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custodiebam, permitteret.in municipium transferre adiecta sua statua.. Quod quidem ille mihi cum plenissimo testimonio in
2 quodque ille, B. and Ald.
of my proposed undertaking and the scription, p. 16; (6) also by his will he settlement of my private concerns, if leaves an endowment of 1,866,666 you will grant me leave of absence for sesterces for an annual alimentation for thirty days, as my estate is distant more a hundred of his freedmen, and on their. than 150 miles.
decease for a public feast, inscrip. p. 16. The date of this letter depends on the Nor did Pliny stand alone. A similar question whether Caecilius Classicus was bequest for his freedmen is found in the accused in 99 or 101. Cf. Ep. iii 4, 2. testament of Dasumius. Bruns Fontes ‘Cum publicum opus pecunia mea incho. Iur. Rom. p. 229, ed. 1879; see also aturus in Tuscos excucurrissem accepto, the will of Flavius Syntrophus Henzen, ut praefectus aerari, commeatu, legati, 7321 ; an honorary inscription to A. provinciae Baeticae questuri de procon- Quintitius Priscus by the senate of Fersulatu Caecili Classici advocatum me a entinum for charitable bequests to the senatu petierunt.' See supra note on municipium. Bruns Font. Iur. Rom. p. Ep. 3 § 2 p. 83. If we decide with
227. So too Caninius Rufus, Pliny's Mommsen, the letter was written in fellow-townsman, established an endowAugust 101.
ment for a public entertainment, Ep. vii honestissimo exemplo. Instances 18, 1; and Calpurnius Fabatus built a of Nerva's public munificence are (1) the public porticus, and also promised money institution of the alimentationes in Italian for the adornment of the gates, v II, I. towns, testified to by Aurelius Victor, in longinquis agris. This was his Epit. c. xii, and coins (Eckhel, vi p. 408, Tuscan estate, a villa described at length and Cohen, No. 121) with legend 'Tutela in v 6, and alluded to, v 18; ix 15; ix Italiae' and figures of a woman and child 36, 40; iv 1; and iii 4. coming before the emperor.
per plures successiones. Cf. i duction p. 10; (2) provision for the corn 12, 4. 'Nam plerumque morbi quoque supply (Echkel, vi p. 408, has coins with per successiones quasdam, ut alia, tradlegend Plebei urbanae frumento con- untur.' stituto'); (3) the purchase of land for in municipium. See iv i, 4, "oppidpoor citizens, Dio Cass. 68, 2; (4) the um est praediis nostris vicinum; nomen completion of the Forum transitorium Tiferni Tiberini, quod me paene adhuc begun by Domitian ; and of the temple
puerum patronum cooptavit.' Tifernum of Minerva. Suet. Dom. 5; Aur. Vict. Tiberinum was a town in Umbria near Epit. xii ; Mart. i 3, 10.
the head waters of the Tiber. It was so The example of Nerva was not only called to distinguish it from Tifernum followed by Trajan and his successors, Metaurense, also in Umbria, but on the in connection with the alimentationes' Metaurus : see Plin. Nat. Hist. iii 5. (see introd. p. 10), and the Tabulae of adiecta sua statua. Nerva was not Veleia and Ligures Baebiani, but also by a as fond as some emperors of having number of private individuals. Pliny statues erected in their honour, and himself, in addition to the temple men- golden statues he altogether forbade. tioned in the present letter, founded (1) Dio Cass. 68, 2, απείπε δε και ανδριάνa library in Comum, i 8, 2 (though this τας αυτή χρυσούς γίγνεσθαι. was under Domitian); (2) an endowment cum plenissimo testimonio. On of 500,000 sesterces for the education another occasion also Nerva had borne of boys and girls in Comum, i 8, 10; witness to Pliny's merits.
See vii 33. i 5; and vii 18, 2; (3) he offers to pay In 93, when Baebius Massa had been conthe third part of the salary of a professor demned, and his goods were to be of rhetoric at Comum, if the town will publicly guarded, there seemed some provide the rest, iii 13, 5; (4) repairs a probability that the consuls, possibly temple of Ceres near one of his estates, ix with the connivance of Domitian, would 39, 1; (5) by his will Thermae were to execute this part of the sentence somebe established at Comum, and a capital what laxly. Senecio and Pliny, therefore, sum of 300,000 sesterces set apart as an the two accusers, went to the consuls on endowment for their internal mainten- the subject, when Massa accused Senecio ance, and 200,000 for repairs, etc., in- of impiety towards the emperor. Pliny
dulserat; ego statim decurionibus scripseram ut adsignarent solum in quo templum pecunia mea extruerem ; illi in honothereupon said, 'Sed vereor, clarissimi who all voted and were included in the consules, ne mihi Massa silentio suo hundred, there were two other classes, who praevaricationem obiecerit, quod non et are added to the album, and who might me reum postulavit.' Pliny goes on, be present at meetings of the ordo, but ' Divus quidem Nerva (nam privatus were only honorary or formal members. quoque attendebat his quae recte in pub- There were—(1) the patroni, i.e. Roman lico fierent) missis ad me gravissimis senators or equites appointed patroni by litteris non mihi solum verum etiam the local senate. These were placed saeculo est gratulatus, cui exemplum first in the album, Dig. 50, 3, 2. 'In (sic enim scripsit) simile antiquis con- albo decurionum in municipio nomina tigisset.'
ante-scribi oportet eorum qui dignitates decurionibus. The decurions principis iudicio consecuti sunt, postea conscripti (lex Iul. Municip., line 85), less eorum, qui tantum municipalibus honorifrequently senatores (Tac. Hist. v 19), or bus functi sunt;' (2) the praetextati or collectively ordo decurionum, or ordo sons of the senators who were allowed to alone (Tac. Hist. ii 52 ordo Mutinensis) be present, but had no vote. Thus in and in later times curiales (Orelli, 3729), the Album Canusinum (Orelli, 3721) were the senate in all towns of Italian there are thirty-one patroni c.c.v.v. constitution not only in Italy itself, but in (clarissimi viri), eight patroni e.e.q.q.R.R. the provinces. Cf. infra Ep. 113 and 115; (equites Romani), seven quinquennaand Orelli 4980, 'decurio civium Romano- licii, four adlecti inter quinquen., twentyrum Mogontiaci.' They were usually 100 nine duoviralicii, nineteen aedilicii, nine in number (Cic. de leg. agrar. 2, 35, quaestoricii, thirty-two pedani, twenty96), and are sometimes called centumviri. five praetextati, i.e. 164 in all
, but exOrelli, 3448, 3739. See also the album actly 100 when the patroni and praeof Canusium referred to below. Under textati
subtracted. Pliny the empire election to the ordo' took himself a patronus of Tifernum, proplace every five years under the authority bably an hereditary one, as he was of the quinquennales, whose duty it was appointed when a boy, 'quod me paene to prepare the album'(lex Tulia Mun. adhuc puerum patronum cooptavit,' and ad init.). Election to any vacancies was therefore on the album decurionum was made (1) from those who were quali- of the town. For the change in the fied through having held the quaestorship position of the decuriones in later times or any of the higher magistracies; (2) from see note on Ep. 113. those who, though not yet elected magis- ut adsignarent solum trates, have the necessary qualifications, templum pecunia mea extruerem. and also the senatorial census. These The abbreviations L. D.D.D. loco dato latter when elected were called 'pedani.' decreto decurionum, and D.S.P. de sua The others were arranged in the album pecunia are very common on dedicatory according to the dignity of the offices inscriptions. The following is an interthey had held, as, e.g. quinquennalicii, esting one, and bears a close resemblance duoviralicii, aedilicii, quaestoricii. In to what Pliny's dedication may have addition to these ordinary classes, per- been at Tifernum. Wilmann, 307. sons without any of these qualifications, Veneri Verae felici Gabinae A. Plutius but who had performed some special Epaphroditus, accensus velatorum, neservice to the community, were some- gociator sericarius, templum cum signo times added to the ordo either by the aereo effigie Veneris, item signis aereis decuriones themselves, or even by the numero IIII dispositis, in Zothecis et emperor. These were called adlecti balbis aereis, et aram aeream et omni (Cf. Suet. Claud. 24 and Vespas. 9, for cultu a solo sua pecunia fecit cuius ob this use of the word adlego), and they dedicationem divisit decurionibus singulis might be ranked in any of the classes denarios quinos, item seviris Augustalialready mentioned. Thus 'adlecti inter bus singulis denarios binos, item taberduoviralicios, etc.' So Pliny, speaking naris intra murum negotiantibus denarios of the Roman senate, Ep. i 14, 5, says, singulos, et HS. decem millia nummum ‘Minucius Macrinus equestris ordinis reipublicae Gabinorum intulit, ita ut ex princeps adlectus a divo Vespasiano inter usuris ejusdem summae quod annis iv praetorios.' To these various classes Kal. Octobr. die natali Plutiae Verae 3 rem operis ipsius electionem loci mihi obtulerant.
Sed primum mea, deinde patris tui valitudine, postea curis delegati a vobis officii retentus, nunc videor commodissime posse in rem praesentem excurrere. Nam et menstruum meum Kalend
is Septembribus finitur et sequens mensis complures dies feri4 atos habet. Rogo ergo ante omnia permittas mihi opus quod
inchoaturus sum exornare et tua statua, deinde, ut hoc facere 5 quam maturissime possim, indulgeas commeatum. Non est au4 Kalendis Septembribus, B.
Kal. Septembris, Ald.
filiae suae decuriones et seviri Augustales publice in tricliniis suis epulentur : quod si facere neglexerint, tunc ad municipium Tusculanorum HS. decem millia nummum
pertineant, quae confestim exigantur. Loco dato decreto decurionum : dedicata Idibus Maiis. L. Venuleio Aproniano II L. Sergio Paulo II Coss. (i.e. 169 A.D.)
§ 3. primum mea. See on Ep. 5 $ 1.
deinde patris tui valetudine. This can hardly be any other than Nerva's last illness in January 98.
curis delegati a vobis officii. What kind of duties belonged to the analogous office of praefectus aerarii militaris we see from i 10, 9. 'Nam distringor officio ut maximo sic molestissimo. Sedeo pro tribunali, subnoto libellos, conficio tabulas, scribo plurimas sed inlitteratissimas litteras.'
a vobis. See note on indulgentia vestra, Ep. 3, 1.
in rem praesentem, to the spot. Cf. 'in re praesenti,' Ep. 50, and the note ad loc. also Prof. Mayor's note on iii 9, 26.
excurrere. Cf. iii 4, 2, 'cum publicum opus mea pecunia inchoaturus in Tuscos excucurrissem,' where Professor Mayor cites, Suet. Galb. 18, 'cumque exterritus luce prima ad expiandum somnium, praemissis qui rem divinam appararent, Tusculum excucurrisset.'
menstruum meum Kalendis Septembribus finitur. Under the republic even the consuls in war held the chief command in monthly rotation. Cf. Dionys. 4, 43, ήν δε ή του μηνός εκείνου ηγεμονία το Κοιντίω προσήκουσα, ώστε αναγκαίον ήν τον έτερον τών υπάτων μηδέν άκοντος εκείνου ποιείν. .' Cic. de Repub. ii 31, 55. With regard to the higher magistracies this monthly rotation ceased under the later republic and was revived by Caesar.
Suet. Caes. 20: antiquum
rettulit morem, ut quo mense fasces non haberet, accensus ante eum iret, lictores pone sequerentur.' For the subordinate offices, where the business was chiefly routine, this monthly rotation was no doubt always the rule. On the date of the letter see above. Aldus read Kal. Septembris, which G. H. Schaeffer was the first to emend to Kalendis Septembribus, an emendation now confirmed by the Bodleian MS.
sequens mensis complures dies feriatos habet. The ludi Romani were celebrated from the fourth to the 19th of September. On the second there were 'feriae ex senatus consulto, quod eo die imp. Caesar divi filius Augustus apud Actium vicit se et Titio consulibus.' Within the ludi Romani the Ides (13th) were 'feriae Iovi:' and since Tiberius 'feriae ex senatus consulto quod eo die nefaria consilia quae de salute Ti. Caesaris liberorumque eius et aliorum principum civitatis deque republica inita ab M. Libone erant, in senatu convicta sunt. On the 17th was the consecration of Augustus; and on the 18th Trajan's birthday: The 23d was the 'natalis Augusti' and the 26th the dedication of the temple of Venus Genetrix.
4. opus quod inchoaturus sum. Cf. iii 4. indulgeas commeatum.
This was granted as appears both from the following letter and iii 4, 2: "commeatu, ut praefectus aerari, accepto,' also v 14, 9, nam includor angustiis commeatus.' § 5. simplicitatis meae.
Cf. Juv. i 151-3: 'ande illa priorum Scribendi quodcumque animo flagrante liberet Simplicitas ?' and Plin. Ep. vi 12, 5, 'rogo ut mihi semper eadem simplicitate, quotiens cessare videbor, convicium facias.'
agrorum locatio. Land was usually let for a period of five years; Plin. Ep. ix 37, 'nam priore lustro, quamquam post magnas remissiones reliqua creverunt.'
tem simplicitatis meae dissimulare apud bonitatem tuam obiter te plurimum conlaturum utilitatibus rei familiaris meae. Agrorum enim quos in eadem regione possideo locatio, cum alioqui CCCC excedat, adeo non potest differri ut proximam putationem novus colonus facere debeat. Praeterea continuae sterilitates cogunt me de remissionibus cogitare ; quarum ra3 locatio cum, Cat.
locationem, B and Ald.
Cf. also Orelli 4323: ‘locantur ex idibus Aug. primis in Idus Aug. sextas,
continuos quinque;' and the locatio was frequently made on Ist July. See Suet. Tib. 35; Mart. xii 32; sometimes on ist March; or on the Ides of August. This was the latest regular time, as the 'novus colonus' would then have both the vindematio and the putatio, whereas if it were left too late, the vindematio would be over, and his first task would be the putatio. The contract between the locator and the conductor was the ‘lex locationis.' The conductor was usually called 'colonus' and the rent pensio or merces.
cum alioqui cccc excedat, since, moreover,
the sum total is more than 400,000 sesterces. This is probably the annual rent estimated for average seasons. We do not know for certain how many estates Pliny had, but we know that nearly all his property was in land (iii 19, 8): 'sum quidem prope totus in praediis'; but he found his Laurentine property the only one profitable: 'nihil quidem ibi 'habeo praeter_tectum et hortum statimque harenas.' The attempt made by Augustus and his successors to restore the former prosperity of Italian husbandry, had been very partially successful. Even the vine culture, which Domitian had discouraged as encroaching too much on the growing of corn (Suet. Dom. 7), appears from this passage-from viïi 2, and ix 16, 1-to have been a losing concern. Landowners with large latifundia, worked by gangs of slaves, might perhaps make some profit, but Pliny says expressly (iii 19, 7): 'nec ipse vinctos usquam habeo.
The fact that all provincials who entered on the senatorial cursus honorum were compelled by Trajan to invest one-third of their property in Italian land hardly points to this being a good investment. With regard to the price of land, Pliny talks of buying an estate conterminous with one of his own for 3,000,000 sesterces, iii 19, 7, and adds, 'non quia non aliquando
quinquagies fuerint, verum et hac penuria colonorum et communi temporis iniquitate ut reditus agrorum sic etiam pretium retro abiit'; while the price of an 'agellus' which he gave to his nurse was 100,000 sesterces. Pliny's hereditary estates were in the neighbourhood of Lake Larius, vii 11, 5, but even those seem to have been little profitable, as he says, ii 15, 2, 'me praedia materna parum commode tractant, delectant tamen ut materna.'
adeo non ut = tantum abest ut ...
ut. Cf. Liv. iii 2, 7: qui adeo non tenuit iram ut gladio invitum in senatum venturum se esse diceret.' Translate here, 'can so little be deferred that.'
proximam putationem, the pruning which is just at hand.
continuae sterilitates. Cf. ix 16, 1: 'nobis venari nec vacat nec libet : non vacat quia vindemiae in manibus, non libet quia exiguae ;' viii 15, 1: 'oneravi te tot pariter missis voluminibus
quia scripseras tam graciles istic vindemias esse ut plane scirem tibi vacaturum, quod vulgo dicitur, librum legere,' also ix 20, 2.
So iii 19, 7: 'communi temporis iniquitate.'
de remissionibus. On the general depression, see ii 4, 3: sunt quidem omnino nobis modicae facultates, dignitas sumptuosa, reditus propter conditionem agellorum nescio minor incertior ;' iv 6, 1; vi 3, 2; 'postea decrescente reditu, etiam pretium minuit.' viii 2, 1: 'Alii in praedia sua proficiscuntur ut locupletiores revertantur, ego ut pauperior. In ix 37 he complains that quamquam post magnas remissiones' the arrears of rent still increase. 'Occurendum ergo augescentibus vitiis et medendum est. Medendi una ratio, si non nummo sed partibus (i.e. a proportion of the proceeds) locem, ac deinde ex meis aliquos operis exactores custodes fructibus ponam :
et alioqui nullum iustius genus reditus quam quod terra caelum annus refert.'
6 tionem nisi praesens inire non possum. Debebo ergo, domine,
indulgentiae tuae et pietatis meae celeritatem et status ordinationem, si mihi ob utraque haec dederis commeatum triginta dierum Neque enim angustius tempus praefinire possum, cum et municipium et agri de quibus loquor sint ultra centesimum et quinquagesimum lapidem. i Debebo, Gronovius. debeo, B and Ald.
2 pietati, Avantius.
quarum rationem. How careful Pliny was in apportioning the remissions to the needs of particular cases is seen in viii 2, 1: ‘Erat expeditum omnibus remittere aequaliter, sed non satis aequum : mihi autem egregium in primis videtur ut foris ita domi agitare iustitiam.' He accordingly remits one-eighth of the purchase-money to all the purchasers of his vintages ; and in addition one-tenth of whatever had been paid by each over 10,000 sesterces.
§ 6. pietatis meae celeritatem. The speedy accomplishment of my pious purpose, i.e. in building the temple.
status ordinationem. The arrangement of my private affairs. Status may refer (1) to political position and privileges ; (2) to social rank and dignity; or (3) to private circumstances, happy or unhappy. See Lewis and Short.
triginta dierum, i.e. during September. · ultra centesimum et quinquagesimum lapidem. Professor Mayor says that Tifernum Tiberinum was about 20 miles east of Arretium, and that Arretium, by the itineraries, is 164 miles from Rome.
TRAIANUS PLINIO S.
Et privatas multas et omnes publicas causas petendi commeatus reddidisti: mihi autem vel sola voluntas tua suffecisset. Neque enim dubito te, ut primum potueris, ad tam districtum officium reversurum. Statuam poni mihi a te eo quo desideras loco, quamquam eiusmodi honorum parcissimus, tamen patior, ne inpedisse cursum erga me pietatis tuae videar.
I et multas et omnes, B. and Ald. 4 quod desyderas, Aldi
quo desyderas, Ald. 2
reddidisti. You have given to my satisfaction.
tam districtum officium. Cf. i 10, 4, 'distringor officio.'
eiusmodi honorum parcissimus. Cf. Panegyr., § 82. ' Itaque tuam statuam in vestibulo Iovis optimi maximi unam alteramve et hanc aeream cerni.
At paulo ante aditus omnes, omnes gradus, totaque area hinc auro hinc argento relucebat, seu potius polluebatur, cum incesti principis statuis permixta deorum simulacra sorderent.'