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systems, and the definition of an advanced geographic information system for earthscience studies.
Earth Resources Observation Systems
Remotely sensed data are produced, archived, and distributed under the Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Program. The largest users of the data are Government agencies and private firms involved with the exploration and assessment of energy, mineral, and renewable resources. EROS scientists also conduct research leading to new and improved remote sensing and spatial data applications.
The EROS Data Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, serves as the repository and public distribution facility for a growing archive of over 8.6 million aerial photographs and side-looking radar images from various Federal programs. The center cooperates with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Earth Observation Satellite Company (the commercial Landsat system operator) to perform final ground processing and distribution of Landsat satellite data.
National Mapping Research
The USGS has pioneered investigations that have led to major developments and significant changes in surveying and mapping. The Mapping Research Program, which is centered on geographic and cartographic research, emphasizes spatial data analysis, applications of remote sensing and geographic information systems, and advanced techniques for producing digital cartographic data.
The Division has embarked on a major research and development plan (known as MARK II) to move from manual to digital production and revision of map products. The goals of MARK II are to implement the advanced cartographic systems and procedures required to automate map production and to provide data for the National Digital Cartographic Data Base.
The USGS has expanded its production of multicolor satellite image maps and, in cooperation with the Defense Mapping
Agency and the National Geodetic Survey, is developing applications of the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System, which is a satellite navigation and positioning system for attaining positional data to geodetic standards.
The USGS disseminates much of the Nation's earth-science information through its Public Inquiries Offices, National Cartographic Information Centers, and the Earth Resources Observation Systems Data Center. The information comes in many forms, from maps and books to computer-readable magnetic tapes. About 93,000 different maps and books and about 8.6 million aerial and space images are available for purchase. USGS maps are also currently available from more than 3,200 authorized commercial map dealers nationwide.
The U.S. Geological Survey has been involved with earth-science studies in foreign countries for nearly 50 years. Authorization is provided under the Organic Act, as revised, and the Foreign Assistance Act and related legislation when such studies are deemed by the Departments of the Interior and State to be in the interests of the U.S. Government. Current international program efforts focus on technical assistance programs in developing countries and scientific cooperation and research through agreements with other countries as an extension and enhancement of the Survey's domestic programs. Decisions to undertake international scientific activities are based in part on these principal objectives: • The opportunity for comparative studies of scientific phenomena abroad and domestically. • The opportunity to obtain information on existing and potential foreign resources of interest to the United States. • The opportunity to broaden the knowledge, understanding, and expertise of USGS scientists.
• The opportunity to develop and maintain relations with counterpart institutions and to conduct programs that improve scientific cooperation and exchange of information technology. • The opportunity to support international programs of other Federal agencies, particularly the U.S. Department of State, in political, economic, and strategic efforts that contribute to foreign policy objectives. Technical assistance programs for foreign nationals use funds from other U.S. government agencies, international organizations, or foreign governments for scientific advice, training, demonstration, and collaboration. Scientific research with foreign counterpart organizations under Government-approved bilateral and multilateral cooperative agreements uses both funds appropriated for USGS research and funds and other resources from the cooperating countries or organizations to achieve common research objectives. Such cooperative programs are ordinarily supported on the basis that each participant country pays its own expenses. Cooperative research activities range from informal communications between scientists, through formal, jointly staffed projects, to multinationally staffed and coordinated programs focused on particular problems or topics. Related activities that are integral to the international programs include institutional development, exchange of scientists, training of foreign nationals, and representation of the Survey or the U.S. Government in international organizations and at international conferences and meetings.
The Administrative Division provides administrative direction and coordination in support of the scientific and technical programs of the U.S. Geological Survey. This support includes policy guidance and program direction and provides leadership and authority for various administrative management and technical support func
tions, including personnel, manpower utilization, finance, administrative management systems, management analysis, records management, procurement and contract negotiation, property and facilities management, motor vehicle management, security, and safety. The Division also manages the development, maintenance, and operation of the financial management system for the entire Department of the Interior. These functions are carried out at the National Center in Reston, Virginia, and through Regional Management Offices in Denver, Colorado, and Menlo Park, California.
The Division is composed of five headquarters offices. Financial Management and Systems Management are centralized headquarters functions; Administrative Services, Personnel, and Procurement and Contracts provide operational support at headquarters and at USGS field units through the Regional Management Offices.
The Information Systems Division provides support and advice to the Director of the U.S. Geological Survey, the other USGS Divisions, the Department of the Interior, and other government agencies on matters relating to information technology and automated data processing (ADP). The Division operates the Survey's mainframe computer located in Reston, as well as Technology Information Centers and minicomputers in four ADP Service Centers nationwide. The Division assists users in acquiring ADP and telecommunications equipment and software, coordinates and improves information systems through system analysis and design, provides user training, and conducts research into better ways to use data processing technology to solve mission-related problems. The DiviSion is responsible for managing all voice, data, and radio communications in the USGS.
The Information Systems Division has its headquarters office in Reston, Virginia. Service centers in Reston and in Menlo
Park, California, Denver, Colorado, and Flagstaff, Arizona, provide assistance to uSerS.
The Assistant Director for Information Systems chairs the Information Systems Council, which is composed of representatives from each Division and each field region. The council recommends policies, coordinates computer science research and technology, and provides guidelines for major computer systems and information management programs for the USGS.
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