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world can grow better only on the hy- Nino study was I more poorly taught

or must we be remanded to an experi

A PICTORIAL GEOGRAPHY. mental ethics, as our reformers would remand us to experimental science? This

BY C. M. DRAKE. question cannot be argued at this time, but a little reflection will show that the

No pothesis that the attainment of virtue is

taught in school is more barren of good made somewhat easier for each succeed

results than geography. A pupil learns ing generation. In other words, virtue

a host of names to which are affixed no can be taught; each child is not to con

mental pictures, and these names rapidly struct a code of ethics out of his own experiences, but is to accept the highest is worse than nothing left.

fade away at the close of school and ihere code of ethics that humanity has be

When I began to teach geography I queathed to him. In a specific and sound sense, we do again. I had never seen a school journal

found that I had to begin the study over follow nature when we adapt our instruc

in those days, but one day a bright boy tion to the organic mode of the mind's

It had been activities. The mind is an organism raining, and pools of water were standing

gave me an inspiration. having its own predetermined mode of all about the yard. He said, pointing activity. This constitutes its nature; and

to a large peninsula, “That is North when we respect this order of procedure America." in the presentation of kuowledge, we

The resemblance in form was striking, may with scientific accuracy be said to

and we had an impromptu geography follow nature. When the mind works

class then and there. We built up mud naturally, that is, in accord with the laws

mountains, and we dug rivers. We holof its organization, it proceeds from ag

lowed out bays, and we put pebbles for gregates to parts, from the vague to the

cities. Pupils who had taken little or no definite, and, in childhood, from the con

interest in geography before this, ran for crete to the abstract ; and the teacher fol

their books that they might see where to lows nature when he allows the mind to

locate the different cities, and other North elaborate its knowledge in this order.

Americas were begun all over the yard. In conclusion, I venture to offer this

It was long after one that noon before I bit of advice to those who are trying to

remembered to call school. The first class make of their teaching a rational art: In

was a geography class, and the lesson your thinking and writing never allow

was about the products of North America. yourself to personify the term nature, but they begged to have their lesson in the leave the mythologist, the poet and the

yard, so they could point out in our North novelist in sole possession of this deity.

America where the products grew or were

made. It is a name that we associate not alone We went to the yard, and the idlest with Dr. Higbee, but also with that of boy in the class brought along a lump of Dr. Thomas H. Burrowes, who had so coal, and stuck it on top of the Alleghany much to do with the organization of your mountains before I got in the yard. Here education system, building better than he was another inspiration. The way we knew. There have been few men, if any, filled the soil of our continent with proin all this broad land whose work was so ducts the next few days was a caution. clearly defined and so well sustained that the neighbors' chickens ate up our grain it could be said they founded a School and scratched our rivers full of mud, but System for a State. But it is to the glory crops were put in anew. But the neighof Dr. Burrowes that he organized one of borhood did not appreciate our “mud the very best systems for one of the best pies,” and I lost my school on account States in the Union. Connecticut has of my inspirations being “too previous.” had her Henry Barnard, Massachusetts I had a great many stereoscopic views her Horace Mann, Illinois her Richard of the Rocky mountains and other places Edwards, California her John Swett, but which I had taken or bought some years nowhere, outside of Pennsylvania, is there before, and one day I brought these to a State with such a trio spanning so many school. They proved a success, and the years as Burrowes, Wickersham and next day I began a geographical scrapHigbee.-A. E. Winship, Editor N. E. book of pictures, the first one I ever saw Journal of Education.

or heard of. I had many copies of Frank Leslie's Illustrated Weekly, and I cut out been filled with names and thrown aside. fo it all the pictures I could find of places, This book is almost sure to be very well plants, animals, and noted people. These bound, and is just what you want for a I pasted in an old geography beside the basis of work. Tear out the blotting pictures already there, so that I had an pads. Divide your book, first into grand illustrated geography better than any divisions, then into countries. In the mere text-book descriptions.

part devoted to each country, put first the This small scrap-book afterwards grew pictures showing the physical characterinto several large scrap-books, and in all istics of the country, for on those depend the years I have taught geography I have the industries as well as, to a certain exyet to find a better help than these picto- tent, the animals, plants, mines and even rial geographies in teaching about a new the government. country.

Your plant pictures can, many of them, Suppose the lesson to be about Nicar- be found in florists' catalogues. Railroad agua. What do we want the pupil to advertising sheets will supply many a have? We want a clear, yet complex fine picture of scenery. Old copies of mantal picture to be called up by the papers and magazines, which can be got word Nicaragua. Before the child there for the cost of waste paper, are filled should arise a country of volcanoes with pictures of cities and the notable Dense vegetation almost impenetrable objects of art which may be found in the should cover the hills and lowlands. cities. Some of the cheap paper books Curious adobe and grass or wicker huts for children contain very five pictures of should be seen clustered together in the wild and domestic animals. towns and villages. Spanish and Indian Do not try to get your book filled at people should be seen dressed in the once. If you are not sure of the permamanner of that country, together with nent value of a picture, leave it in the many naked little children. Immense scrap-book unpasted until you know it adobe churches, quaint and heavy look- will be of service. If descriptive text ing, are the most noticeable buildings. accompanies the picture it should be very Various domestic animals are running in brief. ' Names are useful, but the picture and out of the open houses, most of should be its own explanation. which never saw a pane of glass. Insect In each broad isothermal belt select pests are making the child feel one of the

some one country to be very fully illusgreatest discomforts of a tropical life, trated. I take Nicaragua for the typical hardly to be compensated for by the tropical country. My illustrations are, many delicious tropical fruits which are many of them, taken from the advertisso cheap and plentiful. Parrots and ing pamphlets of the Nicaragua Canal other strange birds are flying about in company. The illustrated papers often the air, while dangerous reptiles and wild contain pictures of Nicaraguan scenery. animals are in the thick woods. These Corinto was well pictured during the are a few of the things which should go late British unpleasantness. The earthto make up the complex mental photo- quake and volcano at Granada some time graph developed by the naming of the ago were fully illustrated. word Nicaragua.

I have in my library more than a dozen It will do the child little good to books of travels in Nicaragua and the learn the name merely of a place, if no adjoining countries, and yet the pictures correct mental picture accompanies that I have seen of the country have given me name. If the habit of fixing a mental the greater portion of my mental pictures picture to geography names is once of Nicaragua. They stay by me better formed it seems to be impossible to pre- than words do. vent some sort of a picture arising when One thing in my picture of a place is you read of a place. Mere word de usually in strong relief, while the rest is scriptions can never be so effective as in the background. At Greytown I see pictures, and of the latter, actual photo- most plainly the ships just entering the graphs are preferable to any other kind. canal. At Leon the cathedral over

How can you make a pictorial geog- shadows all the rest. At Masaya I seem raphy that will be good, cheap and con- to see long trains of young Indian girls prehensive? It will take some money, going up and down the steep trail to the At a second-hand book store or at a hotel crater for water, with the water jars you may find a hotel register that has ''poised upon their heads. At Granada everything else is subordinate to the vol- house-work there is to be done. It is the cano which stands on the island in front mother who has been using muscle and of the city.

sinew and bone all the year, and who I feel quite sure it was my picture now should have rest by being given scrap-book which has made me know time and opportunity to use the brain, to rather more about geography than about lie in her chair and read her book, to go any other common school study.-N. W. off on some journey, to gossip about Journal of Education.

among the neighbors, to enjoy a rest from her labors, knowing that all is going

on right in the house, and enjoying the A HOUSEHOLD SCHOOL. rest doubly that it is given her through

love.-Harper's Bazar. HERE is one school that has not

enough students, although its faculty can never be excelled. It is the school “THE HEATHER LINTIE.” of forbearance-of forbearance at home. The chief teacher in this school has a

BY S. R. CROCKETT. necromantic quality, for he moves mountains, and every day works miracles; JANET BALCHRYSTIE lived in a little but he is invisible. His name is Love. cottage at the back of the Long Wood of It is a home school, of course, and its Barbrax. She had been a hard-working class-rooms are all over the house-in woman all her days, for her mother died kitchen, bedroom, dining-room and par. when she was but young, and she had lor. The pupils come to this school fresh lived on, keeping her father's house by from other schools, where, it is very the side of the single-track railway line. likely, they have been doing hard work, Gavin Balchrystie was a foreman plateand are usually feeling that they are to layer on the P. R. R., and, with two men be considered and rested, no matter what under him, had charge of a section of happens. They are to lie abed in the three miles. He lived just where that mornings for a complete rest, and that distinguished but impecunious line last sweet slumber, the very cream of plunges into a moss-covered granite wilsleep, and are to have a hot breakfast at derness of moor and bog, where there is all hours; they are to have an appetite not more than a shepherd's hut to the coaxed by all sorts of dainties and deli- half-dozen miles, and where the passage cacies. In every holiday season there of a train is the occasion of commotion flock back to the home school those who among scattered groups of black-faced are apt to forget that there is real rest in sheep. Gavin Balchrystie's three miles a change of work, and that to be wholly of P. R. R. metals gave him little work idle may be wholly selfish.

but a good deal of healthy exercise. The Let our lads and lassies whose parents black-faced sheep breaking down the have to make exertion and endure some fences and straying on the line side, and

fitly the torrents coming down the granite and send them to school, think a little on gullies, 'foaming white after a waterthis point. If their overworked brains spout, and tearing into his embankments, need the refreshing and repairing influ- undermining his chairs and plates, were ences of sleep, let them go early to bed, the only troubles of his life. There was, in order that sufficient sleep may be had however, a little public-house at The before they rise betimes in the morning,

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Huts, which in the old days of construcdress, and run down stairs to build the tion had had the license, and which had fire, and surprise the mother with break- | lingered alone, license and all, when its fast ready for her when she descends. It immediate purpose in life had been fulwill call into use an entirely new and filled, because there was nobody but the different set of muscles from those which whaups and the railway officials on the have been most active during the year, passing trains to object to its continuance. and will therefore give rest to those need- Now it is cold and blowy on the westing it, if these young people then proceed land moors, and neither whaups nor darkto clear away the breakfast things, to blue uniforms object to a little refreshwash the dishes, to sweep and dust, to ment up there. The mischief was that prepare the dinner, to make the dessert, Gavin Balchrystie did not, like the guards to do as much as possible of whatever | and engine drivers, go on with the passing train. He was always on the spot, So it came to pass that one night Gavin and the path through Barbrax Wood to Balchrystie did not come home at all, at the Railway Inn was as well trodden as least, not till he was brought lying comthat which led over the big moss, where fortably on the door of a disused thirdthe whaups built, to the great white via-class carriage, which was now seeing out duct of Loch Merrick, where his three its career anchored under the bank at miles of parallel gleaming responsibility Loch Merrick, where Gavin had used it began.

as a shelter. They had found Gavin When his wife was but newly dead, fallen forward on his knees, as though he and his Janet just a smart elf-locked had been trying to rise, or had knelt lassie running to and from the school, down to pray. Let him have “the benGavin got too much in the way of “slip- efit of the doubt" in this world. In the pin' doon by.” When Janet grew to be next, if all tales be true, there is no such woman-muckle, Gavin kept the habit, thing. and Janet hardly knew that it was not So Janet Balchrystie dwelt alone in the the use-and-wont of all fathers to sidle white “but an'-ben” at the back of the down to a contiguous Railway Arms, Long Wood of Barbrax. The factor gave and return some hours later with uncer- her notice, but the laird, who was not tain step, and face picked out with bright accounted by his neighbors to be very pin-points of red—the sure mark of the wise, because he did needlessly kind confirmed drinker of whisky neat.

things, told the factor to let the lassie They were long days in the cottage at bide, and delivered to herself with his the back of Barbrax Long Wood. The own handwriting to the effect that Janet little “but-an'-ben was white-washed | Balchrystie, in consideration of her lonely till it dazzled the eyes as you came over condition, was to be allowed the house the brae to it and found it set against the for her life-time, a cow's grass, and thirty solemn depths of dark-green firwood. pound sterling in the year as a charge on From early morning when she saw her the estate. He drove down the cow himfather off, till the dusk of the day when self, and having stalled it in the byre, he he would return for his supper, Janet informed her of the fact over the yard Balchrystie saw no human being. She dike by word of mouth, for he never heard the muffled roar of the trains could be induced to enter her door. He through the deep cutting at the back of was accounted to be “gey an' queer” the wood, but she herself was entirely save by those who had tried making a out of sight of the carriagefuls of travel- bargain with him. But his farmers liked ers whisking past within half a mile of him, knowing him to be an easy man her solitude and meditation.

with those who had been really unfortuJanet was what is called a "through- nate, for he knew to what the year's gaun lass,” and her work for the day was crops of each had amounted, to a single often over by eight o'clock in the morn- chalder and head of powt. ing. Janet grew to womanhood without Deep in her heart Janet Balchrystie a sweetheart. She was plain, and she cherished a great ambition. When the looked plainer than she was in the dresses earliest blackbird awoke and began to which she made for herself by the light sing, while it was yet gray twilight, of nature and what she could remember | Janet would be up and at her work. She of the current fashions at Merrick Kirk, had an ambition to be a great poet. No to which she went every alternate Sun- less than this would serve her. But not day. Her father and she took day about. even her father ha known, and no other Wet or shine, she tramped to Merrick had any chance of knowing: In the Kirk, even when the rain blattered and black leather chest, which had been her the wind raved and bleated alternately mother's, up-stairs, there was a slowly among the pines of the Long Wood of growing pile of manuscript, and the editor Barbrax. Her father had a simpler way of the local paper received every other of spending his day out. He went down week a poem, longer or shorter, for his to the Railway Inn and drank “ginger- Poet's Corner, in an envelope with the beer" all day with the landlord. Ginger- New Dalry postmark. He was an obligbeer is an unsteadying beverage when ing editor, and generally gave the closely taken the day by the length. Also the man written manuscript to the senior officewho drinks it steadily and quietly never boy, who had passed the sixth standard, enters on any inheritance of length of days. to cut down, tinker the rhymes, and lop any superfluity of feet. The senior of- Dalry.” First she had thought of withfice-boy "just spread himself,” as he holding her name and style; but on the said, and delighted to do the job in style. whole, after the most prolonged considBut there was a woman fading into a eration, she felt that she was not justified gray old-maidishness which had hardly in bringing about such a controversy as ever been girlhood, who did not at all divided Scotland concerning that “Great approve of these corrections. She en- Unknown” who wrote the Waverly dured them because over the signature of Novels. “Heather Bell” it was a joy to see in Almost every second or third day Janet the rich, close luxury of type her own trod that long loch-side road to New poetry, even though it might be a trifle Dalry for her proof-sheets, and returned tattered and tossed about by hands ruth- them on the morrow corrected in her own less and alien—those, in fact, of the se- way. Sometimes she got a lift from some nior office-boy.

farmer or carter, for she had worn herself Janet walked every other week to the with anxiety to the shadow of what she post office at New Dalry to post her let- had once been, and her dry bleached hair ters to the editor, but neither that great became gray and grayer with the fervor man nor yet the senior office-boy had any of her devotion to letters. conception that the verses of their

es

By April the book was published, and teemed correspondent” were written by at the end of this month, laid aside by a woman too early old who dwelt alone sickness of the vague kind called locally at the back of Barbrax Long Wood. “a decline,” she took to her bed, rising

One day Janet took a sudden but long only to lay a few sticks upon the fire from meditated journey. She went down by her store gathered in the autumn, or to rail from the little station of The Huts brew herself a cup of tea, she waited for to the large town of Drum, thirty miles the tokens of her book's conquests in the to the east. Here, with the most perfect great world of thought and men. She courage and dignity of bearing, she in- had waited so long for her recognition, terviewed a printer and arranged for the and now it was coming. She felt that it publication of her poems in their own would not be long before she was recogoriginal form, no longer staled and clap-nized as one of the singers of the world. per-clawed by the pencil of the senior Indeed, had she but known it, her recogoffice-boy. When the proof-sheets came nition was already on its way. to Janet, she had no way of indicating In a great city of the north a clever the corrections but by again writing the whole poem out in a neat print hand on leaves of The Heather Lintie” with a the edge of the proof, and underscoring hand almost feverishly eager. the words which were to be altered. “This is a perfect treasure. This is a This, when you think of it, is a very find indeed. Here is my chance ready good way, when the happiest part of your to my hand." life is to be spent in such concrete pleas- His paper was making a specialty of ures of hope, as Janet's were over the exposures.' If there was anything crackly sheets of the printer of Drum. weak and erring, anything particularly Finally the book was produced, a small, helpless and foolish which could make rather thickish octavo, on sufficiently no stand for itself, the Night Hawk was wretched gray paper which had suffered on the pounce. Hitherto the junior refrom want of thorough washing in the porter had never had a “two column original paper-mill. It was bound in a chance." He had read-it was not much peculiarly deadly blue, of a rectified that he had read-Macaulay's too famous Reckitt tint, which gave you dazzles in article on “Satan" Montgomery; and the eye at any distance under ten paces. not knowing that Macaulay lived to reJanet had selected this as the most appro. gret the spirit of that assault, he felt that priate of colors.

She had also many if he could bring down the Night Hawk years ago decided upon the title, so that on “The Heather Lintie,” his fortune Reckitt had printed upon it, back and was made. So he sat down and he wrote, side, “The Heather Lintie,” while in- not knowing and not regarding a lonely side there was the acknowledgment of woman's heart, to whom his word would authorship, which Janet felt to be a sol- be as the word of a God, in the lonely emn duty to the world, “ Poems by Janet cottage lying in the lee of the Long Balchrystie, Barbrax Cottage, by New Wood of Barbrax.

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