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IT IS WISER AND LESS EXPENSIVE TO SAVE CHILDREN THAN TO PUNISH CRIMINALS

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BOARD OF REFERENCE.
ALABAMA.

KANSAS.

NEW YORK. in Harriet M. Johnson, Birminghan, J. D. Faxon, Lawrence,

Hon. Willard H. Olmstad, New York,
Supt. United Charity Society.
Soc. Associated Charities

Judge Juvonlle Court.
CALIFORNIA.

J. E. Howard, Wichita,
Pros. Associatod Charities.

Hon. Jullus M. Mayor, Now York,

Judgo Juvenile Court Hon. T. J. Murkey, San France,

KENTUCKY. Judge Juvonilo Court.

E. Fellows Jenkins, New York, I. Y. Todd, San Francisco,

Chief Probation Omcor, Juvonllo Oon George L. Schon, Morchant's Association,

Thos. M. Mulry, New York,

Supt. Children's Home Society of KenKlus Cathorino Folton. San France

Saint Vincent De Paul Society.

tucky. Gon. Soc. Awociated Charitia.

Edward T. Devine, Now York,
Mia Mary Bryson, Covington,

Gen. Sec. Charity Organisation food
COLORADO.
Gen. Sec. Associated Charities.

Hon. Robt. J. Wilkin, Brooklyn

LOUISIANA. Hon. B. B. Lindsay, Donver,

Judgo Juvenilo Court.

Hon. Thos. Murphy, Bufalo,
Judgo Juvenilo Court.
L L Rodenberg. Now Orloans,

Judge Juvonllo Court.
CONNECTICUT.

Charity Organization Society.
James J. McLoughlin, Now Orleans,

Frederick Almy. Buffalo,
Chu. P. Kollore. Waterbury,

Society Prevention Cruelty to Childrua.

Sec. Charity Organization Soddod.

Hon. Homer Folka, Now York, boa Stato Board Charities.

MARYLAND.

Commissioner Public Charitian
Yn Francis Sheldon Bolton, Now Haven
Editor Mother's Journal.

Hon. Charles W. Heuisler, Baltimore,
Judgo Juvenile Court.

OHIO.
DELAWARE.
Jeffrey R. Brackot, Baltimoro,

Hon. T. E. Callaghan, Cloveland.
Mn. Vary A. T. Clark, Wilmington,

President National Conference Chart Judge Juvonlle Court Supt Anoclated Charities.

ties and Correction.

Hon. Sam Jonas, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA,

MASSACHUSETTS.

Mayor City of Tolodo.

Chas. A. Allen, Dayton,
Chas, F. Wellor, Washington.
Chas. W. Birtwell, Boston,

Soc. Associated Charities.
Omn. Supt. Charity Society.
43 Charity Building.

C. X. Hubbard, Cincinnati,
FLORIDA.
Leontino Lincoln, Fall River,

Gon. Sec. Associatod Charition
Stato Board Charities.
D. W. Comstock,
Misa Z. D. Smith, Boston,

PENNSYLVANIA.
Supt. Florida Children's Home Society.

Gen. Sec. Associated Charita.
ILLINOIS.

MICHIGAN.

Hon. Judgo Bergy, Philadelphia

Judgo Juvonllo Court.
Hon. R. S. Tuthill.
James F. HIII, Detroit,

Hon. Marshall Brown, Pittsbure.
Judge Juvenilo Court of Chicago.
Society for Prevention of Criat

Judge Juvenile Court. Dr. H. H Hart, Chicago, Ill..

Children. Supt. Children'. Homo and Ald Soalety

WASHINGTON. E. P. Bicknell. Chicago, Ill.,

MISSOURI.

H. Wirt Stoele, Seattlo, Supt. Bureau of Charities.

Hon. Robt. M. Foster, St. Loula, Prof. C. R. Henderson, Chicago, Ill.

Gon. Soc. Charity Organization tooted Judge Juvenilo Court. Pro. Nat'l Children's Home Society Hon. James L. Blair, St. Louis,

WISCONSIN. Hon. G. W Murray, Springfield. Ill..

Missouri Trust Building.
Judr Juvonlle Court.

Hon. N. B. Neelon, Milwauku
W. H. McClain, St. Louis,

Judge Juvonilo Court.
INDIANA.
Supt. Provident Association.

G. Frellson, Milwaukoe,
A. W. Butler, Indianapolis,
Hon. James Gibson, Kansas City.

Agent Associated Charitios.
Buate Board Charitios.

Judge Juventlo Court, Bon. Goo. W Stubbs. Indianapollo.

MINNESOTA.

RHODE ISLAND.
Judg. Juvenil. Court
James F. Jackson, Minneapolis,

Miss M. K. Conyngton, Provideos Alexander Johnson,

Gen. Mgr. Associated Charitia.

Soc. Socioty for Organizing Caarth Pros. Indiana State Conference of Char.

A. W. Gutridge, St Paul, ities and Corrections, Ft. Wayne.

TENNESSEE.
Sec. Associated Charities
Chau. 8. Grout, Indianapolis,

Mims M. F. Battle, Nashville.
Gon. 86c. Charity Organization Society

NEBRASKA.

Soc. Unitod Charities.
Hon. J. E. Plety, Terro Haute.
Floyd M. Smith, Omaha,

John Boring, Chattanooga,
Judge Juvenile Court.
Sec. Associated Charities.

Supt. Associated Charitoa. 0. E. Nohler, Fort Wayne,

G. W. Clark. Omaha,
Gon. Soc. Anoclatod Charities.
Supt. Child Saving Instituto.

TEXAS.
TOWA.

NEW JERSEY.

Miss F. Saylor, Dallas.

Sec. Unitod Charita.
Bimor R. Park, Kookuk,

Hugh F. Fox, Plainfeld,
Gen. Bec. Associatod Charities.
Pres. Board of Children's Guerdiana

CANADA.
John Boardsloy, Dos Moines,
Mrs. E. E. Williamson, Elizabeth,

J. J. Kelso, Toronto,
Gon. Soc. Associated Charities.
State Board of Children's Guardians.

Supt. Children's Aid Society.

OBJECTS OF THE JUVENILE COURT RECORD

The object of the JUVENILE COURT RECORD is to disseminate the principles of the Juvenile Court throughout the United States and, in fact, the entire world.

When the Juvenile Court was first established a little more than four years ago, the sociologists of the entire country stood by, watching anxiously the outcome of this new departure in child-saving methods. It was realized that a medium was needed whereby the results accomplished by the Juvenile Court might be set forth in an intelligent manner. The JUVENILE COURT RECORD stepped into the breach, and has devoted its pages exclusively to news of the various juvenile courts. As a result of the publicity thus given to the foundation principles and routine work of the Cook County Juvenile Court, fifteen :other states have passed juvenile court laws, and ‘bills are being prepared in nearly every state in the Union to be presented at the next session of the Legislatures of the various states, providing for similar legislation.

The foundation thought and idea of the juvenile court law is that children should be kept in the home to the greatest extent possible. The child's own home is preferred by the Court, but in lieu of that it is intended that any good home where proper care and training will be given, shall be provided for the child.

The State, in assuming its relationship as the guardian of the rights of the child, assumes a serious

responsibility. Every child has a right to education and physical care. Primarily, this duty lies with the parents. This obligation should be enforced wherever possible. The family is the unit of society, and most of the evils of society arise from demoralized homes. It is the duty of the State to co-operate with the family as long as possible, and help hold it up. If, however, for any reason the family fails, then a new home is necessary until such time as the family may again be brought together. If the family proves recreant and abdicates its functions altogether, it is the duty of the State to secure as nearly normal conditions for the children under its care and custody as may be in its power. The home is the normal place for a child's education and training. The Institution should be only a temporary station on the road from a ruined home to a permanent home with foster parents.

The fact that children are to be placed in homes presupposes the idea that some agency will be at hand to find a childless home for a homeless child. To the limit of its resources the JUVENILE COURT RECORD assists in finding homes for the homeless, helpless little waifs drifting about the country. These little unfortunates need an advocate, and the JUVENILE COURT RECORD acts in this capacity, standing side by side with them, pointing the way to a brighter, happier life, where the weeds of evil will be choked out of existence and the flowers of hope will bloom in their place.

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Miss Brewer, the probation officer of the Chester (Pa.) Juvenile Court, reports a constant increase of work. The detention house is more and more recognized by the police department for the care of boys and girls under 16 years, who come before them either as defendants or delinquents. Some eight or ten children have been cared for at the house during the past month, in addition to the number outside who have been given a probation officer's supervision.

Probate Judge Waite of Salem, Ohio, intends to experiment with the juvenile court idea. He requested the reporters recently not to use the names of young truants, as he thinks publicity often does them harm. He made the request in the case of a young boy whom the truant officer wished to send to Lancaster. Mrs. Cotter and Mrs. Moore, of the advisory board, wished to give the boy a chance. The mother pleaded earnestly and as the judge saw the boy was dull and stupid, he thought work would do more good than anything else, and sent the boy home.

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Prisoners under 16 years oi age must not be confined at the county jail, says Assistant District Attorney Knoell of Milwaukee, Wis., in an opinion to the county board, from which a sufficient sum of money was asked to establish a separate institution. For some time the question of a place of confinement for juvenile prisoners has been discussed by those interested in the juvenile court work and who claim that a law passed by the last legislature means that youthful offenders cannot be confined at the jail, as has been the practice. Suggestions have been made that these youths be placed in charge of Superintendent Spindler of the county poor department. An addition is being made to that institution for the purpose.

in Detroit, the worker to live at the Franklin Street Settlement. The results of this investigation cover sixty-four pages. In general they may be stated thus: As there are special laws and ordinances applicable to children, there are thus more offenses that may be committed by juveniles than by adults. Many of the transgressions committed are slight, and many are results of improper training. If any sort of offenses against the law can be regarded as symptoms of a disease to be cured rather than the occasion of retributive punishment, the misdeeds of children are such. Every means, therefore, should be taken to ensure that those children who disobey the laws shall be so dealt with that encouragement shall be given them toward a better instead of a worse life. There can be no surer way of leading children into lives of crime than by familiarizing them with criminals, jails, and courts in which crime is the subject of attention. A court dealing solely with the cases of children and dealing with the young offenders not as criminals to be punished, but as boys and girls likely to do right if they have proper opportunity, has been found to be the best answer to the problem so far discovered. Such courts are in operation in Illinois and other states and Mr. Bolt believes that it would be of great assistance in Detroit as a means of saving a good citizenship a large number of children likely to drift into criminal lives.

The Shamokin (Pa.) police are somewhat interested in a ase at Reading in which it was decided that juveniles, contrary o general opinion, as a result of the enactment of the new law by the last legislature, can be sent to jail for crime if they are over 12 years of age. Heretofore it was supposed that juveniles under 16 could not be jailed for any offense, but had to be committed to reformatories after being taken before the county judges sitting in what are termed as juvenile courts. The Reading precedent was established in the case of William Grey, who was brought into court on an application of his father to have him sent to the house of refuge because he was incorrigible. He had been arrested on three warrants charged with robbery. Judges Ermentrout and Endlich decided that, contrary to the decision of the magistrate, thé boy, who is under 16, could have been sent to jail. They interpreted the recent act on the subject to mean that boys between 12 and 16 brought up merely on the charge of being incorrigible could not be sent to jail, but if arrested charged with a crime they could be jailed if over 12 years. He was committed to prison.

*

*

*

The result of the investigation conducted by Richard A. Bolt, a student in the University of Michigan, into the problem of dealing with juvenile offenders against the law, as illustrated in the city of Detroit, has been published as No. 3, Vol. V, of the publications of the Michigan Political Science Association, dated September, 1903. The University of Michigan has for the last several years sent a student to study some sociological problem at the Chicago Commons, a social settlement in that city. The funds are supplied by the Students’ Christian Association. Last

alan funds were given by Detroit people for a similar work

Lined up in a row in front of Judge Stubbs in the Indianapolis juvenile court recently stood eight small boys ranging in age from seven years to thirteen years. The boys were arrested by Detective Grady of the Big Four for_breaking into a box car belonging to the railroad company. The boys were John and Mike Shea, 1444 Bates street;

John and Mat Finn, 234. Arsenal avenue; Francis Daily, 1529 Bates street; Willard Smith, 1427 Bates street; Dan Gevan, 1412 Bates street, and Walter Fariner, 230 Detroit street. “No, sir, judge, I ain't guilty," was their plea. On the stand Francis Daily told the judge he had the inside of his shirt lined with stolen tobacco. This struck several of the parents of the children as being funny and they laughed. Judge Stubbs rapped sternly for order. "Ladies," he said, "some of you appear to think this is a joke. If so it is a most serious one. Here are your boys, plainly guilty of this offense, which, if repeated, will send them to Plainfield. It seems to me, from your actions, that you must encourage your boys do wrong. I do not believe you realize how serious this matter is. It means that, unless your children are corrected, they wil eventually land in the penitentiary.

to

"God pity a boy who has lost his mother."

LOS ANGELES JUVENILE These were the words uttered by Judge Estelle of Omaha,

COURT Neb., when Roy Swanson, a. 14-year-old lad, was up for arraignment on the charge of incorrigibility. The court, after listening to the presentation of both sides of the case, entered a plea of not guilty and appointed Attorney T. J. Mahoney to make an independent investigation of the charges previously preferred against the lad and alleging grand larceny, and report his findings to the court. The lad's father appeared in the court room and testified as to the misdemeanors of his son. It was alleged by the father that his son had stolen $20 from him recently. The particular crime of which young Swanson had been charged was the theft of $94. A policeman entered young Swanson's rooms and recovered the $94 and secured a confession from the boy. This confession was given voluntarily and the youth did not seem to want to hide the fact that he had taken the money. He said he had taken it in order that he might assist his father. When arraigned before Judge Estelle the lad said he had but recently returned from an extended trip covering Milwaukee, Denver, Kansas City and other points. At this point Mr. Swanson interrupted to say that he had no home for the boy, as he had lost his mother some time ago, and then it was that Judge Estelle gave expression to his compassionate utter

Young Swanson's history will be gone into in detail and some data and evidence will be furnished in order to enable the court to pass sentence upon him. Judge Estelle said that the lad impressed him as one who was able to earn his own living, and it was his opinion that not one boy in a hundred is benefited by being sent to the reform school.

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The Missouri Supreme Court en banc at Jefferson_City, Mo.,

HON. CURTIS D. WILBUR, on December 9, in an opinion by Judge James D. Fox, upheld

Judge Los Angeles Juvenile Court. the validity of the Juvenile Court bill passed at the last session of the legislature and intended to save the young criminal class The advisory committee of the Los Angeles Juvenile Court from being sent to penitentiaries, where they associate with the is facing a serious problem in the matter of the disposition of hardened criminals. The case at bar was the conviction of

children.

In a few instances offers have been received from James Loving of Kansas City of petit larceny and the sentencing people who volunteered to provide homes for boys. Some of of him to two years in the reform school. A writ of habeas these were wholly unsuitable. In the meantime the crop of corpus was sued out by his mother, the boy being but 8 years girls and boys who are getting into trouble continues to grow old, and the case was brought to the Supreme Court to test the in numbers, particularly the former. validity of the act. Judge Fox, in his opinion, says: “This The ladies of the advisory committee are awaiting with eageract is in perfect harmony with the important duty of the public

ness the time when the machinery necessary for a proper adin promoting good citizenship. It is not only the duty the law- ministration of the juvenile law can be put in motion. It has making power owes the public to provide for the application of been decided to make use of the old county jail building for a certain remedies which will tend to reform and at the same time detention home, and it is reasonably certain that when that home protect the neglected and delinquent children, but it is a clear is ready for occupancy fewer boys will be sent to Whittier anj right which that branch of the government can and should air. the children on probation will be held under closer surveillance We have thus given expression to our views upon the questions by reason of the influences radiating out from a center where involved in this proceeding. We have reached the conclusion thought for children is given every day of the week. that the act before us is a valid exercise of the legislative power Workmen have torn out the cells that remained in the old under the constitution of this state. While this conclusion is jail building and have rearranged the interior for its now occureached, the question as to the constitutionality of the bill is not pants. The supervisors do not intend to spend very much money. without doubt, but, following the well-settled doctrine upon this for the building will have to come down a year hence, and by subject, all reasonable doubt must be resolved in favor of the that time suitable quarters for detention purposes will have been validity of the act. This we have done in this case. We highly erected at some other place than in the shadow of the prison. commend the spirit manifested by members of the bar in the But the new premises are to be ready in the near future and presentations of the questions involved. It was simply a legal then instead of boys that have given evidence of being unruly proposition, discussed upon a high plane and for the sole and and that require kind but rigid discipline being sent back home. unselfish purpose of obtaining a judicial expression upon the where they merely renew their tricks, they will be submitted to validity of an act in which the public has a deep interest. We a course of disciplinary treatment at the home that may bộace have declared the act valid. Its proper and successful enforce- them up, unless utterly bad. ment depends largely upon the people and upon the conduct of Upstairs will be the dormitories. The matron, it is presumed, the legal profession of the cities and counties to which it ap- will occupy the same rooms that have been occupied by the plies. If its provisions are enforced with the same spirit that matron in the past, while the guard will use the rooms set apart has prevailed in the submissions and discussion of the question in the old building for the jailer. All of this will be proinvolved, then there is no longer any doubt as to the benefits to vided by the county, and when the home is completed then the be derived from this act by the children, their parents and the extra work for which the law makes no provision whatever wili public.” The boy was remanded into the custody of Sheriff be undertaken by the ladies of the advisory committee. Gilday, all judges concurring in the opinion. For the passage A school teacher will be obtained, and an old-fashioned district of the bill originally the greatest share of credit is due to the school, with a good many modifications, however, will be held in women of Kansas City. Several women who are interested in the detention home. In some cities special schools are being humane and charitable work led in the fight for its passage and set apart for backward children and children who require more raised most of the money necessary to carry on the campaign of individual attention than can possibly be granted in the grade at Jefferson City. Among the men the most active workers have schools. The school in the detention home will, in some measure, been J. V. C. Karnes, L. A. Laughlin, H. M. Beardsley, Gardiner be along similar lines. The teacher will have no sinecure, but Lathrop, Roland Hughes, Alfred Gregory and Mr. Johnson, the work will be interesting; for it will put the teacher on her the probation officer. Mr. Lathrop volunteered his services before mettle, the supreme court and made no charge for them. Judge Gibson Then, too, the probation work will have to be carried on more not only paid the docket fee in the hearing of the case, but it was systematically, and to do that it is intended to pay the chief prohe who caused the test case to be made in the circuit court. þation officer. Children on probation outside of the home will The judge of the juvenile court is selected by the circuit judges have to be kept under surveillance in fact as well as in name, from among their own number. Judge Teasdale served at the

and while the youngsters will be made to obey, it will not be last term. Another judge may be selected at the January term. forgotten that, after all, that they are merely children, and that When the bill was originally drawn it provided for a court at in penetrating the hard shell of precocious desire in which they St. Louis only. It was amended to include Jackson county have become enwrapped, and perhaps to some extent criminally, through the efforts of Judge Gibson and others.

progress can only be made along natural lines.

ANNUAL REPORT OF THE CHICAGO JUVENILE COURT.

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J. J. M'MANAMAN,
Chief Probation Officer.

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hon. Howard S. Taylor, Prosecuting At

torney, City of Chicago:

Sir-I herewith respectfully submit my report as your assistant, showing the work performed in the Juvenile Court from January 1, 1903, to December 31, 1903 : Total number of hearings... -5,158 Total number of cases docketed. .2,979 Total sessions of court....

120 Total number of probation offi

cers assigned from city police

force Juvenile

Court

Committee Women's Clubs

6 Hull House Holy Name Cathedral (Catho

lic) Chicago Commons

Rereform
48 Welsh

3
Illinois Industrial School, Evanston. I2 Not stated
Chicago Industrial School

5 Rest Cottage

3

1,586

231 Cases Dismissed

16

EDUCATION OF THE BOYS COMHome for Juvenile Offenders (Ge

MITTED TO JOHN WORTHY 47

SCHOOL.
Paroled to officers

25
Grade-

No. of Boys. Av.Age.
First

182

12.75 231 Second

105

13.18 CHARGES OF DELINQUENT GIRLS.

Third

189

14.12 Incorrigible

158 Fourth

98

14 Petty thefts

30
Fifth

62

12.41 Immorality

Sixth

33

15.40 Disorderly

3 Seventh

26

15 Truancy

2

PARENTS.
R. R. depredations
I

479 Assault

Have father and mother living.
I
Having father only living...

57 231

Having mother only living..

Having father and step-mother. 38 CHARGES OF DELINQUENT BOYS.

Having mother and step-father. 27
Incorrigible

301
Without parents

24
594
Disorderly

190

DISPOSITION OF DEPENDENT Truancy

BOYS.

233
Burglary
116 Feehanville

166
R. Ř. depredatioris
43 Glenwood

113 Robbery 8 St. Vincent Orphan Asylum.

84 Assault

16 Home of the Friendless... Arson

2 Guardian Angel Orphan Asylum...
Rape

2 Illinois Children's Home and Aid
Malicious mischief
44 Society

39 Cutting lead pipe

9 Jewish Home of the Friendless. 5 Forgery

3 Penock Flipping cars

9 German Lutheran Kinderfriend.
Selling transfers

13 Chicago Orphan Asylum
Shooting craps
3 Feeble-minded, Lincoln, Ill.

6
Polish Orphan Asylum..
1,586
Swedish Orphan Asylum.

3 AGES OF DELINQUENTS. Crippled Children's Home.

Boys. Girls. Shermerville
Seven years

5 1

Dunning, Ill.
Eight years

IO

Woodstock, III.

Allendale
42

3
60
Paroled to officers

55 Eleven years

129
8

606 Twelve years

242

9 Thirteen years

322

24 DISPOSITION OF DEPENDENT Fourteen years

345
54

GIRLS.
Fifteen years

380 61
Chicago Industrial School.....

168 Sixteen years

55

41

Angel Guardian Orphan Asylum. 28
Seventeen years

23
Illinois Industrial School

95 Nineteen years

Methodist Deaconess' Orphanage (Lake Bluff)

3 1,586

231
Chicago Orphan Asylum

5 NATIONALITY DELINQUENTS.

Chicago Foundlings' Home.

3 Boys. Girls.

Chicago Home of the Friendless. 45 Americans

324 72 Jewish Home of the Friendless.. 3 Irish

262 24 Illinois Children's Home and Aid SoGerman 252 35 ciety

33 Polish

221

22

Illinois Charitable Relief Corps. 5 Italian

126

3 St. Joseph's Providence Orphan AsyJewish

108
5 lum

4 Bohemian

61
St. Vincent Infant Asylum.

50 Swedish

24

7 Amanda Smith Asylum, half Orphan Colored

41

15 Asylum (Colored) English

14

7 Humane Society Canadian

6

St. Mary's Home for Children. French

14

3 Protestant Scotch

9

5 Jewish Orphan Home.
Norwegian

15
5 Paroled to officers..

68 Mexican

7

Bohemian Orphan Asylum.
Syrian

4

Dunning
Grecian

4
Danish
5

519 Lithuanian

CAUSES OF DEPENDENCY. Austrian

8 Slav

Boys. Girls.
2
Russian

7
Lack of parental care.

65 89 Hollander

4
Death of father.

61

32 Swiss

3
Death of mother.

43

12 Hungarian

Death of both..

16 Spanish

Drunkenness of father. 83

74 Persian

Drunkenness of mother. 28

47

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I

22

Nine years

I

I
I

I

Total paid officers

33 Total number of probation commission officers

149 Total number of delinquent boys.. .1,586 Total number of delinquent girls. 231 Total number of dependent boys.

606 Total number of dependent girls.... 519

2

I

16

2

2,942 DELINQUENT BOYS.

Disposition. Committed to John Worthy SchoolFirst commitment

460 Second commitment

155 Third commitment

75 Fourth commitment

23 Fifth commitment

4 St. Mary's Training School for Boys, Fornville

8 Schmerville

I Illinois Manual Training Farm, Glenwood

I Held to Grand Jury

21 Newboys' Home

I Parental School

224 Cases dismissed

69 Paroled to officers

564

2

I

I

2

1,586

DELINQUENT GIRLS.

Disposition.
House of Good Shepherd..
Chicago Erring Woman's Refuge for

2

75

1

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