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TABLE 8. Dollars Per Year Fringe Payments Per Employee, by Type of Payment and Industry Groups, 1937

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*Includes coal mining, warehousing and laundries. **Less than 50¢.

6. Regional Variations

FRINGE PAYMENTS BY REGION for the various industry groups are shown in Table 9. The regions are based on United States Bureau of the Census Divisions, and the states comprising each region are listed in a footnote following the table. No figure is shown if fewer than three companies reported.

Fringe payments were highest in the North East region, with this area having higher than average payments in 18 of the 20 industry groups. The East North Central and Western regions each had five industries with higher than average payments, and the South East region had two.

TABLE 9. Fringe Payments as Per Cent of Payroll,

by Region and Industry Groups, 1957

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Manufacture of:

Food, beverages & tobacco.
Textile products & apparel..
Pulp, paper, lumber & furniture. ..
Printing & publishing .......
Chemicals & allied products..
Petroleum industry....
Rubber & leather products.....
Stone, clay & glass products.........
Primary metal industries...
Fabricated metal products (excluding machinery and transportation equip-

ment)................:::....
Machinery (excluding electrical).....
Electrical machinery, equipment & supplies. .
Transportation equipment.....
Instruments & miscellaneous manufacturing industries..

25.9 22.0 22.9

21.4
24.0

17.5

19.3

15.3

19.5 20.6

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Total, all nonmanufacturing.............................

24.2

27.4

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23.5

23.5

Public utilities (electric, gas, water, telephone, etc.). ...........
Trade (wholesale & retail).

25.1 21.8

........

20.9

21.7
22.8
17.9
11.0
27.7

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15.0 36.2 28.5

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* States in each region are:

North East: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island and Vermont.
East North Central: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio and Wisconsin.
South East: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi,

North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia and West Virginia.
West: Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North

Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington and Wyoming. ** Fewer than three companies reporting.

7. Size of Company Variations

LARGER FIRMS TEND to pay higher fringe benefits, but the correlation between size of firm and amount of fringe payments is not perfect.

Companies having 5,000-and-over employees paid higher than average fringe benefits in eight industries, and lower than average payments in four industries. Firms with 2,500 to 4,999 employees paid higher than average payments in seven industries, and lower than average payments in five industries.

The firms with 1,000 to 2,499 employees paid

higher than average payments in eight industries, and lower than average in ten industries. Firms with 500 to 999 employees paid higher than average payments in ten industries, and lower than average in seven industries. Firms with less than 500 employees paid higher than average fringe benefits in seven industries and lower than average in twelve.

Average fringe payments for industry groups by size of firm are shown in Table 10.

TABLE 10. Fringe Payments as Per Cent of Payroll, by Size of

Company and Industry Groups, 1937

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Manufacture of:

Food, beverages & tobacco.....
Textile products & apparel..
Pulp, paper, lumber & furniture.
Printing & publishing ........
Chemicals & allied products.....
Petroleum industry...........
Rubber & leather products...
Stone, clay & glass products. , .
Primary metal industries.....
Fabricated metal products (excluding machinery

tion equipment)..........
Machinery (excluding electrical)..............
Electrical machinery, equipment & supplies.
Transportation equipment.....

Instruments & miscellaneous manufacturing industries. Total, all nonmanufacturing ..........

Public utilities (electric, gas, water, telephone, etc.)...
Trade (wholesale & retail)......

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Hotels.

13.4

14.6

110VOLS..................................................

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8. Pension and Insurance Costs

DUE TO THE WIDE INTEREST in private pension and insurance programs, tabulations are included showing distributions of amounts paid by companies for these programs, and also average employee payroll deductions for pensions and insurance. Employer payments are net amounts after deducting any dividends or credits returned to employer by the insurer.

As shown in Table 11, 193 firms, or 19% of those surveyed, had no private pension payments, while

66 companies paid amounts for pensions equaling 10% or more of payroll. Pension payments for all companies surveyed averaged 4.1% of payroll (the figure shown in Tables 4 and 6), but if companies having no pensions were omitted, the average becomes 5.1% of payroll.

Among all manufacturing industries 21% of the firms reported no pension payments, while among all nonmanufacturing firms 16% reported no pay

TABLE 11. Pension* Payments by Industry Groups, 1957

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housing and laundries) ..

* Includes net pension-plan premiums and pension payments not covered by insurance-type plan.

ments. Less than 2% of the manufacturing firms paid 10% or more of payroll for pensions, while 15% of the nonmanufacturing firms paid 10% or more.

The distribution of insurance payments by industry groups is shown in Table 12. Payments for insurance were reported by 97% of the firms, including 98% of those in manufacturing, and 96% of those in nonmanufacturing. The most frequent amount paid for insurance was 2.0% to 3.9% of payroll for manufacturing firms, and 0.1% to 1.9% for nonmanufacturing firms. Eight firms reported insurance payments amounting to 6% or more of payroll.

Employee payroll deductions for private pension programs were reported by 31% of the companies, including 23% of the manufacturing firms, and 44%

of those in nonmanufacturing, as shown in Table 13. Deductions were reported by 75% of the petroleum industry firms, and 74% of the insurance companies, but by only 5% of the hotels. While deductions for pensions averaged 0.5% of payroll for all companies in the survey (as shown in Table 16), they averaged 1.6% for companies having deductions.

Payroll deductions for insurance were reported by 80% of the companies, including 77% of those engaged in manufacturing, and 85% of the nonmanufacturing firms. Deductions were reported by 96% of the insurance companies, but by only 58% of the rubber and leather products firms. Insurance deductions averaged 1.1% for all firms in the survey, but 1.4% for those firms having deductions.

TABLE 12. Insurance* Payments by Industry Groups, 1937

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* Includes net premiums paid for life, sickness, accident, surgical, medical care and hospitalization insurance, plus death, accident, surgical and medical care payments not insured. Does not include sick leave pay.

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