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do not now furnish a hundred for every asmuch as they are in the exercise of thousand needed. This increased and still
powers of a grave public character, which increasing demand for better Teachers has should be constantly within the control of greatly advanced the compensation given, public authority. It is also essential to and already enables them in larger numbers their own efficiency and success; for otherto expend the means required for their own wise they might fall from their proper improvement. There is, therefore, nothing standard, and lose that degree of public in the nature of the proposed institutions, confidence on which they must depend for to forbid the reasonable hope, that they may public support. be made to pay the interest of their cost, Section 6, which prescribes the requisites even in money. There is everything to to obtain the benefits of the act, is the render certain the more reniote, but incal- most important at this time.
These reculable, dividend in social benefit.
quisites are: The mode of carrying this act into effect, 1. An area of not less than ten acres of does not admit, here, of any specific explan- ground for the buildings, etc. At first ation. Each locality will have its own con- sight it may seem that this extent is untrolling circumstances, which must be met necessarily large; but when the uses and by, such expedients as shall effect the local importance of the schools and their destinaobject in view, at the same time that the tion for ages are duly considered, the wisdom requisites of the law shall be obeyed. Still, of this provision will appear. It may also such remarks will be offered on it, section be objected to this feature, that it must by section, as seem now to be pertinent; necessarily prevent the establishment of a embracing, however, only those that are school under this act in a city or large preliminary to or bear upon the first estab- town. Undoubtedly it will, and for good Iishment of a school, and passing over, for reasons. Neither economy of living, health, the present, such as relate to its subsequent nor quiet will comport with the ordinary existence when in actual operation.
associations and disturbances of the interior Section i divides the State into twelve of a large town. The vicinity of such a Normal School districts, each of which is to place or of a village sufficiently large to have not more than one Normal School afford the other requisite accommodations, under the act. Two objects seem to have will be the most eligible point of location; been in the minds of the framers of this sec- and there alone can the required extent of tion: The first, to have the districts as ground be commanded. nearly equal in population (about 200,000) as 2. The buildings are required to be capapossible; the second, to have a population cious; and every one who has seen, even the as nearly similar in character, pursuits and feeble efforts at Normal Schools now in language as practicable, in each. It was, of operation in this State, must admit that course, impossible to fully effect both ob- they are not too large. To raise an income jects; but to a considerable extent they have sufficient to secure the requisite number and been secured, and the result will be pro- ability in the faculty of instruction and the motive of the harmonious working and of other indispensable appliances of an efficient the efficiency of the schools when in action. school, less than that derived from three Several of the districts are necessarily large hundred students will not be sufficient. So in territory. This was inevitable from the of a Main Hall: all who have attended the population basis. It will have, however, general lectures, periodical examinations the helping effect of uniting a large num- and commencement exercises of such a ber of weak counties in a common enter- school, know that a large Hall is indispensprise, which might be beyond the reach of able; and, at this late day, it is unnecessary only a portion of them; and in the course of to urge the necessity of proper arrangements years, as they fill up with people (to which for light, heat, ventilation and exercise. desirable result good schools will greatly 3. Among the required apartments are a contribute) it will be easy to divide these Library and a Cabinet; leaving it to the districts, so as to meet the wants of their future, but not taxing the means of the growth.
present, to fill them with proper books, speciSections 2, 3 and 4, relate to the corporate mens and instruments. organization, government and general 4 and 5. The indispensable Professors are powers of the proposed institutions. They merely of those branches now required by require no remarks, except that they are law to be possessed by every teacher, and sufficiently specific on general points to no more; each institution being at liberty effect uniformity among all the schools, to add such others as its wants and means while they leave minor details to the exi- shall justify. gencies of each case..
The 6th provides for a model school or Section 5 provides for the annual trans- school for practice composed of children mission of such information to the Superin- from the vicinity. This may or may not tendent of Common Schools, as shall put be on the ground belonging to the Normal and keep him in possession of all the facts School; but it will be better if it is. A necessary to show the condition and opera- school of 100 pupils, in two or three divitions of the schools established under the sions, will be sufficient to exhibit improved act. This is due to the government, in- ' methods of teaching. It should be supplied
with the best furniture and all the necessary an indispensable condition, and the sooner appliances for instruction.
it is done the better. The next step will be The 7th and 8th paragraphs of this section the enlargement and modification of the require no remark now.
building or buildings,-for it is not to be Of the 9th, it may be said, that though it supposed that all the requisite apartments is not expected to go fully into effect for some must be under one roof. This will depend years, yet when it does, it will probably be on circumstances, and it will be within the found to be the most beneficial feature of meaning of the act if they are on the prethe whole plan. In the meantime, such is scribed ten acres. the demand for Normal instruction, that Before attempting the enlargement of old private students will probably present them- buildings of this class, or the addition to selves in sufficient numbers to fill the them of new, it will always save money as schools as rapidly as they shall be estab- well as promote the comfort and convenience lished. The remaining paragraphs of the of the school, to have a plan and specificasection relate to the schools in operation. tions made by a competent architect... Of
Sections 7 and 8 prescribe the mode of ob- course the Faculty and the Trustees will be taining the privileges of the act, after a the proper persons to decide what alteraschool shall have been established, and ex- tions are to be made, but how they are to be plain themselves.
effected should be directed by a scientific Though sections 9 and 10 also relate to the builder. schools when in operation, yet they admit In the establishment of a new school under of some passing remarks here. In the first the act, several preliminary steps may be place, they prohibit the issuing of a certifi- taken, with good effect: cate of practical knowledge of teaching, 1. Consultation among the leading educa. until the possession of that knowledge is tionists of the district should take place, as manifested by actual trial and success, but to the propriety and mode of commencing permit the issuing of a diploma of sufficiency operations; and a part of the work should in the studies enumerated. This is as it be assigned to cach in his own sphere or should be. It at length makes the proper | vicinity. distinction between mere scholarship and 2. If a prominent locality do not present professional skill; and on the part of the itself to the mind of all, so strongly as to State it announces that no one shall become leave others out of view, means should be a permanent teacher unless professionally taken to ascertain what encouragement the fitted for his office. In the second place, citizens at or in the vicinity of ail the other they enable the meritorious teacher already points thought of, will hold out to the proin the practice of his calling, to obtain a posed school. State Diploma from his proper Normal 3. The Teachers in all the counties of the School, upon passing an examination in district and those desirous of qualifying the same branches as its regular students themselves for the profession, should be inand graduates. And thirdly, they provide duced to consider the project, and to extend for examinations in higher branches than to it their combined influence. those required by the present law, and the 4. When public attention by these and addition of these branches to the Diploma other means, (amongst which articles in the previously held; thus taking measures to local newspapers will be found the most secure a class of teachers for the higher efficient,) has been sufficiently aroused, schools, and holding out to all the oppor- meetings should be held in each of the tunity to procure a State Diploma of any counties, and in smaller districts when exgrade to which their merits may entitle pedient, in order to further enlighten the them.
public mind on the subject. Of section in it need only be said that it By these and other means which each case prohibits the issue of provisional or tempo- will suggest, an impulse may be given to an rary certificates of any kind, by the schools enterprise, which, being undeniably in the under this act; leaving them to the County direction of the wants of the times, is as Superintendents under the general practice certain of success, as it is true that in this as it now prevails.
land of free thought and free effort, whatSection 12 also relates to the future, when ever is right in itself and necessary for the the 9th paragraph of the 6th section shall be public good, must succeed if properly atin operation; and the 13th is only declara- tempted and faithfully persisted in. tory of the duty of the State Superintendent Let all who contemplate action under this in carrying this act into effect.
law, bear in mind that the success of every The schools contemplated by this act will private Normal School in the State, no matbe of two classes: 1. Such as are now in ex- ter on how small a scale or with what hesitaistence, but require additions and modifica- tion commenced, has far exceeded the hopes tions to bring them within its scope. of its originators; and that their plans, in New institutions to be erected and estab- spite of themselves, have been continually lished under its provisions.
enlarging, till nothing short of institutions To bring the first class within the act, the of the rank and capacity now proposed seem grounds will be in most cases have to be calculated to satisfy the demands of the enlarged. This requires no remark. It is system.
COMMENTS OF DR. BURROWES ON HIS ! ful consideration of the whole subject as NORMAL SCHOOL BILL.
we ever gave to any matter, we have come (Editorial by Dr. Burrowes, in May No, 1857, of Penn
to the conclusion that the plan is not sylvania School Journal )
merely the best that can be expected In this number of The Journal will be under the circumstances of the case, but found the bill now before the Legislature that probably, if put into operation in the for the encouragement and recognition, manner proposed in the bill, it will ultiby the State, of schools for the professional mately prove the very best that has yet education of Teachers, together with the been devised to effect the great object in report of the special committee of the view. It is needless, here, to state all Senate on the subject. Our readers will the advantages and disadvantages of the at once recognize this as the measure purely State Normal School, and of the recommended by the State Superinten- purely private Normal School, or of the dent, in his last annual report. Being a combination of both which is now promeasure which marks an era in our school posed. That branch of the subject has system, the project will command the at- been nearly exhausted by the State Supertention and engage the close consideration intendent in his annual report. But there of every friend of general education. are certain other reasons in favor of the
Year after year, ever since the passage plan, which are also entitled to considerof the first common school law, its advo- able weight. cates have been demanding the establish- The measure is self-adapting : Wherment of Normal Schools, founded by State ever the way has been opened-the authority and supported by State funds;- ground prepared-the necessity created, such as are in operation in several States for a school of the kind proposed, there of this Union, and in all the free school and nowhere else can it arise, and there, States of Europe. More than once, bills as surely as established, will it be susfor this purpose were before the Legisla- tained. It will—to use the common ture ; but they always met with chilling phrase—be a development of the times. neglect. Since the passage of the act of It will necessarily conform itself to the 1854, and under the reviving influences wants of the locality, and thus in the of the County Superintendency, this greatest possible degree effect the object omission by the law-making power to of its origin. It will also, for the same furnish means to render its own law effect- reason, at once attract and retain the ual has caused many to dispair of aid favor of the community around, for it from that quarter, and set others to in- will be their institution, within their conquire whether it might not be obtained trol, and for their benefit. from some other source, yet still in such The measure will be efficient : In the a manner to include the requisite degree organization of State Normal Schools, of public authority ;-all admitting that there is always risk to be encountered in such authority was, to a certain extent, the selection of instructors and managers. indispensable. But while inquiring minds Those having the control of this part of were thinking on the subject, active the work naturally look high or abroad minds and hands were at work; for in for their men, who may or may not prove this country there is no such thing as a successful on trial. Whereas, in the orstate of abeyance in such cases. Hence,ganization of an institution of the kind private schools for the preparation of now proposed, local talent and local exteachers were springing into existence, in perience-that talent and effort which every quarter of the State.
have in fact originated and built up the At this juncture it was that the State institution—will naturally and rightfully Superintendent, -with a wise forecast for fall into its places of authority; and it the efficiency of the schools by means of will go into operation less as an untried properly qualified and properly author- experiment than as the continuation of a ized Teachers, and at the same time with proved instrumentality, and therefore prudent reference to the signs indicating with much greater chance of efficiency the probable and safe direction of public and success. opinion on the subject, -presented the The measure will be expansive : The project now put in form by the Senate bill provides that when four institutions committee; and the question is: Is it shall have been duly inspected and recogright? Should it pass?
nized, the law shall go into operation. For our own part, after as full and care- Every one at all acquainted with the educational condition of this State, knows therefore ought to stand, and below which that four such institutions, if now in none should be recognized. The result operation under State authority, would would be a leveling up of the whole proat once be filled with students. This fession to those attainments which are success would soon lead on to the found- essential, and not the elevation of a few ing of others, for there is now a very to some indefinite point beyond the averprevalent disposition among thinking men age attainment. to invest a small portion of their means Finally, the measure will be Pennsylvanin aid of the educational movement of the ian: If the bill become a law and go into day. Thus the plan would grow and full operation, this will be but another of spread by natural and easy efforts, till those instances in which the cautious and the whole State would be supplied. prudent policy of our State will have obThere would be no force on popular tained an advantage over her more rapid opinion by public authority. There could and impulsive sisters.
and impulsive sisters. Hers will be the be no local jealousy, for each of the pro- honor of originating it, and of simplify. posed districts had the matter in its own ing a department of common school hands, and if remiss or hostile to its in- operations which has always been one of terests, its own would be the blame. difficulty in the commencement, and of This state of things and of feeling would complication in operation. She will thus, soon lead to the proper result. How else merely by a prudent and well-timed arcould it be? for would not the moving rangement of the voluntary agents at her power be the teachers, everywhere pres disposal, have avoided a great expense, ent and operating on parental love, which solved an embarrassing educational probis the same all over the world?
lem, and effected an object of the highest The measure will be most beneficially importance. If the plan succeed, ten stimulative : Hitherto intelligent capi- years will place her at the head of the talists, and many of the most accom- Normal School States. plished teachers in the State, have both Other reasons might be given, but held aloof from the great common school these have satisfied us of the propriety of movement. But here is ground upon the measure. which they can unite and both find scope Some who read the bill carelessly or for their means or their acquirements, hastily may be at a loss to discover the and that, too, in accordance with their points of actual connection between the own plans, interests, and expectations. schools it proposes to recognize and the When by any means these two classes common school system of the State. It who possess, the one the material and may therefore be well to specify them. the other the mental qualifications for They are two, and are such as affect the usefulness, can be brought to unite their system in portions most requiring some efforts with those of the mass of the vitalizing remedy: friends of the system, a new and most 1. The authority conferred on the joint important element of success will be principals to examine teachers and to stimulated into action.
issue professional certificates or diplomas, The measure will be equalizing in its which shall be current in every part of operation : If even two large State Normal the Schools were now in operation in Penn- It places the teacher on a footing of sylvania, 400 graduates might be sent equality with the member of every other forth annually, of whom one-half (200) ) learned profession, and enables him to would possibly continue in the profession. show his diploma from an eminent school These, from their superior training and of his own profession. It may gradually advantages, would naturally assume a supersede the present examinations by higher standing in the business than County Superintendents, and surely intheir less fortunate fellows. They would troduce uniformity of acquirement, into become a distinct and uncongenial class every part of the State. It will also in the profession. But not so under the greatly enhance the value of such a plan now proposed. Its schools being diploma, and render it as much more deopen to all, and opened in sufficient num- sirable than a County Superintendent's ber to accommodate all who wished their certificate, as the latter is more desirable advantages, a broad and high but com- than one granted after a directors';examimon level of acquirement would be es- nation under the old law. tatlished, upon which all might and 2. The authority given to each district
in the State, to send one student annually | best. What hundreds and thousands of to its proper Normal School, at a reduced our best and most successful men, in rate. It is not expected that this pro- every avocation requiring accurate menvision will at once, or even soon and gen- tal discipline and close application, have erally, go into operation. But when it made their way to distinction through comes, it is not difficult to imagine the this portal ! True, the profession, and stimulating effect. It will of course never probably the youth of the land, may come to pass, that every boy and every have suffered some damage while they girl in the district will desire to be a were qualifying themselves for distinction teacher. But when it is known that this in this way ; but this does not disprove privilege depends on conduct and scholar- the efficacy of teaching as a means of ship, it will be out of the usual course of mental discipline. It only shows the human nature, if the few actual competi- necessity for so elevating the profession, tors for the appointment do not have both in standing and emolument, as to scores of competitors for rank in standing retain its best members in their proper and attainment; so that the beneficial re- positions in its ranks. sult will probably be the same, as if all In this view it is, that no matter how were actual competitors for the station as many young persons may prepare themwell as the honor.
selves for the calling, by going through And here, in conclusion, comes in a the due course of training, and no matter remark, not sufficiently often made nor how many may soon abandon that calling, fully appreciated. It is :-That prepara- | --so that enough be left to fill the schools
, tion for the Teacher's profession-aye, as there always will be if the compensaand practice in that profession,-is as
tion be sufficient, --still Society will reap good a mode to prepare for the active the benefit of the outlay, in whatever duties of life, in all its departments, as any station of life the mental capital thus that can be named, if it is not the very conferred shall be employed.
EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. THE SCHOOL XOURNAL. you can count on $175 from old Luzerne.
This amount I will send you about DeLANCASTER, NOVEMBER, 1895.
Supt. Harrison will please accept the The best of men that ever wore earth about him was a hearty thanks of the Memorial Committee sufferer, a soft, meek, patient, humble, tranquil spirit;
for this noble contribution to the Dr. the first true gentleman that ever breathed.- Decker.
Burrowes Fund. It makes us all feel Ye may be aye stickin' in a tree, Jock; it will be growin' when ye're sleepin',-Scotch Farmer.
good to note the generous spirit in which
his teachers respond to this call. We N. C. SCHAEFFER.
J. P. McCASKEY. are gratefulto himself, to Prof. Heikes, and
to everybody in Luzerne connty who has 'HE Dr. Burrowes Memorial Fund is had anything to do with this good deed.
growing; and the teachers of the State Many people live on the low plane of will know more of the early history of animals that forget benefaction and benethe school system as this Dr. Burrowes' | factor ; some upon the higher plane of revival proceeds. The largest single men who remember both, and would contribution yet received from any county gratefully recall and, so far as may be, comes from
old Luzerne.”. Co. Supt. requite them both. We shall be glad at T. B. Harrison says, in a letter dated any time to have the check of big-hearted October 26th: "In accordance with what I Luzerne, and of any other county, be it wrote you some time ago, the matter of the large or small, any school district, NorDr. Burrowes Memorial was presented to mal School, or individual contributor, our County Institute last Friday morning both for the good of the Fund and for the in a well-prepared paper by Prof. Irving good of the giver. A. Heikes, of Plymouth. Our teachers voted unanimously to appropriate to this The new library act for the establishfund an amount in the aggregate equal to ment of free public libraries is bearing twenty-five cents for each teacher enrolled. fruit. A valuable property in the city of As our enrollment is over seven hundred, ' Reading and a large nucleus of books