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the shores and banks of our rivers and smaller sion that will not do honor to its great streams, are objects worthy of the intelligent
men. Within a few days we had from attention of our citizens. Now, therefore, I, Daniel H. Hastings, Gov
Dr. Wm. T. Harris, U. S. Commissioner ernor of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania,
of Education, the following letter: "I in accordance with law, do hereby designate presume that the readers of your valuable and proclaim Friday, the roth day of April, and Journal may be aware that May 4th is Friday, the 24th day of April, A. D. 1896, to be the birthday of Horace Mann. But, perobserved as Arbor Days throughout the Commonwealth.
haps, not all of them know that next May The selection of either of the above designated 4th is the centennial anniversary of the days is left to the choice of the people in the birth of that distinguished educator. A various sections of the Commonwealth, to the friend of mine has made what seems to end that that day may be selected which is
me a good suggestion, namely, that the deemed the most favorable on account of climatic conditions.
public schools of the land should celeGiven under my hand and the Great Seal of
brate by appropriate exercises the one the State. this Twenty-fifth day of February, in hundredth birthday of one whose influence the year of our Lord One Thousand Eight has been so potent for good in the comHundred and Ninety-six, and of the Commonwealth the One Hundred and Twentieth.
mon schools of the country.” By the Governor:
DANIEL H. HASTINGS. At a meeting of the Pennsylvania FRANK REEDER,
Chautauqua recently held at Lebanon, Secretary of the Commonwealth.
Chancellor T. E. Schmauk announced the illustrated and scientific lecture courses
for the next Chautauqua Assembly, at 'HE World's Fair, to be held at Paris Mt. Gretna. The lectures will all be
Tuin 1900, gives promise of being dorthin miten between July och and August 6th,
of France, and worthy to inaugurate the the dates of opening and closing the Twentieth Century. The buildings will Assembly. While the lecture list is not be upon a colossal scale; twenty-two yet complete, it shows that sixteen speakcountries have already notified the au- ers will give one hundred lectures. thorities of their purpose to be represented in the grand display. In itself the ARBOR DAY will be celebrated in PhilCity on the Seine is a permanent exhibi- adelphia by the Forestry Association, and tion of the arts and sciences; and this Governor Hastings will plant a tree in International Exposition will be one of honor of William Penn, on the campus of the grandest the world has seen. But the the University of Pennsylvania. The Dream City on the shore of Lake Michi- tree to be planted will be a scion of the gan, in 1893, need fear no rival. It stands Penn Treaty Elm, which stood at Kenapart, unique and peerless!
sington, on the banks of the Delaware.
The sprout to be placed in honor of the The next meeting of the National Edu- Founder has been promised to Mr. Berkcational Association will be held at inbine by General Oliver, of WilkesBuffalo, New York, within easy distance Barre, who has a tree fifty-six years old, of Niagara Falis. The National Council
grown from a branch of the original tree. meets July 3--7, and the General Association will be in session from Tuesday, Nearly eight thousand copies of the July 7th, until July 11th. The railroad Dr. Burrowes portrait have been sent out. rate will be a single fare for round trip It is received with approval everywhere. ticket, plus $2.00, the fee of membership. Supt. A. G. C. Smith, of Delaware county, The teachers of Pennsylvania should be writes under date of March 9th : “The well represented at the Buffalo meeting. supply of portraits of the late Dr. Thos.
H. Burrowes, which you sent me, have Horace MANN will be a hundred years been in hand for some days, and many of old within a few weeks, and it is proposed them have been distributed to our schools. to celebrate his birthday. A good picture They please both teachers and directors, of him has long been upon the wall in and many already speak of having them our school-room. We are in hearty ac- framed so that they may remain permacord with the movement. Let the edu- nently in the school rooms. I congratucator be honored always and everywhere, late your committee upon the very satisand especially when he comes to be a factory manner in which you have perhundred years old. It is a poor profes- | formed this part of your important work.”'
CHOOSE THE BEST MEN. appointed by the State Superintendent,
which was regarded as somewhat too 'HE most important of our triennial autocratic and not likely to meet with
elections, that for the local super- the approval of the Legislature ; 2. To vision of our public schools, will be held
have them elected by the popular vote, on Tuesday, May 5th proximo. It is ob- which was regarded as objectionable beligatory upon Directors to look closely cause the office would inevitably get into the personality of the candidates who mixed up with party politics and the may be presented for their suffrages, high qualifications required be lost sight whether, in addition to scholarship and
of in the interest of faction and geographpractical mastery of the art of teaching, ical distribution of county offices generthey have the weight and force of char- ally ; and 3. As a compromise it was acter to dignify and adorn this high deemed most judicious and safe to make office, and make it respected and influen- the selection devolve upon the immediate tial in the communities it was created to representatives of the people—the School serve; and whether from all that can be Directors who are clothed with the known, the candidate, if elected, will weightiest powers and authority embodied probably perform his official duties with in the enactment, and it was believed judicial firmness and impartiality and
that the dispassionate action of these with absolute integrity of purpose.
responsible bodies would be so conservaThe office of School Superintendent is
tive and patriotic as to satisfy public as important in its own field of action as opinion and secure the best practical that of President Judge of the law courts,
results, and the incumbent should be selected Experience has shown that, in the with the same scrupulous regard for ca- majority of cases, the best attainable repacity and unpurchasable honesty of pur
sults have been secured ; but it is unpose in the discharge of his duties. To deniably the fact that at almost every Directors of large experience and high election there have been instances of standing, who have the welfare of the comparative and sometimes almost total public schools at heart and always act failure to select competent and trustworthy with an eye single to their prosperity and men. The public schools in such locali. success, we need say nothing on this sub- ties have grieviously suffered in conseject; but, as many Directors are new to quence, and the reputation even of the the office, and have more or less imper- Commonwealth has, for the time, been fect knowledge of the condition and wants compromised. This is especially shown of the schools and of the qualities that in the multitude of low-grade certificates, are essential in this chief executive school which should never have been issued, and officer of the county, city, borough, or with which some parts of the State have other locality, we may be indulged in the
been flooded. suggestion that they cannot aim too high The responsibility for this inexcusable in selecting the men to fill this most hon- letting down of the bars-this lowering orable and responsible position. Both of the standard of qualification-rests dithe law and an interested public expect rectly with the respective County Superthat they will vote for the best and most intendents, who, in disregard of their competent man that can be induced to official duty and in violation of their accept the office, if they can discover by solemn official oath, have betrayed their diligent inquiry who that man may be.
trusts and sacrificed the children in the The office was created for educational schools under their charge. It makes no purposes purely, and educational reasons difference what their motive, or absence alone should govern the selection of the of motive, may have been for this betrayal incumbent. Politics should not be per
of a most sacred cause. Whether a want mitted to enter this sacred arena, nor of courage, or want of intelligence, is imshould personal ends incompatible with
material. The disastrous results have the welfare of the schools be permitted to been the same in either case, and it is for have any influence in the choice of the results they are to be held responsible. Superintendent.
Let no such men be re-elected. Strike When the law establishing the County
them down without hesitation wherever Superintendency was passed in 1854, three
found. They have no moral or legal methods of selecting the Superintendent right to fill a high post of duty which presented themselves: 1. To have them they thus betray and dishonor. If ignor
ant and incompetent'teachers are to be this point; and we feel justified in refoisted upon the public schools, incom- spectfully saying to these officers, soon petent School Directors or men careless to be assembled in convention for the of their duty to the public can do this election of a Superintendent of Schools to without the help and connivance of such serve for the ensuing three years, to the general officers. It is not necessary to benefit or loss of the children under his elect, commission, swear in, and pay, supervision, "When you have a thora Superintendent for that purpose. oughly good man, keep him, no matter
Elect only men who know what the how many terms he has served.” true standard of teachers' qualifications ought to be, and who will maintain that standard with unflinching fidelity and THE ALTOONA MEETING. firmness “though the heavens fall.” What citizen would think of asking a 'HE City and Borough Superintendents President Judge to decide a case in his whose convention was held at Alfavor, or tamper with the scales of justice toona during the first week in March, had in his behalf, because he had voted for a royal welcome from Supt. Keith and him on election day? What Superin- his Board of Directors. The sessions tendent of proper qualifications and sense lasted two days and one evening. The of character, would permit a Director, Assembly hall of the New High School even though he had voted for him, to ap- was placed at the disposal of the convenpeal to him to lower his standard for the tion. The audience which greeted Dr. accommodation or benefit of some relative Brumbaugh on Thursday evening was or dependent who wanted the money for large, enthusiastic, and intelligent. The a few months' teaching, but who was not singing by the pupils of the High School qualified to earn it? Pennsylvania can- was superb. In originality, content, denot afford to have any portion of her ex- livery and power to fascinate, the address cellent school machinery inoperative or of Dr. Brumbaugh surpassed anything we converted into a sham with impunity. heard at the Jacksonville meeting. The
In the line of safe precedent, which is banquet at the Logan House, which the becoming more and more a settled habit of Directors gave in honor of their visitors, late years, is the practice of continuing ex- was replete with good feeling, good perienceed and faithful school superin-speakers, and other good things for the tendents in position as long as they are palate and the soul. willing to serve, if they continue to be On Friday morning, Supt. Henry devoted and capable and progressive. Houck completed his sixtieth year. His Such officers are entitled to the reward of friends presented him a purse with sixty merit which continued re-election confers. shining silver dollars, each dollar symOur educational policy, when properly bolizing a year of his life. No other carried out, is essentially a growth, that school man is so well known throughont is not carried forward by fitful and im- the state, or more generally esteemed. pulsive changes, but by steadfast and logi. During his long and honorable connection cal development. Superintendents, and with the School Department, he has adteachers, and pupils, all grow when they dressed the teachers and directors of have the opportunity; and that oppor- every county in the State, always finding tunity, it is obvious, should not be cut large and enthusiastic audiences ready to short or denied, except for some unmis- welcome him back into their midst. In takably good reason.
the heart of every educator and teacher Rotation in office is not sound policy there is a spot which grows warmer at unless it is certain that material improve- the sight of his face and at the mention ment will result from the change, and
of his name.
May he live long to bless such changes should be very cautiously the children of Pennsylvania ! made. Rotation for the mere sake of ro- The necessity of teaching our irregular tation would be so objectionable as to be- | English spelling was discussed and decome a self-evident wrong to the great plored at the last meeting on Friday cause that would in nine cases out of ten afternoon. Two new dictionaries, the be injuriously affected by it. We are Century and the Standard, have been sure that sagacious and far-sighted School | published in recent years under the ediDirectors who have the good of that cause torial supervision of pronounced advoat heart will agree with us in opinion on cates of spelling reform, and neither one of these standard works recognizes the distributed by the hundred thousand in new spelling as equally valid with the the interest of the good cause of treeold. The youngest and most progressive planting and forestry. It is the right people have made no progress on this kind of seed-sowing. Pennsylvania is question commensurate with that made represented in it by extended extracts in languages not English. The son of from Arbor Day addresses delivered the mechanic must learn to spell if he by Dr. E. E. Higbee, Prof. George F. would fill a clerkship or any other voca- Mull, and Dr. J. T. Rothrock. Can tion involving much correspondence. we do better than to read again these Scholars with established reputation may few paragraphs from the graceful spell by the new way; the rest of mankind pen of Dr. Higbee, who had Thoreau's are afraid to differ from the dictionary. love for the woods, and who is here
The fine address of President Mackey | worthily named as “the late distin—which is given in full in the proceed- guished State Superintendent of Pennsylings elsewhere in this number of The vania ?” Associated with Arbor Day, Journal—his skill in presiding over the which he introduced into the State in convention, the perfection of Supt. 1885, may his memory always be green as Keith's arrangements, the assistance of the trees he planted and encouraged the book men in making the convention others to plant! He says: successful, and the speeches inviting the “Recognizing the peculiar fitness of Superintendents to Greater Pittsburg, the Executive proclamation fixing an will make the Altoona meeting one to be Arbor Day for the Commonwealth, it has recalled with the words of Virgil,
been our effort and pleasure to make it in “Forsan et haec olim meminisse juvabit.”
every way as efficient for good as possible -Aeneid, I. 203.
in relation to our public schools. Here among the children, habits of thought
and feeling in regard to the benefits and APRIL ARBOR DAY.
uses of tree-planting can be formed,
which will deter them, it is hoped, from CHE Arbor Day proclamation by Gov- that destructive greed which has forgotten
ernor Hastings, here given, impresses the value and beauty of green woodlands the duty of the season. Spring is here. and parks, and the glory of shadowy hills The time of the singing of birds and and leaf-hidden streams, where the trout the planting of trees is come.
snaps the unwary fly and the llverworts or the small tree of our Arbor Day plant- peep out from the dewy moss and wakeing may be the great tree of the future. robins nod their heads to the answering
"Here," says Secretary Morton, of the ferns. Children need, in their innocent National Department of Agriculture, up-springing, to have room to get away are a few acorns to-day ; to-morrow, a
from the garish sun and rest, as upon a century hence, they are sturdy oaks, then mother's bosom, in the twilight silence of ships, railroad carriages, everything use- the growing woods. ful. The real of to-day was the ideal of “We have endeavored to keep in view, yesterday, the ideal of to-day will be the so far as possible, the educational power real of to-morrow.”
of such things, by urging that our school If you cannot plant these great trees- grounds be supplied with shade trees and the oak, the elm, the sycamore, the pine shrubs and flowers, and that the naked -plant such as you can, and let a large walls of our school buildings be trellised proportion of your planting be fruit trees. over with vines. Children feel most Do something, do it promptly, and en- deeply the ministry of that which charms courage the boys and girls to follow your good example.
We are what sun and winds and waters make us, We have just received from Prof. N. The mountains are our sponsors, and the rills H. Eggleston, of the United States De- Fashion and win their nursling with their partment of Agriculture at Washington,
smiles. a suggestive and valuable pamphlet of “Unconsciously each impression of such eighty pages, entitled “Arbor Day: Its character sinks into the tender depths of History and Observance,” which is one their souls, and there it remains as in reof the very best things sent out from any flection do the willows in the placid of the departments during the past year stream. In fact, the scenes of nature are or the past score of years. It should be perennial companions, growing more
friendly from year to year. Those most ! "There is, indeed, a power and a culfamiliar, wherever we may be, are ever turing beauty in all this which every entering the study of our imagination and child may experience if he will, and often giving direction to our acts. "The Arbor Day serves to enforce it
his shepherd' as with exquisite pathos has thought. Why should not our school been said by Wordsworth, 'is half a shep-children cherish a holiday which brings herd on the stormy sea, and hears in piping them into direct sympathy with the sweet shrouds the tones of waterfalls and inland companionship of man with nature ? sounds of caves and trees; and in the Why should they not offer their aid in bosom of the deep, sees mountains, sees giving to our school grounds green lawns the forms of sheep that grazed on verdant over which the wind-stirred trees may hills.'
scatter gold and porphyry, where the Arbor Day repeated in our schools laughing daffodills may welcome the refrom year to year, will cultivate a reve- turning swallows, and glowing clusters rent love of nature, will lead our children of chrysanthemums may soften the cold to value studious walks along our streams of autumn winds with thoughts of sumand hills and through our winding valleys | mer? Why should they not surround the and wide, windy sweeps of harvest fields school-house, which they must so soon and meadows and into our bosky dells to leave for the harsh toil of business life, waken courteous Echo to give them with all that can make the memory of it answer from her mossy couch.
a joy forever?"
ELECTION OF SUPERINTENDENTS.
EXAMINATION OF TEACHERS. DEPARTMENT PUBLIC INSTRUCTION,
THE Board of School Controllers in the HARRISBURG, APRIL, 1896.
city of McKeesport, Allegheny county,
at a recent meeting, adopted a motion to To the County Superintendent.
the effect “that all teachers be required to DEAR SIR: The forty-third section of an undergo an examination, regardless of their Act of Assembly approved the eighth day of Normal School diplomas, permanent or May, 1854, entitled “ An Act for the regula- professional certificates." This motion was tion and continuance of a System of Educa- referred to the Committee on Rules to pretion by Common Schools,” requires official pare a rule to govern the matter. Mr. J. D. notice to be given of the time and place for Foster, chairman of the Committee on Rules, hold the triennial convention of school di- submitted to the Department of Public Inrectors, for the purpose of electing County struction an inquiry in reference to the Superintendents of Schools in the several | right of a School Board to adopt such a rule. counties of the State. County Superintend- The following is the reply to Mr. Foster's ents are hereby directed to give such public communication: notice as is required by the act referred to, MR. J. D. FOSTER, McKeesport, Pa. for holding a convention of the school di- Dear Sir : School directors cannot conrectors of the county, on the first Tuesday of sistently require a superintendent to exMay next, to elect a County Superintend- amine teachers who hold valid certificates, ent for the regular term of three years, as or other legal credentials, qualifying them provided by law.
to teach in the district where they are to be On page 350 of School Laws and Decisions,
employed. No board of directors is justiedition of 1896, will be found the proper fied by law in the enforcement of a rule, form of notice to be published for three con- such as is proposed by your committee, secutive weeks in two weekly newspapers of subjecting the holders of state certificates the county. Insert in the public notice to
or valid professional certificates to examibe given, the hour at which the convention nation. of directors shall assemble on Tuesday, the Graduates of state normal schools hold a fifth day of May.
normal school certificate or diploma lawYou will please report to this office the
fully granted to them by the State Board of names of the two papers in which you have Examiners, which certificate or diploma authorized the notices to appear, and request exempts the holder from further examinathe publishers to send receipted bills for the
tion in any of the branches named thereon. publication of the same to this Department. The holder of a permanent certificate has Very respecfully,
a legal credential, granted by the State NATHAN C. SCHAEFFER, Superintendent of Public Instruction, which
Supt. Public Instruction. certificate is valid in the county in which it