John the Baptist in History and Theology

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Univ of South Carolina Press, Nov 16, 2018 - Religion - 288 pages
While the Christian tradition has subordinated John the Baptist to Jesus of Nazareth, John himself would likely have disagreed with that ranking. In this eye-opening new book, John the Baptist in History and Theology, Joel Marcus makes a powerful case that John saw himself, not Jesus, as the proclaimer and initiator of the kingdom of God and his own ministry as the center of God’s saving action in history. Although the Fourth Gospel has the Baptist saying, “He must increase, but I must decrease,” Marcus contends that this and other biblical and extrabiblical evidence reveal a continuing competition between the two men that early Christians sought to muffle. Like Jesus, John was an apocalyptic prophet who looked forward to the imminent end of the world and the establishment of God’s rule on earth. Originally a member of the Dead Sea Sect, an apocalyptic community within Judaism, John broke with the group over his growing conviction that he himself was Elijah, the end-time prophet who would inaugurate God’s kingdom on earth. Through his ministry of baptism, he ushered all who came to him—Jews and non-Jews alike—into this dawning new age. Jesus began his career as a follower of the Baptist, but, like other successor figures in religious history, he parted ways from his predecessor as he became convinced of his own centrality in God’s purposes. Meanwhile John’s mass following and apocalyptic message became political threats to Herod Antipas, who had John executed to abort any revolutionary movement. Based on close critical-historical readings of early texts—including the accounts of John in the Gospels and in Josephus’s Antiquities—as well as parallels from later religious movements, John the Baptist in History and Theology situates the Baptist within Second Temple Judaism and compares him to other apocalyptic thinkers from ancient and modern times. It concludes with thoughtful reflections on how its revisionist interpretations might be incorporated into the Christian faith.
 

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Contents

Introduction
1
CHAPTER 1 The Competition Hypothesis
11
CHAPTER 2 Qumran
27
CHAPTER 3 The Elijah Role
46
CHAPTER 4 Baptism
62
CHAPTER 5 Jesus
81
CHAPTER 6 Herod Antipas
98
Conclusion
113
APPENDIX 7 The DayBaptists
139
3
143
APPENDIX 9 The Baptist in the Slavonic Version of Josephuss Jewish War
149
APPENDIX 10 Apocalyptic Belief and Perfectionism
153
25
155
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
159
NOTES
161
GLOSSARY
233

APPENDIX 1 The Chronology of Johns Life
121
APPENDIX 2 Is Josephuss Account of John the Baptist a Christian Interpolation?
125
APPENDIX 3 Database by Source of Information about John the Baptist in the Canonical Gospels and Josephus
129
APPENDIX 4 Was John from a Priestly Background? ...
133
APPENDIX 5 The Others in Josephus Antiquities 18118 ...
135
17
137

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About the author (2018)

Joel Marcus is a professor of New Testament and Christian origins at Duke Divinity School. His publications include Jesus and the Holocaust: Reflections on Suffering and Hope and Mark: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary. He taught previously at Princeton Theological Seminary, the University of Glasgow, and Boston University School of Theology.

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