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enim peregrinae conditionis, manumissus a peregrina. Vocatur ipse Harpocras, patronam habuit Thermuthin Theonis, quae 2 matronam habet, B. and Ald.1

patronam habuit, Cat. patronam habet Ald.?

to

candidates for office should invest one. Mommsen in Hermes, xix, p. 13). Under third of their property in Italian land the empire all these powers passed (Plin. Ep. vi 19), put a very practical naturally to the princeps. He could limit upon admission into the senate. either confer the civitas on whole comIn addition the political rights munities by estabļishing a colony of Roman citizens were protected by the Roman citizens, Tac. Ann. xiv 27, lex Porcia and lex Sempronia from 'vetus oppidum Puteoli ius coloniae et shameful forms of punishment. More

cognomentum a Nerone apiscuntur,' or by important were the private rights (1) ius raising a town with the Latin right into a conubii, without which there was no municipium ; or he could confer it on patria potestas nor ius agnationis (2) ius individuals. In regard to this last point commercii, which involved the right of the custom of different emperors varied. acquiring and alienating property ex iure Augustus was very sparing with it; Suet. Quiritium, and also the right of testa. Aug. 40, ‘magni praeterea existimans mentary disposition and inheritance ac- sincerum atque ab omni colluvione perecording to the civil law. The civitas grini ac servilis sanguinis incorruptum might be acquired (1) by birth (2) by servare populum, et civitatem Romanam manumission (3) by direct bestowal either parcissime dedit, et manumittendi modum to communities or individuals. (1) All terminavit,' also c. 47. See also Tac. persons born in lawful wedlock from Ann. i 58, and Dio Cass. 56, 33. burgesses of municipia or coloniae civium Claudius was more generous with it ; Romanorum were themselves cives. (2) Dio Cass. 6ο, 17, συχνούς δε δή και Freedmen manumitted with the full cere- άλλους αναξίους της πολιτείας απήλασε monial, iusta manumissio, by citizens και ετέροις αυτήν και πάνυ ανέδην, τοίς gained the civitas. Those, on the other μεν κατάνδρα, τοις δε και αθρόοις εδίδου.' hand, whose masters had omitted the full Nero even granted it to a number of ceremonial, or had only had dominium Greek Pyrrhic dancers ; Suet. Nero, 12, in bonis over them, became 'Latini quibus post editam operam diplomata Iuniani,' The direct bestowal of the civitatis Romanae singulis obtulit.' Galba civitas' had under the republic been on the other hand, Suet. Galb. 14, civithe privilege of the Comitia Tributa or tatem Romanam raro dedit.' See also Centuriata. Cf. Livy, iv 4, 6, 7; Dionys. Tac. Hist. i 78, and infra Ep. 107. 5, 40. Thus it was by the Lex Iulia and See also Suet. Gramm. 22, 'tu Caesar a subsequent plebiscitum that the socii civitatem dare potes hominibus, verbo non were admitted to the civitas after the potes,' Dio Cass. 57, 17. Mommsen Social war.

It was, however, the custom has lately shown in Hermes, xix, that the occasionally to delegate this power (1) civitas was very commonly given to nonto the commissioners sent out to establish citizens on their enlistment in the legions. Roman colonies Cic. Brut. 20, 79, pro The diplomata militaria (see C. I. L. Balbo 21, 48; (2) to generals after iii) show that it was also frequently victory Cic. pro Balbo, 8, 19; 14, 32, granted to the auxiliary troops serving in and 20-22. This latter usage in the the cohortes and alae on the completion of course of time received an important their twenty-five years' service ; also Tac. modification. The generals came to be Ann. i 58, 'Segestes a divo Augusto entrusted on their appointment with civitate donatus. Some emperors sold the general power of conferring the civitas, the civitas ; cf. Acts of the Apostles, 22, which they generally used mainly as a 28, εγώ πολλού κεφαλαίου την πολιτείαν . means of enlisting non-citizens into the Taútnv èKTNO áumv.' Freedmen who obleigonary forces. This was done to a tained the civitas either by manumission large extent by Marius (Plutarch, Mar. or direct bestowal had not the ius 28, Cic. pro Balb. 20); by Sulla (Cic. pro honorum, though their descendants had Arch. 10); by Pompeius (Cic. Phil. I, 10), it; while all new citizens were subject to while by Caesar, whole legions were so the heavy 'vicesima hereditatum ' unless formed, called vernaculae legiones (see they received the ius cognationis from the

The pere

iam pridem defuncta est. Item rogo des ius Quiritium libertis Antoniae Maximillae, ornatissimae feminae, Hediae et Antoniae Harmeridi; quod a te petente patrona peto. emperor. Cf. Plin. Panegyr. $ 37, 'novi lam or per mensam. By the lex Iunia (cives) seu per Latium in civitatem seu Norbana of 19 A.D., freedmen so manubeneficio principis venissent, nisi simul mitted had not the complete civitas but cognationis iura inpetrassent, alienissimi were in a class by themselves called habebantur quibus coniunctissimi fuerant.' ' Latini Iuniani,' with rights not dissimilar peregrinæ conditionis.

to those of the Latin colonists. Cf. grini were strictly all those who were Tac. Ann. xiii 27.

Quin et manumitstrangers to the Roman state, and so tendi duas esse species institutas ; quos included the Latini, who were thus the vindicta patronus non liberaverit velut most privileged class of peregrini. Since vinclo servitutis attineri.' These Latini however, they possessed a modified kind Iuniani, however, could obtain the full of civitas, and since a Latin by passing civitas by obtaining from the emperor the through certain offices in his town became ius Quiritium : Ulpian iii 2, beneficio ipso facto a civis Romanus, the Latini were principali Latinus civitatem Romanam generally regarded as an intermediate accipit, si ab imperatore ius Quiritium class. Among the peregrini proper there impetraverit.' While therefore peregrini were numerous gradations, according as when they became citizens were said to they belonged to a libera civitas, or to a receive the 'civitas Romana,' the Latini civitas foederata (in which case again all on becoming citizens received the 'ius depended on the nature of the foedus) or Quiritium,' i.e. those rights, principally in to a civitas stipendiaria. Medical men at respect of Quiritary ownership, inheritance, Rome were as a rule peregrini except and testamentary disposition according those rewarded as here with the civitas. to the ‘ius civile' which was wanting to the Cf. Suet. Aug. 42, 'peregrinosque omnes, Latinitas. So Suet. Claud. 19, mentionexceptis medicis et praeceptoribus . . ing the privileges which Claudius granted urbe expulit.'

to various classes specifies,'civi vacationem manumissus a peregrina. Naturally legis Papiae Poppaeae ; Latino ius Quia freedman could never by the mere fact ritium ; feminis ius quatuor liberorum.' of manumission rise to a higher grade of Also infra Ep. 104,

Paulinus excepto privilege than his patron, nor would the Paulino ius Latinorum suorum mihi full ceremonial of manumissio be com- reliquit : ex quibus rogo tribus interim pleted by a non-citizen.

ius Quiritium des ;' also Ep. II. vocatur ipse Harpocras. The pere- Hediae et Antoniae Harmeridi. Ingrini are always designated officially By stead of Antoniae Harmeridi Mommsen one name only and the name of the conjectures Agathemeridi. In any case father : cf. Theomuthis Theonis and they would both be named Antonia, the passim the names of the auxiliary soldiers gentile name of their patrona. in the mil. diplomata. Thus C. I. L. iii petente patrona. Gaius, iii 72, exp. 844 seqq. Diomedes Artemonis, f.; plains the consequences of this condition Reburrus Severi f.; Thoemus Horati, f., not being fulfilled. Si Latinus invito etc. On becoming a citizen Harpocras vel ignorante patrono ius Quiritium ab would probably assume the nomen Ulpius. imperatore consecutus sit, quibus casibus, Cf. the number of Claudii and Iulii to be ut divus Traianus constituit, dum vivit found in Gaul.

iste libertus ceteris civibus Romanis patronam. On this sense of the word libertis similis est, et iustos liberos proi.e. the former master of a freedman, creat, moritur autem Latini iure, nec ei cf. Tac. Hist. ii 2, 'corrupti in dominos liberi eius heredes esse possunt; et in servi, in patronos liberti.'

hoc tantum habet testamenti factionem, ut ius Quiritium. That Antonia Maxi- patronum heredem instituat, eique si heres milla was herself a Roman citizen is clear esse noluerit, alium substituere possit.' from the context, but as a woman she was Also Gaius, iii 56-58 ; and Sandars not able to employ the iusta manumissio, Institutes of Justinian, p. 93, and for the i.e. man. vindicta or man. censu ; she whole question see Pauly, Real Encyclop. would therefore use one of the less formal sub voc., Manumissio, Latini Iuniani, and methods man. inter amicos, or per epistu. Ius Quiritium.

VI [XXII]
Agit gratias

C. PLINUS TRAIANO IMPERATORI

I

Ago gratias, domine, quod et ius Quiritium libertis necessariae mihi feminae et civitatem Romanam Harpocrati, iatraliptae meo, sine mora indulsisti. Sed cum annos eius et censum, sicut praeceperas, ederem, admonitus sum a peritioribus debuisse me ante ei Alexandrinam civitatem inpetrare, deinde Romanam, quoniam esset Aegyptius Ego autem, quia inter Aegyptios 2

s'i. I thank you, sire, that you have nunc quilibet imperatorum.' So too the conferred theius Quiritium: upon the Roman civitas was given to the citizens freed women of my friend Antonia, and of the Greek cities in Egypt as to any the civitas on my physician, Harpocras. other peregrini, but never to the Egyptians But in furnishing, according to your from the nomes. See Iosephus, cont. Ap. directions, his age and census, I was re- 2, 4, “μόνοις Αίγυπτίοις οι κύριοι νύν minded that as an Egyptian he ought to “Ρωμαίοι της οικουμένης μεταλαμβάνειν receive the Alexandrine franchise first. ηστινοσούν πολιτείας απειρήκασιν.' Even § 2. Not knowing this, I omitted to the former class were not cives optimo iure, mention all particulars except the fact of for they were excluded from the senate and his having been manumitted by a patrona were without the ius honorum, Dio Cass. now dead. I now beg you to grant him 51, 17. Not even by way of enlistment in both the Alexandrine and the Roman the legions do the Egyptians seem to have civitas. His age and census I have been able to gain the Roman franchise, already sent to your freedmen.

as whenever their homes are stated in § 1. annos eius et censum : previous inscriptions, they are the Greek cities and to his registration in one of the tribes. not the nomes. See Ephemeris Epi

ederem. The verb is often used in graphica, vol. v p. 13, and Mommsen the sense of making an official return. Rom. Gesch. vol. v p. 561. Pliny's Cf. Cic. Legg., 3, 20, 47 (quoted in ignorance of this rule would seem to show Lewis and Short), ‘apud eosdem (censores) however, that it had not always been qui magistratu abierint edant quid in rigidly observed, and even Trajan makes magistratu gesserint.' Ovid, Met. iii an exception in this case. 581 ; and jocularly in Horace, Sat. ii 4, § 2. esse eum a peregrina. This is 10, - 'Ede hominis nomen, simul the reading of B. for the unintelligible 'etsi Romanus an hospes.'

' of Avantius. Aldus conjectures debuisse me ante ei Alexandrinam scilicet eum.' civitatem inpetrare. There were in per quam stetit ut. The phrase is Egypt two classes of inhabitants broadly very rarely followed by an affirmative. distinguished from one another, the Lewis and Short quote one case, Ter. citizens of the Greek cities, such as Andr. iv 2, 17, 'sed si id non poterit, Alexandria, Ptolemais, Naucratis and id faciam in proclivi quod est, per me Paraetonion, and the Egyptians belonging stetisse ut credat.' Gesner quotes Quinto the nomes. To Egypt generally the tilian, Declamat. 250,fortasse per te civitas Alexandrina was what the Romana stetit, ut iniuriam hic quoque faceret.' civitas was to the Roman world, and obligarer, cf. supra Ep. 4, pro amicis neither the Ptolemies nor after them the obligari. emperors ever, except in very special libertis tuis. All the imperial secretcircumstances, gave this civitas to the aries like the 'ab epistulis, a libellis, a Egyptians. Iosephus, contra Apionem 2, censibus' would have a numerous staff of c. 6, ' Aegyptiis neque regum quisquam liberti at their disposal.

The reports videtur ius civitatis fuisse largitus neque sent in to the emperor from these various

et

eum

ceterosque peregrinos nihil interesse credebam, contentus fueram hoc solum scribere tibi, esse eum a peregrina manumissum patronamque eius iam pridem decessisse. De qua ignorantia mea non queror, per quam stetit ut tibi pro eodem homine saepius obligarer. Rogo itaque, ut beneficio tuo legitime frui possim, tribuas ei et Alexandrinam civitatem et Romanam. Annos eius et censum, ne quid rursus indulgentiam tuam moraretur, libertis tuis quibus iusseras misi. bureaus were called 'breviaria,' Suet. summum quidem honorem, sed tanquam Vesp. 21, and Marquadt, Staatsverw., vol. libertis habes, abundeque sufficere iis ii p. 217. For Trajan's treatment of his credis, si probi et fugi existimentur.' liberti see Panegyr. § 88, ‘Tu libertis tuis

VII [XXIII]

TRAIANUS PLINIO S.

Civitatem Alexandrinam secundum institutionem principum non temere dare proposui. Sed cum Harpocrati, iatraliptae tuo, iam civitatem Romanam inpetraveris, huic quoque petitioni tuae negare non sustineo. Tu ex quo nomo sit notum 2 eum scilicet, Ald. esse eum, B. etsi eum, Avant.

i institutiones, B.

Following the precedent of my pre- Greek cities, was divided under the decessors I only grant the Alexandrine Ptolemies, and remained so under the civitas in exceptional cases. However, empire into vomol, originally thirty-six in as I have already promised the Roman number (Diodor. i 54), but afterwards civitas, I cannot refuse you this. You apparently increased to forty-seven. Each will have to inform me of the home of νομός had a μητροπόλις, but this neither Harpocras, that I may write concerning had a municipal government itself, nor him to Pompeius Planta, praefect of was the administrative centre of the νομός. . Egypt.

The real centre of the district was the § 1. secundum institutionem prin sanctuary of some deity. The vouoi cipum. The emperors had throughout were under otpárnyol, who were suba special policy in Egypt which Tacitus ordinate to the è lotpár nyol of Thebais, Ann. ii 59 ranks 'inter alia dominationis Heptanomis, and the Delta. These

again were under the praefectus. The negare non sustineo. For this con- otpátnyou were either Greeks or Egypstruction of sustineo, cf. Juv. xiv 127, tians and were nominated by the praeneque enim omnia sustinet unquam fectus for three years ; the office was Mucida caerulei panis consumere frusta,' without salary, and was

one of the and xv 88, sed qui mordere cadaver Χωρικαι λειτουργίαι from which citizens of Sustinuit ; ' also Plin. Ep. ix 13, 6, 'sed Alexandria were exempt. non sustinui inducere in animum; and Pompeium Plantam. Planta is Panegyr. § 26, tu ne rogari quidem mentioned as having just died in Ep. ix sustinuisti.'

1; the date of which book is fixed by ex quo nomo sit. The country por- Mommsen as probably about 108 A.D. tion of Egypt, η χώρα as opposed to the A scholium to Juv. ii 99 states that

arcana.'

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mihi facere debebis, ut epistulam tibi ad Pompeium Plantam, praefectum Aegypti, amicum meum, mittam. Pompeius Planta wrote an account of Hist. v 57, Cum crescit Nilus reges the war between Vitellius and Vespasian. aut praefectos navigare eo nefas iudiTeuffel's Rom. Literat. 341, 9.

catum est. Arrian. Anab. 3, 5, 10. See praefectum Aegypti. On account also Tac. Ann. ii 59 ; Dio Cass. 51, 17. of the character of its population, its Iosephus calls the praefect o intapxwv position, and the vital importance of its katà Thu Ayuttov, Ant. Iud, xix 5, 2. corn trade, Egypt was not treated like They really belonged to the class of the other provinces, and the ordin- procuratores, but received the special ary provincial administration had no title of praefecti, as having a higher poșiplace here. The emperors succeeded tion, and being in command of legionary directly to the position of the Ptolemies, troops. Augustus had ruled that their and they kept the administration in their decrees should have the same force as own hands, appointing as viceroy a prae

the edicts of Roman provincial governors, fect of equestrian rank; Tac. Hist. i 11, Tac. Ann. xii 60. The praefect was the Aegyptum copiasque, quibus coercere- supreme judicial authority, had charge of tur, iam inde a Divo Augusto equites the finances, and was responsible directly Romani obtinent loco regum. Ita visum to the emperor himself, Philo, in Flaccum, expedire, provinciam aditu difficilem, xii p. 533. His official abode was Alexannonae faecundum, superstitione ac andria, from whence he made rounds of lascivia discordem, ac mobilem, in- inspection from time to time. His sciam legum, ignaram magistratuum,

tenure of office depended on the emdomi retinere.' So Strabo xvi p. 797,

peror's will.

See Marquadt, StaatsSays, ο μεν ούν πεμφθείς (έπαρχος) την verw. i pp. 441-444, and Mommsen, του βασιλέως έχει τάξιν.' Plin. Nat. Rom. Geschichte vol. v, pp. 553, 554.

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VIII [XXIIII]
De statuis principum in municipium transferendis

C. PLINIUS TRAIANO IMPERATORI

zens

§ 4.

Cum divus pater tuus, domine, et oratione pulcherrima et i honestissimo exemplo omnes cives ad munificentiam esset cohortatus, petii ab eo ut statuas principum, quas in longinquis agris per plures successiones traditas mihi quales acceperam

§ 1. When your predecessor, sire, both of duty ends on the ist of September, by precept and example, urged all citi- and the next month has several holidays.

to acts of public generosity, I I beg, therefore, that you will allow begged him to allow me to transfer some me to add your statue to the work, and statues of the emperors from a country- grant me leave of absence. $ 5. I must house of mine to the neighbouring town; not conceal the fact that you will greatly and to place his among the number. § 2. assist by this my private affairs. I have He most kindly consented, and I wrote lands in that quarter which bring in at once to the decurions asking for a site, 400,000 HS. a year, and for which new as I intended to build a temple at my tenants must be found at once, as they own expense. They left the selection of will have to look after the trimming of a site to me. § 3. But I was hindered the vines. Bad seasons also compel me by my illness, then by your father's to make some remissions of rent, about death and the duties of my appointment which I can only decide on the spot. at Rome. The present seems a conven- $ 6. I shall owe, therefore, to your kindient time for me to get away. My month ness both the speedy accomplishment

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