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So that a Pot-house and a good Glass-house would succeed perfectly well, not only for Carolina but for all the other Colonies in America. There is a kind of Sand and Earth which would be very proper for these Purposes, as also Wood and Fern in abundance, had they but Workmen to make use of them.
The woods are full of wild Vines, bearing 5 or 6 sorts of Grapes naturally; but for want of Vine-dressers, &c. scarce any Wine is drank there but what comes from Madera, which are indeed cheap, for a Bottle of excellent Wine cost last Winter but 2 s. Carolina Money to those who bought it by the Hogshead. There is something so singular in these Wines of Madera that we cannot forbear mentioning it; which is, That Heat preserves them, and Cold spoils them: For as in Europe they are obliged to put their Wine in cool Cellars; these, on the contrary, must be put into the warmest Places. If they begin to be sour, they are exposed to the greatest Heats of the Sun to be recovered : So that to keep them good, you are to do what you would in other Parts to make Vinegar. This seems to be the greatest Paradox in the World, but nothing is more certain ; and strange as it may seem, Col. Bleek caused a Vault to be made over his Oven, purposely, to keep his Wine in all the Year. · The Cattle on Carolina are very fat in Summer, but as lean in Winter, because they can find very little to eat, and have no Cover to shelter them from the cold Rains, Frosts, and Snows, which lasts sometimes 3 or 4 Days : Only the Cattle design'd for the Butchery are fed, and they bad enough, with Potatoes, Straw, and Grain ; but they always lie in the open Field, for there is not one Hovel in all the Country, either for Oxen or Cows. If you object this to the Planters, they answer, that such Houses or Hovels would do very well, but that they have too many other Affairs to think of that. The last Winter being very severe about 10,000 horned Cattle died of Hunger and Cold. Notwithstanding this, the People will not change their Conduct, because they do not understand the manner of ordering Cattle, nor even know how to mow the Grass, in order to make it into Hay, of which they might have great Plenty for Fodder. Their Ignorance in this respect is very great, which is the Reason that Butter is always dear, being sold last Winter at 7s, 6 d. per Pound, and in Januory and February last it was sold at Charles Town for 12 s. per Pound: In a word, nothing would be more easy than for Persons who understand Country Affairs to grow rich in a little time. There is so great a num
Condottile, not even of wielu loks respecte ting sold last thing was
marked, which he let run in the Woods' with other Cattle ; Nobody looks after them, or takes any other Care, but to bring them together in the Evening to lie in a Park near the House.
At certain times they kill a great many to send the Flesh salted to several other Colonies, where there is little Pasturage, particularly to the Isles of Antilles, and in general to all those of the Torrid Zone.
Horses, the best Kind in the World, are so plentiful, that you seldom see any body travel on foot, except Negroes, and they oftner on horseback; so that when a Taylor, a Shoemaker, or any other Tradesman, is obliged to go but 3 Miles from his House, it would be very extraordinary to see him travel on foot.
There is likewise in this Country a prodigious number of Swine, which multiply infinitely, and are kept with very little Charge, because they find almost all the Year Acorns, of which there is 5 or 6 sorts, as also Nuts, Walnuts, Chesnuts, Herbs, Roots, &c. in the Woods : So that if you give them never so little at home they become fat; after which you may salt and send great quantities of them to the Isles of Barbadoes, St. Christophers, Jamaica, &c. which produce very good Returns either in Money or Merchandizes.
Of all Animals in that Country, none are a less Charge than Sheep, for they subsist only on what they find in the Fields ; yet are always in good Case, and bring forth their Lambs regularly; and there is a particular sort, whose Wool is not inferiour to the finest Spanish Wool.
Flax and Cotton thrive admirably, and Hemp grows to 13 or 14 Foot in height, but as few People know how to order it, there is scarce any cultivated; besides, they want Dung, which is very necessary for that purpose, few Plants weakening Land so much as Hemp does : However, this is one of the Articles which would produce most Profit, because the Parliament has allow'd so much per Ton upon all Hemp which comes from the English Plantations in America, in order that in time of War they may have no need of Hemp from Russia and Poland; besides this Encouragement, which is to last for 30 Years longer, there is an Exemption from some other Duties on Importation; which joined together, makes an Advantage of about 40 per Cent. over that of Hemp from other Parts. org
Rice and Indian Corn produce at least an hundred-fold, and would much more, if the Land was better cultivated. The Easiness of procuring such a plenty of Grain, is the Reason that the Planters have or may have at all Times a Court-yard fill'd with Cocks, Hens, Turkeys, Geese, Ducks, &c. also a good Pigeon-house, without being at any Expence. There is great plenty of Game of all sorts, but especially wild Turkeys, some of which are 30 pound weight, and those who love Fowling may easily take them. With this Indian Corn they make pretty good Bread, for it is much finer and better than in Swisserland, or in any other part of Europe, where it is commonly calld Turkey Corn.
Persons may grow rich in Carolina without being at much Expence or Labour, by planting white Mulberry Trees for feeding of Silk-worms, there being perhaps no Country in the World where those Trees grow better, nor where the Silk is finer than in Carolina. They grow so much in so short a Time, that we dare scarce mention it: Capt. Scott has one at the back of his House at Port-Royal, not above 7 or 8 Years old, the Body, whereof is above 5 foot round. It would be difficult to believe this, if it was not confirmed by other Mulberry Trees of 4 or 5 Years old, at Port-Royal, Westmesaa, Gouscrick, and other Plantations, the Trunks whereof are near a foot in Diameter. · But as all the Planters apply themselves chiefly to the Production of Rice, Pitch, and Tar, there is very little ise made of them. However, those who have been in Provence and Languedoc know, that the Strippings of a Mulberry Tree, that is, the Leaves of a Summer, are commonly sold for a Crown, and sometimes two, altho' the Silk of those two Provinces is but very indifferent; from whence it may be easily conjectur’d, what Riches Carolina would produce, if this Affair was well managed. All other Trees grow there in the same Proportion, and much faster than in Europe, but particularly the Peach Tree; for the 3d Year it is commonly loaded with Fruit, and is a great Tree the 4th Year..
Some perhaps will object, that this Country is feverish and unhealthy, and all the Advantages which might be found in other Respects, would not make Amends for the loss of Health : Besides, that you are plagued there with several sorts of Insects, and especially with great Rattle-Snakes; so that you are in Danger of your Life every Moment.
To this we answer, That if People are sick there, 'tis generally an Effect of their bad Conduct, and not knowing how to regulate themselves suitably to the Country where they live; for ’tis very certain, that those who observe Precautions have as good Health there as they would in other places. But the better to understand this Affair; you must know that the uncultivated Lands of Carolina, as well as the other adjacent Provinces, which extend much further than Canada, being wholly covered with large Pine Trees, very cold in their Nature, and when the
dispers'd by a Northerly Wind, you feel a Cold almost as sharp as in Europe; so that in one Day you may find a considerable Change of Air: This then, together with the Debauches made by Punch, strong Madera Wines, and the eating unripe Fruits, is the real Source of the Sicknesses there ; for sensual Persons, who have not the Power to deny themselves any thing, when they find that a hot Day is succeeded by a great Coolness towards Evening, expose themselves to it with great pleasure without troubling themselves with the Consequence; and when this Pleasure is succeeded by Rheumatisms, Fevers, or other Distempers, they never fail of pouring out Curses on the Country, rather than own their Carelesness or Excess. And 'tis very common for those newly arrived, to say, when they have gat any Illness, That 'tis a Tribute they must pay to the Climate. But such as take care to keep their Breasts always warm, to shun the great Transpirations of the Air, to cover themselves well in the Night especially in Summer, and in other Respects live regularly, will certainly enjoy as good Health there as in any other Part of the World.
There are few Insects in Carolina that can reasonably be complain’d of, except a sort of Gnats, which they call Muscatoes; and there is scarce any of these except in low Grounds, or near the Rivers; but if a House is troubled with them, it is easily remedied, by opening the Windows about Sun-setting, and shutting them again a little before the Close of the Twilight, the Muscatoes never failing to quit the House at that Time; and for better Security, they make fine Gause-work about their Beds, which keeps them off.
There are people in Europe, especially in England, that tremble only at the Name of a Rattle-Snake, imagining; that the Country of Carolina is so full of them, that there is no going into the Woods without Danger of Life : But this is an Error as ill-grounded as the most part of the other Reports pread Abroad to the Disadvantage of this new World. At least, 'tis certain, that this Serpent is very seldom seen, and if they are met, do very little Hurt, except they are provoked to defend themselves : Besides, they never fail of giving you Notice of their Approach by their Rattles, which may be heard at a considerable Distance. 'Tis also said, that the Venom of this Serpent is mortal, and kills in a very short Time, if not prevented by some Antidotes : But those Remedies are well known by every body in the Country. When Mr. Purry went with his small Company to chuse out a Spot of Land on the River Savanna, the People told them before their Departure from Charles Town, that they had great Reason to fear these Rattle-Snakes, the Country being full of them; and that they ought to keep a good Guard against them; however they did not so much as see one of those Serpents, nor of any other sort for 15 Days that they travelled about in the Woods, tho' it was in the Middle of Summer at a time when all Serpents are out of their Holes. It is very seldom that any Person is bitten by these Snakes, or by those of other Kinds, which are much more common, that it would be very difficult to find so much as one Person in all Carolina that has ever had this Misfortune. There are also some Crocodiles in the Rivers, but the People fear them no more, than if they were so many Fishes, since it was never known that they have hurt any person whatsoever.
Those that may have any Desire to go and settle there may further take notice of 3 or 4 observations: oris
1st, That South Carolina is not only situated in the same Degree of Heat, Fertility, and Temperature of Air, which is about 33 Degrees Latitude, as Barbary, the Isle of Candia, Syria, Persia, Mogolistan, China, and in general all the best Countries in the Universe ; but it is also the only Country of all those the English possess that is situated in that Degree; and there is all the Reason in the World to believe, that if there be now an Opportunity to have Lands there for nothing, this Advantage will not continue long. At least 'tis very certain that those who shall come first, will have the Choice of Land, as also the Proximity of Rivers, much better than those that shall come afterwards.
2dly, That by means of the Wool, Cotton, Flax and Hemp, it will be easy to procure all Linnen necessary, as also good Cloth and Stuffs for Cloathing, without being forced to purchase them at a very dear rate from the Shops, as most of the Planters are at present. And what is still an Article very considerable, there will be no Danger of wanting Provisions in a Country so plentiful, unless some Accidents happen, which cannot be foreseen by human Prudence; we may be assured that Hailstones will not deprive the Inhabitants thereof. Gabrd
3dly, That Carolina being of all the Neighboring Provinces which the English possess on the Continent of North America, from 29 to 49 Degrees of Latitude, is not only the largest and most productive of Necessaries, but also the most Southward, and nearest to Jamaica, Barbadoes, and all the Islands of the Antilles, which have Occasion for salted Provisions, Bread, Wine, Fruits, Roots, and several other Things, we need not hesitate a Moment to prefer it to all the other colonies on the North side. And besides the great Advantages which may accrue to the Inhabitants by the Fertility of the Land, and the Temperateness of the Climate, the Situation thereof for Trade