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DESCRIPTION OF SOUTH CAROLINA.
M he King of Greut Britain having about 3 Years ago I purchased this Province of the Lords Proprietors thereof,
has since studied to make Agriculture, Commerce and Navigation, flourish in it. His Majesty immediately nominated Colonel Johnson, a worthy Gentleman, to be Governor thereof; who, at his Departure for Carolina, receiv'd divers Orders and Instructions, but in particular was directed instantly to mark out Places in a proper Situation for building Eleven Towns, viz.
Two on the River Alatamaha,
One at the River Pedee. The District of each of these Towns is to contain the Ertent of 20000 Acres of Land, formed into a Square, bordering on the River, and divided into Shares of 50 Acres for each Man, Woman, or Child, of one Family; which may be augmented as the Planters shall be in a Condition to cultivate a larger Quantity of Ground, and every one of them shall have an equal Share of the better and worse Lands, and also the same Right on the River.
Each Town shall be formed into a Parish, thc Extent whereof shall be about 6 Miles round the Town on the same side of the River; and as soon as a Parish shall contain 100 Masters of Families, they may send Two Members to the Assembly of the Province, and enjoy the same Privilege ds the other Parishes of the Province.
The Ground of each Town shall be speedily marked out, and shall belong in common to all the Inhabitants, till it shall be distributed in particular Shares to each of them. There are to be 300 Acres of Land near the Town, which shall be como mon for ever, without being charged with Rent, and no person
Land within 6 Miles of each Town.
The Rent shall be 4s per Ann. for every 100 Acres, except that for the first 10 Years the Lands shall be entirely free, and all those that shall settle in the said Towns shall enjoy the same Advantages.
His Majesty further grants to every European Servant, whether Man or Woman, 50 Acres of Land free of all Rents for 10 Years, which shall be distributed to them after having served their Master for the Time agreed on.
In consequence of these Instructions M. Purry was permitted to go and chuse on the Borders of the River Savanna Land proper to build the Town of Purrysburg upon; and having found it such as he wish'd, the Government made him a Grant thereof under the Great Seal of the Province, dated the 1st of September 1731, and at the same Time publish'd throughout the whole Country a Prohibition to all Sorts of Persons to go and settle on the said Land which is already called the Swiss Quarter.
In order to facilitate the Execution of this Undertaking in the best Manner, the Assembly granted to the said M. Purry 4001. Sterling, and Provisions sufficient for the Maintenance of 300 Persons for one Year, provided they be all Persons of good Repute, and Swiss Protestants, and that they come to Carolina within the Space of 2 Years.
The River Savanna is one of the finest in all Carolina, the Water good and stored with excellent Fish: It is about the Largeness of the Rhyne, and there are 2 Forts already built upon it, one of which call'd Pallaholaas, is 100 Miles from the Mouth thereof, and the other call'd Savanna Town, about 300 Miles; and altho' there is not usually above 20 Men to garrison the first Fort, and about 40 in the other, yet the Indians have never dared to attack them.
The Town of Purrysburg will be situated 30 Miles from the Sea, and about 7 Miles from the highest Tide; The Land about it is a most delightful Plain, and the greatest Part very good Soil, especially for Pasturage, and the rest proper enough for some Productions. It was formerly call'd the great Ymassee Port, and is esteem'd by the Inhabitants of the Province the best place in all Carolina, altho' never yet possessed but by the Indians, who were driven from thence by the English several Years ago, and have never dared to return thither. All Sorts of Trees and Plants will grow there, as well as can be wish'd, pårticularly Vines, Wheat, Barley, Oats, Pease, Beans, Hemp, Flax, Cotton, Tobacco, Indico, Olives, Orange Trees and Citworms. The Lands will not be difficult to clear, because there is neither Stones nor Brambles, but only great Trees, which do not grow, very thick ; so that more Land may be clear'd there in one Week, than could be done in Swisserland in a Month. The Custom of the Country is, that after having cut down these great Trees, they leave the Stumps for 4 or 5 Years to rot, and afterwards easily root them up, in order to manure the Land.
'Tis very certain, that Carolina is in general an excellent Country. "Tis true, the Ground is sandy; but then 'tis a Sand impregnated with Salt and Nitre, so that it brings forth in great Abundance, as the like Sọil does in divers Parts of Europe : But what is more particular to Carolina, there are a great Number of Plantations that have been continually cultivated for near 60 Years, which yet still produce great Plenty without ever being manured by the least Dung, for they never lay any on their Grounds : The Planter only turns up the Superficies of the Earth, and all that he plants and sows therein quickly grows and matures : Those who understand ever so little of Agriculture will be obliged to own, that if the Lands in Europe were not constantly manured, their Strength would be so exhausted, that at length the Crops would not pay for the Seed. But a Man who shall have a little Land in Carolina, and who is not willing to work above 2 or 3 Hours a Day, may very easily live there.
Another Consideration deserving our Notice is the Progress of the first Colonies, their sudden Advancement, the Riches of the present Inhabitants, the great Number of publick Expences for which they provide, the great Trade which they carry on at present, and lastly their Misfortunes and Losses; which are entirely repair’d. The better to comprehend these Matters, we shall only make the following Observations. 1. That there were no People in Carolina till about 60 Years ago, for the English did not begin to send any thither till the Year 1670. 2. That they had at first very fatal Beginnings, being afflicted with Sicknesses, and even the Plague, which daily diminish'd the Number of the People. 3. That cruel destructive Divisions sprung up among them. 4. That they had a very bad Government under the Lords Proprietors, being almost without Order, Justice or Discipline. 5. That at a certain Time the Pyrates interrupted their Trade and Navigation. 6. That they have often had great Droughts. 7. That a terrible Fire consumed almost all Charles Town. 8. That they have been at great Expence in Fortifications, publick Edifices, Churches, fc. 9. That they
Wumber of the People. 4. That they had a st without
and particularly with the Indians, who once united altogether to destroy the whole Province. 10. That notwithstanding all these Misfortunes, the People of Carolina, except those who give themselves up to Debauchery, are all rich, either in Slaves, Furniture, Cloaths, Plate, Jewels, or other Merchandizes, but especially in Cattle; which shews the Goodness of the Country they inhabit.
The most Part of those who came first thither were very poor and miserable ; several of those who are most considerable went but as Servants.
The Trade of Carolina is now so considerable, that of late Years there has Sail'd from thence annually above 200 Ships, laden with Merchandizes of the Growth of the Country, besides 3 Ships of War, which they commonly have for the Security of the Commerce, and last Winter they had constantly 5, the least of which had above' 100 Men on Board. It appears by the Customhouse Entries from March 1730, to March 1731, that there sailed within that Time from Charles Town 207 Ships most of them for England, which carried among other Goods 41957 Barrels of Rice about 500 Pound Weight per Barrel, 10754 Barrels of Pitch, 2063 of Tar, and 1159 of Turpentine, of Deer Skins 300 Casks, containing 8 or 900 each; besides a vast Quantity of Indian Corn, Pease, Beans, &c. Beef, Pork, and other salted Flesh, Beams, Planks, and Timber for Building, most part of Cedar, Cypress, Sassafras, Oak, Walnut and Pine.
They carry on a great Trade with the Indians, from whom they get these great Quantities of Deer Skins, and those of other wild beasts, in Exchange for which they give them only Lead, Powder, coarse Cloth, Vermillion, Iron Ware, and some other Goods, by which they have a very considerable Profit.
The great Number of Slaves makes another part of the Riches of this Province, there being above 40,000 Negroes, which are worth one with another 100 Crowns each.
There are between 5 and 600 Houses in Charles Town, the most of which are very costly ; besides 5 handsome Churches, viz. one for those of the Church of England, one for the Presbyterians, one for the Anabaptists, one for the Quakers, and one for the French. If you travel into the Country, you will see stately Buildings, noble Castles, and an infinite Number of all Sorts of Cattle. If it be ask'd what has produced all this? the Answer is, 'Tis only the rich Land of Carolina.
There is not the least Appearance but that the Prosperity of this Province will still increase, and, with the Blessing of Hea
only because the King has much at heart the Improvement of this new Country, but because People come thither from all Parts. His Majesty has lately sent thither 74 pieces of heavy Cannon, with Powder, Ball, &.c. and Governor Johnson is setting out from Charles Town to mark out the Land, whereon to build two good Forts, one at Port-royal, and the other upon the River Alatamaha, betwixt which is the River Savanna. The People of the Palatinate, those of New York, New-England, and other Parts, sell all that they have to come to Carolina : which has raised the Price of Lands within 50 miles about Charles Town to four times the Value in 4 or 5 Years time: It will probably be the same about Purrysburg. However, it is a certain Truth, that the same quantity of Land at Charles Town which might be bought for a Crown about 40 Years ago, cannot at this Time be bought for 2001. Sterling, nor even for 3001, in those Places which are well situated for Trade.
The good Dispositions which are making daily for a regular Administration of Justice, cannot fail of bringing the Country into Reputation, and drawing thither still great numbers of People. Artificers are so scarce at present, that all sorts of Work is very dear; Taylors, Shoemakers, Smiths, &c. would be particularly acceptable there. A skilful Carpenter is not ashamed to demand 30 s. per Day besides his Diet; and the common Wages of a Workman is 20 s. per Day, provided he speaks English, without which he cannot be understood, and consequently not so useful as others; and when a Workman has but 10 s. per Day he thinks he labours for almost nothing, tho' he has his Maintenance besides. But this is Carolina Money. .
Most of their Shoes are brought from England, and generally sell for 40 s. per pair. Not but they have Hides enough, and very cheap, an Ox's Hide being sold for 20 s. neither are they destitute of the Means to tan them; for they make very good Lime with Oyster-shells, and the Bark of Oak-trees is so plentiful, that it costs nothing but the Trouble of gathering: They want therefore only a sufficient number of good Tanners and Shoemakers.
I might say the same of Leather dressers, since they send every Year to England above 200,000 Deer-skins undrest. Yet Carolina produces Oker naturally, and good Fish-oyl may be had from New York or New-England very cheap: So that they might be drest and made up into Breeches in the Country, for which those Skins are very proper, being warm in Winter and cool in Summer.
There is not one Potter in all the Province, and no Earthen