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unruffled by personal considerations, who will pursue through all difficulties the paramount object of peace. But, unhappily, this condition is not being fulfilled. The inevitable disputes which have arisen between ourselves and the Americans, as neutrals and belli. gerents, are passing from the region of diplomacy and of the calm dignity which Lord Russell has well maintained, into the passion of popular debate, and the unscrupulous writing and talking of political faction. Mr. Roebuck, in putting a question in the House of Commons, on April 23rd, thought fit to indulge in a speech of the most intemperate and offensive description ; and some minor lights of the Conservative Opposition succeeded in imitating his bitterness of tone, though not, perhaps, his pointedness of expression. There can be no greater blot on our civilization than that war should be capable of being produced between two nations, without the pretence of the independence, safety, or real honour of either being concerned, by the reckless tongues and pens of a few politicians on each side. But such an event is, above all, indefensible, when it is made to arise out of a pure question of international law, which can be decided by reference to known principles and ascertainable rules, carrying in their application nothing but honour to both parties who abide by them. We sincerely trust, whatever the event may be, that our Government will keep within the strict limits of public law, and while demanding nothing but that law for itself, be ready to act fully up to its spirit as well as its letter in dealing with the Americans.
The Commission (alluded to in our last Number) appointed by her Majesty to inquire into the operation of the Acts relating to Transportation and Penal Servitude, and with the manner in which sentences of transportation have been, and are, carried into effect, met for the first time on the 2nd February, and has since continued its sittings twice a week for the examination of witnesses.
It is believed that the report will be presented very shortly, and we shall probably notice it at length in our next number. The subject has been abundantly debated in its various aspects.
A special meeting of the National Association for the Promotion of Social Science, was held at Burlington House on the 17th of February, to discuss the expediency of renewing the transportation of criminals, when a resolution, disapproving of the punishment, was moved by Mr. Hastings, and carried by a large majority.
At a meeting of the Council of the Association, on the 19th February, the following resolutions were unanimously agreed to, on the motion of Mr. Hastings, and Mr. Stephen Cave, M.P. :
“1. That the failure of the present system of convict discipline in England is chiefly due to the short sentences frequently passed on habitual criminals, the want of an efficient probationary stage for convicts under sentence, and of police supervision over discharged prisoners.
“2. That these defects would be remedied by adopting and carrying out the principles of the convict system which has been 80 successfully administered in Ireland.
"3. That it is not desirable to attempt any return to the old system of transportation, which, apart from the opposition it would provoke from the colonies, would entail heavy and permanent expense on this country, without producing any adequate advantages, or any results which would not be better, as well as more cheaply, obtained by well-regulated convict establishments at home.
" 4. That at the same time it is most desirable to encourage the emigration of criminals sentenced to penal servitude, who shall have, by steady industry and labour, whilst in prison, or whilst under probation, saved a sum sufficient to enable them to defray the whole or the greater part of their passage money to any colony they may select."
A full report of the transportation debate has been published, and may be obtained at the office of the Association, or at Miss Faithfull's, Princes Street, Hanover Square.
The Law Amendment Society has also been active on the subject, and a report founded on the following resolutions of a special committee appointed to consider the question of convict discipline is now in preparation :
"1. That it is not desirable to revive the system of transportation, but it is desirable to promote the emigration of criminals sentenced to penal servitude, who shall have by stearly industry and labour, whilst in prisons, or whilst under probation, earned a sum sufficient to enable them to defray the whole or the greater part of their passage money to any colony they may select.
"2. That the present system of short imprisonments requires revision.
“4. That it is desirable that the convict system should be remodelled on the principle of the convict system now in force in Ireland.
“5. That for this purpose the preliminary imprisonment should be made more severe ; that a system of marks should be established in the second stage of labour ; that intermediate prisons on the plan of Lusk and Smithfield should be organised, and that a strict supervision should be exercised over convicts discharged on tickets of leave, the conditions of which should be stringently enforced.
“6. That a report be drawn up, founded on the resolutions passed by this committee, and that such report, when adopted by the society, be forwarded to the commissioners on convict discipline.”
In consequence of some observations addressed to the Society by Mr. Trower, the following resolutions, described as
· Law Reporting,” were proposed and agreed to:
"1. That it is highly expedient that the reported decisions of our superior courts of law in England and Ireland, from the earliest to the present time, should be forth with expurgated and consolidated, and their undue accumulation for the future be, if possible, prevented.
“ 2. That to this end a Royal Commission should issue to inquire and report what are the best means of effecting such expurgation and consolidation, and of preventing such an accumulation, and, generally, of improving the present system of law reporting.
“ That a deputation of this Society do forth with wait on the Lord Chancellor, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, and the Home Secretary, to lay the views of this Society before them, and urge upon them the immediate adoption of these resolutions.”
It will be observed, however, that these resolutions go much further than their nominal purport, and embrace, in fact, no less a project than the revision of the whole of our unwritten law. The Chancellor, we believe, entertains some such scheme, and perhaps his great energies might be capable of grappling with the difficulties, which, in sober truth, would be enormous. At all events, his lord. ship seems to have given an attentive hearing to the deputation from the Law Amendment Society, and after dilating on the subject for some time, expressed his desire for a further interview when the plan has become more matured. The deputation, we learn from the papers, consisted of the Right Hon. T. E. Headlam, M.P. ; Mr. Daniel, Q.C.; Mr. Thomas Webster ; Mr. James Vaughan ; Mr. Pulling; Mr. Edgar; and the Secretary, Mr. G. H. Palmer.
The Society has also had before it an interesting paper by Mr. R. R. Torrens, the Registrar-General of South Australia, on the Transfer of Land by Registration of Title, as now in operation in Australia, under the “ Torrens system.” We have perused this paper with much interest, and commend it to the attention of our readers.
Mr. Serjeant Wrangham expired at his residence, near Bath, on the 10th of March, aged 58 years. The learned serjeant was the eldest son of a distinguished scholar, Archdeacon Wrangham, and himself took a double first degree at Oxford, in 1826. He was called to the Bar in 1829, but he began public life rather as a politician than a lawyer. He was selected, solely on the ground of his academical distinction, by Lord Audley, as his private secretary at the Foreign Office ; and he remained, at Lord Aberdeen's request, in the same office during the Duke of Wellington's administration. For a short time, too, he sat in Parliament for Sudbury. He then returned to practice at the Bar, and went the Northern Circuit ; but was soon induced to leave it by his increasing Parliamentary practice, at first chietly in election petitions, but afterwards, and for many years exclusively, in committees on private bills. The present vacant leadership falls by seniority to the lot of Sir W. Alexander, Q.C., one of the benchers of the Middle Temple.
APPOINTMENTS. Mr. E. J. LLOYD, Q.C., of the Chancery Bar, has been appointed Judge of the County Court of Bristol, in the place of Mr. Willes, deceased. Mr. W. Spooner, of the Common Law Bar, has been appointed Judge of the County Court of Staffordshire, in the room of Sir W. B. Riddell, Bart., removed to the Whitechapel County Court, in the room of Mr. Serjeant Manning, resigned.
Mr. Selfe, Senior Magistrate of the Thames Police Court, has been appointed to the Westminster Court, in the place of Mr. Paynter, resigned; and Mr. Partridge, stipendiary Magistrate at Wolverhampton, has been appointed to succeed Mr. Selfe.
Mr. G. S. Venables, of the Common Law Bar, has been appointed Queen's Counsel.
Sir William J. Alexander, Bart., Q.C., has been appointed Attorney-General to the Prince of Wales, and also one of the Council of his Royal Highness.
Mr. Keene, of the Chancery Bar, has been appointed DeputyRegistrar of Appeals of the Court of Chancery sitting in Bankruptcy, during the absence, on account of illness, of Mr. Vizard.
Mr. W. P. Murray, of the Equity Bar, has been appointed Registrar of the District Court of Bankruptcy, at Manchester.
Mr. John Bullar and Mr. C. Davidson have been appointed Examiners of Titles under the Land Transfer Act.
The Hon. Evelyn Ashley has been appointed Treasurer of the County Court of Dorset, in the room of Edwin Nicholett, deceased.
Mr. Thomas Goodman, of the firm of Lowless, Nelson, and Goodman, has been appointed Deputy Clerk of Assize for the Norfolk Circuit, in the place of the late Mr. Alexander Edgell; and Mr. William Collisson has been appointed Associate to the Circuit, vacant by the promotion of Mr. Goodman,
Mr. E. W. Williamson has been elected Secretary to the Law Institution, in the room of Mr. Maugham, deceased.
IRELAND.-Mr. James Robinson, Q.C., has been appointed to the Chairmanship of the County Tyrone ; Mr. Francis Brady, Q.C., to the Chairmanship of the County Roscommon ; and Mr. B. C. Lloyd to that of King's County.
AFRICA.-William Ilackett, Esq., has been appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of her Majesty's Forts and Settlements, and Assessor to the Native Chiefs within the Protected Territories on the Gold Coast; and Thomas Lewis Ingram, Esq., to be her Majesty's Advocate and Police Magistrate at the Gambia.
BRITISH GUIANA.-Joseph Beaumont, Esq., has been appointed Chief Justice for the colony of British Guiana, in the place of Sir W. Arrindell, C.B.
British KAFFRARIA.—Thomas Henry Giddy, Esq., has been appointed Master of the Supreme Court of British Kaffraria.
INDIA.—Mr. George Campbell, of the Bengal Civil Service, has been appointed a Judge of the High Court of Calcutta; Mr. W. Holloway, Puisne Judge of the High Court of Judicature at Madras; Mr. J. G. Thompson, Civil and Sessions Judge of Tellicherry; Mr. J. W. Dalrymple, Civil and Sessions Judge of Purneah ; Mr. C. F. Montresor, Magistrate of the twenty-four Purgunnahs, and Super
intendent of the Allipore Gaol ; Mr. F. B. Simpson, Magistrate and Collector of Purneah ; Mr. A. Smith, Magistrate and Deputy Collector of Dinagepore ; Mr. W. H. Henderson, Magistrate and Collector of Mymensing ; Mr. J. Beames, Joint Magistrate and Deputy Collector of Purneah ; Mr. J. D. Gordon, Magistrate and Collector of Maldah ; Mr. W. J. Herschell, and Mr. C. E. Lance, Magistrates and Collectors of Monghyr ; Mr. C. P. Hobhouse, Civil and Sessions Judge of the twenty-four Pergunnahs ; Mr. J. D. Mayne, Assistant Secretary to the Government of Madras, in the Legislative Department; Mr. H. B. Thompson, Queen's Puisne Judge at Ceylon ; Mr. R. F. Morgan, Queen's Advocate at Ceylon ; Mr. Lawson, confirmed in the Office of District Judge of Colombo ; Mr. M. B. Thornhill, Judge and Sessions Judge of Jounpore ; Mr. H. P. Fane, Judge and Sessions Judge of Mirzapore ; Mr. H. E. Perkins,
: Judge, and to Preside over the Small Cause Court at Hoshyar pore ; Mr. M. J. M. S. Stewart, Collector and Magistrate of North Canara, Bombay ; Mr. S. St. J. Gordon, Collector and Magistrate of Tanya Presidency ; Mr. N. W. Oliver, Senior Magistrate, and Mr. H. E. Leeke, Acting Second Magistrate, for the Town and Island of Bombay ; Mr. C. E. Bernard, Settlement Officer of Wurdah District ; Mr. D. J. McNeile, Joint Magistrate and Deputy Collector of Jessore ; Mr. V. T. Taylor, Joint Magistrate and Deputy Collector of Rungpore ; Mr. J. S. Drummond, Joint Magistrate and Deputy Collector of Behar ; Mr. H. R. Madocks, Joint Magistrate and Deputy Collector of Nuddea ; Mr. W. Heysham, Deputy Magistrate and Deputy Collector of the twenty-four Pergunnahs, to be also Deputy Collector of Calcutta ; and Mr. F. L. Beaufort to be Civil and Sessional Judge of the twenty-four Pergunnahs.
Mr. J. Bruce Norton has been appointed Advocate General of Madras.
NATAL.-Philip Allen, Esq., has been appointed Resident Mayistrate for the colony of Natal.
BAR EXAMINATIONS. The Council of Legal Education have approved the following rules for the public examination of the students :As an
inducement to students to propose themselves for examination, studentships shall be founded of fifty guineas per annum each, to continue for a period of three years, and one such studentship shall be conferred on the most distinguished student at each public examination ; and, further, the examiners shall select and certify the names of three other students who shall have passed the next best examinations ; and the Inns of Court to which such
; students belong may, if desired, dispense with any terms, not exceeding two, that may remain to be kept by such students previously to their being called to the Bar. Provided that the examiners shall not be obliged to confer or grant any studentship or certificate, un