## Middle Atmosphere DynamicsFor advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students in atmospheric, oceanic, and climate science, Atmosphere, Ocean and Climate Dynamics is an introductory textbook on the circulations of the atmosphere and ocean and their interaction, with an emphasis on global scales. It will give students a good grasp of what the atmosphere and oceans look like on the large-scale and why they look that way. The role of the oceans in climate and paleoclimate is also discussed. The combination of observations, theory and accompanying illustrative laboratory experiments sets this text apart by making it accessible to students with no prior training in meteorology or oceanography. * Written at a mathematical level that is appealing for undergraduates and beginning graduate students * Provides a useful educational tool through a combination of observations and laboratory demonstrations which can be viewed over the web * Contains instructions on how to reproduce the simple but informative laboratory experiments * Includes copious problems (with sample answers) to help students learn the material. |

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### Contents

Introduction | 1 |

Zonal Mean Temperature and Wind Distributions | 6 |

Composition of the Middle Atmosphere | 9 |

The Vertical Distribution of Eddy Amplitudes | 15 |

Observational Techniques | 18 |

References | 20 |

Radiative Processes and Remote Sounding | 21 |

Fundamentals | 22 |

Theoretical Modeling of Sudden Warmings | 275 |

References | 294 |

The Extratropical ZonalMean Circulation | 295 |

Some Simple Zonally Averaged Models of the Middle Atmosphere | 298 |

The Upper Mesosphere | 305 |

The Winter Polar Stratosphere | 308 |

Interpretation and Generalization | 309 |

References | 311 |

Gaseous Absorption Spectra | 30 |

Transmission Functions | 49 |

Infrared Radiative Exchange and Radiative Damping | 64 |

Departure from Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium | 72 |

Absorption of Solar Radiation | 82 |

Radiative Equilibrium Temperature and HeatingRate Distributions | 91 |

Remote Sounding | 99 |

References | 110 |

Basic Dynamics | 113 |

The BetaPlane Approximation and QuasiGeostrophic Theory | 118 |

The EulerianMean Equations | 123 |

Linearized Disturbances to ZonalMean Flows | 125 |

The Transformed EulerianMean Equations | 127 |

The Generalized EliassenPalm Theorem and the CharneyDrazin Nonacceleration Theorem | 130 |

The Lagrangian Approach | 133 |

Isentropic Coordinates | 138 |

The ZonalMean Equations in Isentropic Coordinates | 142 |

Derivation of Some Equations in Isentropic Coordinates | 144 |

Boundary Conditions on the Residual Circulation | 147 |

References | 149 |

Linear Wave Theory | 150 |

Wave Disturbances to a Resting Spherical Atmosphere | 151 |

Atmospheric Thermal Tides | 157 |

Free Traveling Planetary Waves | 169 |

Forced Planetary Waves | 175 |

Gravity Waves | 188 |

Equatorial Waves | 200 |

RayTracing Theory and Wave Action in a Slowly Varying Medium | 215 |

References | 218 |

Extratropical PlanetaryScale Circulations | 220 |

The Observed Annual Cycle | 221 |

Detailed Linear Models of Stationary Planetary Waves in the Middle Atmosphere | 239 |

Detailed Linear Models of Free Traveling Planetary Waves in the Atmosphere | 245 |

Barotropic and Baroclinic Instability | 248 |

PlanetaryWave Critical Layers | 253 |

References | 257 |

Stratospheric Sudden Warmings | 259 |

Observed Features of Sudden Warmings | 261 |

Equatorial Circulations | 313 |

The Observed Structure of the Equatorial QuasiBiennial Oscillation | 314 |

Theory of the QuasiBiennial Oscillation | 319 |

Observed Structure of the Equatorial Semiannual Oscillations | 331 |

Dynamics of the Equatorial Semiannual Oscillations | 333 |

Inertial Instability in the Equatorial Zone | 338 |

References | 341 |

Tracer Transport in the Middle Atmosphere | 343 |

LongLived Chemical Tracers | 347 |

Transport in the Meridional Plane | 349 |

Formulations of Eddy and MeanFlow Transport | 354 |

Dispersive Wave Transport Irreversible Mixing of Tracers | 361 |

TroposphereStratosphere Exchange | 371 |

Transport Modeling | 377 |

The Transformed EulerianMean Transport for SmallAmplitude Eddies | 390 |

391 | |

The Ozone Layer | 392 |

The Climatology of Ozone | 393 |

Elementary Aspects of Photochemical Modeling | 398 |

Photochemistry of Ozone Catalytic Cycles | 403 |

Models of the Natural and Perturbed Ozone Layer | 406 |

The Continuity Equation for Chemical Species | 413 |

References | 414 |

General Circulation Modeling | 415 |

Models of the Lower Stratosphere | 417 |

The GFDL SKYHI model | 422 |

Forecasting of Sudden Stratospheric Warmings | 428 |

Transport Modeling | 433 |

442 | |

Interaction between the Middle Atmosphere and the Lower Atmosphere | 443 |

Radiative Links Deductions from Simple Models | 444 |

Radiative Links Deductions from GCMs | 446 |

Dynamical Links Vertically Propagating Planetary Waves | 450 |

Interannual Variability in the Stratosphere | 453 |

References | 461 |

463 | |

483 | |

### Other editions - View all

Middle Atmosphere Dynamics David G. Andrews,James R. Holton,Conway B. Leovy No preview available - 1987 |

### Common terms and phrases

absorption advection altitude American Meteorological Society amplitude approximation bands basic boundary condition calculations chemical components cooling coordinates damping density depends diabatic circulation diffusion discussed distribution disturbances Dunkerton dynamical easterly eddy effects EP flux equation Eq equatorial Eulerian-mean example extratropical forcing geopotential geopotential height geostrophic global gradient gravity waves group velocity heating rate height Hemisphere horizontal infrared isentropic isentropic surfaces Kelvin waves latitude layer linear log-pressure lower boundary lower stratosphere mean flow mean wind mesopause mesosphere middle atmosphere mixing ratio modes molecules motions nonlinear observed oscillation ozone parcels phase speed photochemical planetary waves polar potential vorticity primitive equations propagation quasi-geostrophic radiance radiative equilibrium region residual circulation Rossby waves satellite scale Section shear shown in Fig simulation solar radiation species spectral spherical stratopause structure sudden warmings surface temperature theory thermal timescale tracer transport tropopause troposphere upper mesosphere velocity vertical wavelengths westerly winter zonal-mean