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Among other editions the most noteworthy are those of Veenhusius, Rotterdam, 1669, with notes of Casaubon, Gruter, H. Stephanus, Buchner, Barthius, and Gronovius; of G. Cortius and P. D. Longolius, Amsterdam, 1734, with notes of Catanaeus, Casaubon, Stephanus, Ritterhusius, Barthius, Buchner, Schaeffer, Gronovius, and Cellarius ; the editio Oxoniensis, 1703, with notes of Thomas Hearne and others, and the first sketch of Pliny's Life by Masson; of Gierig, Leipzig, 1800; and of Gesner and Schaeffer, Leipzig, 1805.

In 1833 J. C. Orelli published the Pliny-Trajan letters separately, ‘ab interpolationibus purgatae,' with the “Historia Critica Epistolarum Plinii et Traiani' prefixed. This is, however, throughout vitiated (1) by the mistaken supposition that the edition of Beroaldus was published before that of Avantius; and (2) by his having at that time never seen the second edition of Catanaeus of 151 8. These mistakes, however, he corrected in a later edition of the Historia Critica published in 1838. Orelli's edition contains a few critical notes on the most corrupt passages, and the apparatus criticus is fully given at the foot of each page.

In 1843 all the letters were published, with German explanatory notes, by Möritz Döring at Freiberg. The edition, however, is of little value. For the text, too much dependence is placed upon Orelli, and the mistake about the date of the edition of Beroaldus and Avantius, although corrected by Orelli five years previously, is inexcusably repeated by Döring. I am indebted to this edition for a few references principally to Quintilian and Seneca, but though I have had his notes before me, I am not aware that I have made any further use of them. In disputed passages I have seldom been able to follow the text which he adopts.

In 1870 was published the critical edition of H. Keil, with its exhaustive discussion on the sources for the text of Pliny, and its invaluable index of proper names at the end drawn up by Mommsen. To both of them, it is needless to say, I have been indebted at every step. The variant readings which I subjoin to each page are in a great measure taken from Keil's edition, not blindly, however, for I have carefully collated the editions of Avantius and Aldus, and, less thoroughly, the first edition of Catanaeus. The discovery of the Bodleian MS. and the marginal notes in that volume have led me, in some instances already alluded to, to depart from Keil's text, and to depart somewhat from his estimate of the Aldine edition.

My own notes are due principally to the help afforded by Mommsen's Staatsrecht; Marquadt's Staatsverwaltung ; Friedländer's Sittengeschichte ; Pauly's Real Encyclopaedie ; De la Berge's Essai sur la regne de Trajan ; Dierauer's Zur Geschichte Trajans; and Mommsen's article on Pliny the Younger in Hermes, vol. iii. For my notes and essay on the Christians, I have consulted the discussions of Bandouin and Vossius ; Aubé, Histoire des Persecutions; and Schiller's Geschichte der Kaizerzeit. My quotations I have usually given in full ; and with regard to inscriptions I have, wherever possible, made use of those contained in Orelli, Henzen, and Wilmann.

No English edition of the Pliny-Trajan letters has yet been published. Letters 4, 39, 40, 71, 72, and 96 are contained in the Select Letters' published by Church and Brodribb in 1871. The notes are, however, very brief; and the editors have evidently paid little attention to the history of these letters, as they speak of certain readings being 'in all the best MSS. One or two of the letters were also published in the selection of Pritchard and Bernard, Clarendon Press, 1875 and 1887.

Of translations, the two best are that of Melmoth, revised by Bosanquet, Bohn's Library, 1878 ; and that of J. D. Lewis, 1879.

C. PLINI CAECILI SECUNDI

EPISTULARUM LIBER

Ι

Gratulatoria ob imperium

C. PLINIUS TRAIANO IMPERATORI

As a

Tua quidem pietas, imperator sanctissime, optaverat ut i quam tardissime succederes patri ; sed dii immortales festinaverunt virtutes tuas ad gubernacula rei publicae quam susce

§ 1. Contrary to your own filial wishes, emperors, while ‘Pietas Augusti’ freHeaven has seen fit to put the empire quently appears on coins. Cf. the phrase into your hands. § 2. I pray that your on funeral inscr. 'ex pietate.' reign may be marked by prosperity to sanctissime. As an epithet implying yourself and to the world at large. As high moral character, see Ep. iii 3, 1; an individual and a citizen, I wish you i 12, 5; iv 17, 4; infra, 3, 3. strength and happiness.

peculiar title of honour given to the emNerva died on Jan. 28, 98 A.D. Trajan perors, see Ov. Fast. ii 127. 'Sancte had been adopted on Oct. 27 of the pre- pater patriae.' Mart. v 6, 8, "intra vious year whilst still legatus pro prae

limina sanctioris aulae. At the root of tore Germaniae superioris. Dio Cass. both lies the idea of inviolability. So 68, 3; Aur. Vict. Caes. C. 13; Plin. Pane- the tribunes were sacrosancti : the senate gyr. 8. The news of the death of Nerva was sanctus.

Cf. Hor. Od. iv 513; Verg. was announced to him at Colonia Agrip- Aen. i 426; Cic. Cat. i 4, 9; Dig. 40, II, 3. pinensis (Köln), where he was regulating optaverat: pluperf., because referthe affairs of Germania Inferior. As ring to a time previous to Nerva's death. Trajan did not return to Rome till to- See Roby, Lat. Gr. 1487. wards the close of 99, this letter must quam tardissime : cf. Panegyr. 10, have been sent to Germany.

neque aliud tibi ex illa adoptione quam written at Rome, where Pliny was prae- filii pietatem adsereres, longamque huic fectus aerarii Saturni.

See on Ep. 3. nomini, aetatem, longam gloriam pre§ 1. tua quidem pietas. Antoninus carere. Pius is said to have received his cogno- succederes patri. Trajan was adopmen from the respect he paid to Hadrian's ted on Oct. 27, 97, by adrogatio. The memory, in whose honour he instituted a people were assembled in the Forum, festival named Pialia.' It afterwards and Nerva, as pont. max., announced the became one of the regular titles of the adoption. See Dio Cass. 68, 3; Plin.

It was

2 peras admovere. Precor ergo ut tibi et per te generi humano

prospera omnia, id est digna saeculo tuo contingant. Fortem te et hilarem, imperator optime, et privatim et publice opto. Panegyr. 8: and cf. the adoption of Tibe. erga te fide quam de generi humano rius by Augustus, Suet. Aug. 65; and of mereris.' There is an inscr. to Trajan, Nero by Claudius, Tac. Ann. xii 25. Orell. 795, 'conservatori generis humani.' On the other hand, Piso was adopted by digna saeculo tuo: cf. 3, 2, 'tranGalba without the observance of the quillitati saeculi tui ;' and iv 11, 6, of usual forms. Tac. Hist. i 18; De la Domitian, 'ut qui inlustrari saeculum Berge, Essai sur le regne de Trajan, p. 17. suum_eiusmodi exemplis arbitraretur ;' On adrogatio, see Gaius, Comm. i 99. also Tac. Agric. iii, primo beatissimi

quam susceperas. There may, as saeculi ortu. In these passages saec. Ernesti thinks, be a slight confusion of means the reign of a particular emperor. metaphor here, though a gubernator might But in Ep. 97 infra, 'nam et pessimi exjustly be said, “suscipere curam navis. empli nec nostri saeculi est ;' and Tac. See Cic. pro Sext. c. 22, 'neminem un- Hist. ii 37, 'corruptissimo saeculo;' and quam fore qui auderet suscipere contra Germ. 19, nec corrumpere et corrumpi improbos cives reipublicae salutem.' saeculum,'_ it is rather the spirit of the

§ 2. generi humano. As used by age. Cf. Ep. 55, 'non est ex iustitia nosPliny to Trajan, the phrase, though not trorum temporum.' without an element of exaggeration, yet fortem te et hilarem opto. I wish is used in a much more concrete sense you good health and spirits. than Cicero's consulere generi hominum,' et privatim et publice. These are De Rep. 3, 12; and Horace's 'o deorum best taken with opto, i.e. 'in my own quicquid in caelo regit terras et humanum name and that of the republic:' cf. Ep. genus, Epod. 5, 2; cf. Ep. 17, 4, ‘in ea 14, 'tuo nomine et reipublicae gratulor.'

II

Gratias agit

C. PLINIUS TRAIANO IMPERATORI

I

Exprimere, domine, verbis non possum quantum mihi gaudium attuleris, quod me dignum putasti iure trium liberorum.

§ 1. I am inexpressibly grateful to you, secum ; Met. ix 465, 'iam dominum apsire, for granting the ius trium liberorum. pellat': (2) by children to their father, Though granted at the request of Iulius Mart. i 81, 'A servo scis te genitum Servianus, your rescript shows that the blandeque fateris, Quum dicis dominum, recipient was not overlooked. § 2. I am Sosibiane, patrem': (3) by superiors to delighted to have received one of the first inferiors, through a wish to be specially favours of your reign. Even in the late polite ; thus Epict. Diss. ii 15, 15, by a reign of terror, my previous marriages patient to his physician, Νοσώ κύριε βοήprove that I was anxious for children.

Ono by Mol; Fronto, Epp. ad M. Caes. i. 2 3. To be a father now will be a still 6 ed. Nieb. p. 31, by Antonius to his greater blessing.

teacher, 'fave mi domine magister': (4) This letter was also written from Rome by clients to patrons, Mart. ii 68, 1, 2, probably shortly after the former, as is Quod te nomine iam tuo saluto, Quem proved by the words “inter initia felicis. regem et dominum prius vocabam,' vi 88, simi principatus lui.'

ix 92; and (5) generally by inferiors to § 1. domine. This is not an official superiors; thus in the Testamentum Datitle of the emperor, but simply a polite sumianum we have Servianus dominus mode of address which was usual (1) be- meus.' The procurator of Mauritania tween lovers. See Ov. Heroid. 13, 145, addresses the legatus of Numidia as 'do6ille ferens dominae mandata recentia mine,' Mommsen, Arch. Ztg. N. F. iii

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