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*HE SCHOOL XOURNAL
LANCASTER, OCTOBER, 1895.
The best of men that ever wore earth about him was a sufferer, a soft, meek, patient, humble, tranquil spirit; the first true gentleman that ever breathed.-Decker.
Yemay be ave stickin' in a tree, Jock; it will be growin' when ye're sleepin'.-Scotcn rarmer.
N. C. SCHAEFFER.
J. P. MCCASKEY.
AUTUMN ARBOR DAY CIRCULAR.
A thousand things that we daily see
The celebration of Arbor Day serves a fourfold purpose :
1. It leads to the planting of trees for shade and for fruit. In response to the first Arbor Day proclamation issued in 1885, not less than fifty thousand trees were planted by the teachers and pupils of the public schools of Pennsylvania. The annual recurrence of Arbor Day has led to the planting of thousands of additional trees and to the better adornment of the grounds around the school and the home.
2. The celebration of Arbor Day has disseminated much useful information concerning the planting and care of trees and the kindred arts of budding, grafting and seedvariation. It has drawn attention to the evil effects which flow from the criminal waste of timber, and to the importance of of covering with a new growth of trees all tracts of land which are otherwise useless.
3. Arbor Day has helped to stimulate the interest of the pupils in the study of nature. Since the knowledge of plant-life is of inestimable value to the farmer and the gardener, exercises which beget an interest in this kind of knowledge can not be omitted without committing a greivous wrong against the future tillers of the soil. 4. Arbor Day aids in opening the eyes
of children to the beauties of nature. Every tree upon the hillside and valley has its charms. In autumn the trees of the forest are robed in gorgeous colors. The youth who, with Pope, has come to realize that * A tree is a nobler object than a prince in his
will appreciate rural scenes and rural life, and will not conceive the idea that happiness is only to be found in the crowded thoroughfares of the city.
To let our children grow up in ignorance of the facts and laws of vegetable life and of the pleasure and profit derived from the contemplation of the beauties of nature, would be a sin against childhood and against the Commonwealth.
Men," says Prof. J. T. Rothrock, “come and go, but the State is to endure. The citizen who does not recognize this fact is unworthy of the past and the future. Public prosperity will always depend upon the conditions under which men live. If these be adverse, success in life will be but partial, and even this will be won with infinite toil. We are bound to a partnership with the soil and its products. The larger our population, the closer will this union be, and the more must we maintain the surface of the earth in the best possible condition. Seedtime and harvest there will always be, so long as the promise of God endures, but how abundant that harvest will be, may depend in great part upon whether we have observed or violated Divinely-ordained natural laws. If we keep our steep and rocky hillsides bare, the water which should have remained in the soil will pour out of the country in a destructive freshet, the streams will dwindle, the springs dry up, and even the climate will become more extreme from want of watery vapor, which the trees would have dispensed had they been present in sufficient numbers. If we allow the forest fires to go unchecked, the fertile soil over which they rage will be destroyed, loosened and swept off. Even the roots will be killed and the prospective crop of timber measurably lost to the community. These conditions will become progressively worse from year to year, while a constantly.increasing population will render the struggle for life and prosperity more severe. The longer we postpone the work of forest protection and restoration, the more costly it will become and the less will we be prepared to do it. This is the children's ques. tion. The timber may outlast the fathers of to-day ; but the children who follow will ineet the trials of life under adverse conditions. He who plants a tree to day, or wisely legislates now, will bless his children's children - for the forest waters the farm."
Whilst Arbor Day means much for pupils who cannot participate in tree-planting, it has special significance for the pupils in our rural schools. Since most of these schools are not in session on either of the dates appointed for the observance of Spring Arbor Day, it was found advisable from the first to have Arbor Day exercises also in the fall
of the year. To perpetuate this good custom tion. The schools of Berks county have I appoint
already contributed over two hundred FRIDAY, OCTOBER 18TH,
and fifty dollars towards a monument to Autumn Arbor Day, and respectfully the distinguised German, Conrad Weiser, urge those connected with our schools to whose influence with the various Indian observe the day with appropriate exercises. tribes and whose prolonged and valuable The trees may be planted out of school hours,
service in other directions have made but a part of the time, usually devoted to public readings or nature study, can be Reading, Berks county, and the State of profitably spent in exercises calculated to Pennsylvania largely his debtors. This subserve the purposes of Arbor Day.
fund has been begun, and it will be inNATHAN C. SCHAEFFER,
creased to thousands of dollars before it Supt. Public Instruction. is completed and this memorial stands Harrisburg, Sept 23, 1895.
the noblest thing of its kind within the borders of the county. It is well that the
schools should be taught such lessons of Eget so much for nothing that many gratitude and patriotic regard, and, in
people seem to think everything pressing this matter upon their attention, ought to come in that easy way. Apple Supt. Zechman is doing educational work trees will not. Strawberries will pot. of the best kind. The people who do Nor will some other things. They must things are the people who can do them, be paid for-in thought and money and and both Supt. Walton and Supt. Zechwork-by somebody. Hast thou, O man promise for Chester and Berks counreader ! ever and often been that some- ties generous aid to the Dr. Burrowes' body? If not, it is time to bestir thyself | Memorial Fund. in a working world like this. Another Arbor Day comes on. Plant a tree! You An Iowa man who was convicted of will soon be dead. Leave the world a sending obscene matter through the mails little better off for your having lived in it. has recently been sentenced to eight Plant a tree! Plant a tree !
years' imprisonment at hard labor and to
pay a fine of $4000 for his violations of Governor HASTINGS has re-appointed the law.
the law. The judge in sentencing the Dr. J. T. Rothrock, of West Chester, prisoner expressed the utmost surprise at Commissioner of Forestry for a period of the extent to which the mails are being four years. He is the man for the place used for this purpose, and then said he above all others, doing his work with an intended to do what he could to break up eye single to the public good, with little the practice. He employed the right regard for fame or the moderate salary method. Men would be more chary of attached to this very important position. prostituting the mails to such uses if they The appointment also of Dr. B. H. War- felt certain of such a severe sentence in ren, of Union county, as Zoologist to the case of detection. Several cases of the Department of Agriculture, could not be same kind have of late been before the improved upon. Dr. Warren was State courts in Pennsylvania, and it has gone Ornithologist in the old State Board of hard with the offenders. The name of Agriculture, is the author of the Birds Anthony Comstock is becoming a terror of Pennsylvania," which was published to evil-doers of this infamous class. by order of the Legislature and has been widely distributed throughout the State, Prof. Geo. F. MULL, of Franklin and and prepared the exhibit of birds and Marshall College, enclosing check for five other animals of Pennsylvania for the dollars for the Dr. Burrowes' Fund, Chicago Exposition.
writes : “It is good to undertake this
work, so eminently worthy. It is a On the anniversary of the Battle of the beneficent work, far-reaching in its conBrandywine, September 11th, 1895. there sequences and all for good, extending in was dedicated to the memory of Lafayette ever-widening circles the multitude of a monument with appropriate inscrip: those who, it has been wisely ordained, tions. It is a handsome shaft with square shall have their minds and hearts eubase, and stands near the spot where the larged and sweetened by hearing the distinguished Frenchman was wounded. words and contemplating the deeds of a The children in the schools of Chester great good man-one of the 'immortal county contributed generously to its erec- dead.' How true it is that those written made
memorials, in which the noble dead yet THE SUPERINTENDENCY. speak with us, contain, as Milton says,
a potency of life in them to be as active ITS BEARING UPON THE EFFICIENCY OF as that soul whose progeny they are.' I
OUR SCHOOLS. wish your committee the most abundant
speedy , it
will find an ample reward generous and unselfish labor.”
popular mind is wedded to the old. The
average man is satisfied with the tradi. The law passed by the last Legislature tions of his forefathers. The evils which providing for the maintenance of parents ought to be corrected are at first seen by their children is a measure of import- only by those who are full of the spirit of ance. “ Honor thy father and thy progress and reform. Improvement may mother" is a mandate that has little involve the uprooting of prejudices, the meaning for many people, and the au- curtailing of privileges regarded as vested thority of the State is properly invoked rights by those who enjoy them. Among to compel unfilial children to care for their these was the right to teach and the right parents. The new law says that if any to have teachers whowsoever the male child of full age within the limits of community was willing to accept. The this Commonwealth, has neglected or creation of the office of County Superinhereafter without reasonable cause shall tendent abridged these rights by excludneglect to maintain his parents not able | ing from the ranks many who were into work to maintain themselves, it shall competent to teach. Those who first be lawful for any alderman, justice of the filled the office were met with many peace, or magistrate of this Common- marks of popular disapproval. In some wealth, upon information made before States the law creating the office was him under oath, or affirmation, by said soon repealed; and had it not been for parent, or parents, or by any other person the heroic stand of Governor Pollock, or persons, to issue his warrant to any who declared that he would see every police officer or constable for the arrest of other department of his administration the person against whom the information go down before he would suffer the shall be made as aforesaid, and bind him School Department to go down,” it would over with sufficient surety to appear at have been repealed in this State, also. the next Court of Quarter Sessions, there Supervision was discussed for many to answer the charge of not supporting years, and has an interesting history his parent or parents.
in Pennsylvania. State Superintendent
Miller, during the administration of GovMiss Mary MARTIN, of the Boys' ernor Shunk, earnestly urged upon the High School of Lancaster, contributing Legislature the adoption of the County ten dollars to the Dr. Burrowes' Me- | Superintendency, but without securing morial Fund, expresses her cordial sym- the passage of a law. This was a leadpathy with the movement, thinks the ing feature of the law of 1854, drafted work should have been done long ago, mainly by State Superintendent C. A. and “will give more if needed.” Every- Black and his Deputy, Hon. H. L. body doesn't give that way. It is a rare Dieffenbach, during the administration blessing to have head, hand, and heart of Governor Bigler. It aroused such for any good work that needs them all. resolute and bitter antagonism that had Deputy Supt. Houck also is early on the it not been for the firm attitude of Govlist with a check for five dollars and a ernor Pollock in the following year, and hearty letter in appreciation of the edu- the masterly strategy of State Superincational service of Dr. Burrowes, with tendent Curtin and Deputy Superintendwhom as a man and as an influential ent Hickok, the law would have been factor in the school work of Pennsylvania promptly repealed by the Legislature. he was personally well acquainted. The story of that struggle is graphically
told by Hon. H. C. Hickok in the issue Prof. Gustave Guttenberg, teacher of of The School Journal for May, 1890. Biology in the Central High School, has How much we owe to these men for preprepared a very beautiful Botanical Guide serving the County Superintendency is through the Phipps Conservatories in evident from the reports of CommonPittsburg and Allegheny.
wealths without this office,
Take the report of the Connecticut | tial has borne its legitimate fruit. Every Board of Education. The following sen- young person unprovided for, or plunged tence was dictated to children of twelve : into difficulties and obliged to earn a liv“Whose knife is this?” The object was ing, or uncertain what to do temporarily to ascertain whether the children were until something shall turn up, leaps with taught the use of the interrogation point. intrepid confidence into teaching. At a In fifteen out of twenty-three districts, single bound, without a single qualificamore failed than succeeded, though in tion, and with disqualifications natural the county where the test was made more and acquired, they profess themselves succeeded than failed. The minimum ready to undertake the practice of an art number of school days in a year being which requires knowledge, experience, 150, the boy or girl has no more than tact and patience.” this to show for six years, or 900 days, of It would no doubt be presumptuous to schooling. Along with other tests this claim that none of these evils exist in the . convinced the Board that the pupil has Keystone State. How a young woman expended the acquisitive and inquiring who receives for five or six months less hours of his life-4950 of these hours-in than twenty dollars a nth, can make not getting information or the power of any adequate preparation for teaching, is thinking, because he has not been prop- one of the mysteries which those unable erly taught. The reasons which the to get other help have not been able to Board assigns are very significant. No solve. If by the help of parents or adequate attainments, no special training, friends she succeeds in attending a trainno general and authoritative credentials, ing school for half a year or more, she is are demanded of those who teach. “No enabled to earn better wages elsewhere, positive attainments, says the Report, and she never returns to teach in the dis
are required of the person who sets up trict in which she was reared. Thus the to teach. A profound ignoramus, if en- County Superintendent is compelled to dowed with sufficient assurance, is in no grant provisional certificates to a new way excluded from teaching.
crop of beginners, and the sparsely-set"The teacher who has devoted time to tled, poverty-stricken district is doomed special study in education, who conforms forever
to employ teachers poorly in practice to some well-defined theory, equipped for their duties. Here and has no better chance than the pretender there an exception looms up like an or tyro who does not know what educa- oasis in the desert that only shows more tion means, whose self-devised and crude strikingly the need of irrigation from methods of instruction constitute the higher sources before a general educasum total of his qualifications."
tional harvest can be produced. “In respect of credentials, the qualified Fortunately, over large areas of Pennand unqualified stand on precisely the sylvania the efforts of the Superintendent same footing. The trained and compe- are not thus nullified by low wages and tent teacher possessing evidence of train- unfavorable conditions. Where the ing and competence has no advantage. salary is an inducement, the best talent Both jostle each other in the strife for can be selected and certified, and results positions. Meanwhile parents and the superior to those specified in the Connecpublic look on with indifference, appar- ticut Report are attained. ently forgetting, deeply unconscious that The report also makes reference to the the dearest interests of their children are supervision of schools. “This work is involved.”
entrusted in all towns but two to the act“There is no organized teaching ser- ing visitors, a part of our system which vice-a body of men and women of as- beautifully illustrates how-not-to-do-it. certained and certified competence, hav- We should say that a supervisor of schools ing definite relations to the State and "1. Should know what should be taught town which pay them and the district and why it should be taught, and what it which hires them. Their tenure depends should accomplish; 2. Should have a not upon ability, education, training, knowledge of the best way to teach each fidelity, success, but upon the annual subject; 3. Should have a thorough acelection with its uncertainties and proba- quaintance with schools and school work, bilities of change.”
including ability to detect faults of man“The fact that neither adequate knowl- agement as well as of teaching. edge, training, nor certificates are essen- “These being the qualifications of
school visitors, we turn with amazement competency, viz: the power to get things to the actual qualifications in sight. We done. Many educated men and women find that some have never, up to the time can, during their visits, ascertain what is of their selection, set foot in a primary done and make an intelligent report school, are destitute of all educational ex- thereon ; very few possess the power to perience, and are unwilling or unable to get done all that ought to be done by give time to the schools. Some, it is those who teach. The improvement of true, are animated with interest and zeal the teachers who are now at work in the and speedily qualify themselves; but they schools, is the most difficult problem of cannot, in two visits a term, and at most supervision. At first sight the easiest six in a year, either became acquainted way out of the difficulty and the one that with the schools or influential in their always suggests itself to inexperienced management and teaching. It is an un- supervisors is to eliminate from the corps justifiable experiment to put in charge of of teachers all whose work is not entirely active and eager children a young man satisfactory. How shall the vacancies or woman without any acquaintance with thus created be filled ? Teachers of tried the art of teaching; a still more unjustific skill and superior ability are not often able experiment, if that be possible, is it found ready at hand. Those who are to put in charge of teachers a man fresh selected, are seldom better than those from college or a man occupied with who have been got rid of; and the gains other business and without training. are not worth the pains. The supervisor There should be supervisors who can owes his teachers something more tan. give their whole time to the schools and gible than criticism and condemnation. direct and impel the teachers. The If he can not help to clarify the aims and teachers are now unaided and irrespon- to perfect the skill of the average teacher, sible. If they were assisted, guided and he is as ill-fitted for his duties as those then justly rewarded according to results, whom he criticises and condemos. they would soon become eager to succeed, and in the end qualified to teach.”
“Your State," said Editor Macdonald HONORING THEMSELVES. of Kansas, not long ago to the writer,
able memorial honor of Thomas H. for those who are charged with the duty of Burrowes, LL D., who was, to all intents supervision.” In Pennsylvania no per- and purposes, our pioneer State Superinson is eligible to the office of county, city tendent of Common Schools, the generous or borough superintendent who does not donors will not only do honor to his mem
ld a diploma from a college legally ory, but confer honor upon themselves empowered to grant literary degrees, a as well, by thus proving their loyalty to diploma or state certificate issued accord- the great cause of popular education. ing to law by the authorities of a State The surviving soldiers of the late Civil Normal School, a professional certificate War have never faltered in patriotic reissued one year prior to the election, or a membrance of comrades and commanders certificate of competency from the State who fell in battle or have vanished from Superintendent, or has not had successful the scene of life's activities, and as a conexperience in teaching within three years sequence massive and enduring monuof the time of his election. These quali- ments have been multiplied on conspicufications, in connection with the fact that ous battle fields, and adorn almost every the Superintendent is not elected by pop- village green throughout the loyal States. ular vote or at the regular elections in And civilians, whose influence and means November and February, save our State contributed to these highly honorable refrom men who are put on the county sults, never felt themselves impoverished ticket because there is no other place, and by their helpfulness to so glorious a cause, elected by a party vote regardless of the nor imposed upon by appeals to their lib. fact that they are unable to pronounce erality. On the contrary, it was felt to correctly a list of words for spelling. be a sacred duty that it would have been
The most essential qualification for ef- churlish and dishonorable to have neficient school supervision is, however, too glected. delicate to be ascertained by an examina- But “ Peace bath her victories no less tion or to be set forth in a certificate of renowned than war," and sometimes con
can learn, which specifies qualifications in contributing to the erection of a suit