeves, and stockins, and other parts of their cloaths, yet so miraculously did the Lord preserve them as not one of them was wounded, save those 3. who rashly went into the swampe. When it was nere day, it grue very darke, so as those of them which were left dropt away betweene our men, though they stood but 12 or 14 foote assunder; but were presenly discovered, and some killed in the pursute. Upon searching of the swampe, the next morning, they found ·9. slaine, and some they pulled up, whom the Indeans had buried in the mire, so as they doe thinke that, of all this company, not ·20. did escape, for they after found some who dyed in their flight of their wounds received. The prisoners were devided, some to those of the river, and the rest to us. Of these we send the male children to Bermuda,1 by Mr. William Peirce, and the women and maid children are disposed aboute in the townes. Ther have been now slaine and taken, in all, aboute 700. The rest are dispersed, and the Indeans in all quarters so terrified as all their friends are affraid to receive them. 2. of the sachems of Long Iland came to Mr. Stoughton and tendered them selves to be tributaries under our protection. And 2 of the Neepnett sachems have been

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1 But they were carried to the West-Indeas. -Bradford.

Starting for the Bermudas with fifteen boys and two women, Peirce carried them to Providence Isle, where they were sold into bondage. Unlike the Africans, the aboriginal Americans were not easily domesticated. Sold as slaves, those who escaped from bondage were, when captured, branded on the shoulder. As to Providence Island see Hassam, in 2 Mass. Hist. Soc. Proceedings, XIII. 4. .

This protection was in consideration of a tribute payment theretofore made by tribes both on Long Island and in Connecticut, which had paid tribute to the Pequots, but thenceforth transferred to the English. The burden of this tribute in bad seasons fell heavily upon a race who had little or no accumulated stock of goods, and whose manner of living was not consistent with any regular industrial occupa

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with me to seeke our frendship. Amonge the prisoners we have the wife and children of Mononotto, a woman of a very modest countenance and behaviour. It was by her mediation that they [the]·2· English [226] maids were spared from death, and were kindly used by her; so that I have taken charge of her. One of her first requests was, that the English would not abuse her body, and that her children might not be taken from her. Those which were wounded were fetched of soone by John Galopp,' who came with his shalop in a happie houre, to bring them victuals, and to carrie their wounded men to the pinnass, wher our cheefe surgeon was, with Mr. Willson,3 being aboute 8. leagues off. Our people are all in health, (the Lord be praised,) and allthough they had marched in their armes all the day, and had been in fight all the night, yet they professed they found them selves so fresh as they could willingly have gone to shuch another bussines.

This is the substance of that which I received, though I am forced to omite many considerable circomstances. So, being in much straitnes of time, (the ships being to departe within this 4 days, and in them the Lord Lee and Mr. Vane,) I hear breake of, and with harty salutes to, etc., I rest

Yours assured,

Jo: WINTHROP.

The 28 of the 5 month [July,] 1637.

The captains reporte we have slaine 13. sachems; but Sassacouse and Monotto are yet living.

tion. The enforcement of its payment involved the settlers in almost constant trouble with the Indians.

1 The Mamoho of Williams' map, and second in importance to Sassacus. This prominence made him an object of the English wrath, and he fled to the Mohawks with Sassacus, but escaped death at their hands. It is supposed he was afterwards killed by the English. Drake gives the name of his wife as Wincumbone. Indians of North America, 174.

2 John Gallop, of Dorchester, whose shallop receives not infrequent mention in colonial records, was a fisherman and pilot.

Rev. John Wilson, who accompanied the troops on the expedition.

♦ Lord Ley and ex-Governor Vane embarked at Boston on August 3d for England.

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That I may make an end of this matter: this Sassacouse (the Pequents cheefe sachem) being fled to the Mowhakes, they cutt of his head,' with some other of the cheefe of them, whether to satisfie the English, or rather the Narigansets, (who, as I have since heard, hired them to doe it,) or for their owne advantage, I well know not; but thus this warr tooke end. The rest of the Pequents were wholy driven from their place, and some of them submitted them selves to the Narigansets, and lived under them; others of them betooke them selves to the Monhiggs, under Uncass, their sachem, with the approbation of the English of Conightecutt, under whose protection Uncass lived, and he and his men had been faithfull to

2

Oneas

·Poquia

them in this warr, and done them very good service. But this did so vexe the Narrigansetts, that they had not the whole sweay over them, as they have never ceased

Ins March

plotting and contriving how to bring them under, and because they cannot attaine their ends, because of the English who have protected them, they have sought to raise a generall conspiracie against the English, as will appear in an other place.3

or

1 On August 5 Ludlow and Pynchon delivered to the authorities in Boston the scalp of Sassacus.

• Of Uncas much will be found in the subsequent pages of Bradford, but the full treatment of his relations with the English and with his fellow Indians more properly belongs to Winthrop's History. New Plymouth had some interest in his actions and some part in bringing him forward as the leading Indian confederate of the plantations; it was, however, rather as a member of the Confederation of the Colonies than as a direct agent that this interest and influence were exerted.

3 Apart from minor considerations, the Pequot war was undertaken with two essential ends in view: first, to put a stop to the killing of the English by the Indians; and secondly, to open a safe path to the Connecticut from the settlement on the Bay. So far as these ends were attained the conflict was justified by its outcome. As a result of the capture of the Pequot fort and the practical massacre of the tribe, peace with the Indians was established until what is known as "Philip's War." While the Pequots had practically ceased to exist, the harboring of fugitives by other Indian

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