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C. PLINIUS TRAIANO IMPERATORI Ecdicus, domine, Amisenorum civitatis petebat apud me a Iulio Pisone denariorum circiter quadraginta milia, donata ei publice ante viginti annos bule et ecclesia consentiente, ute
baturque mandatis tuis, quibus eiusmodi donationes vetantur. 2 Piso contra plurima se in rem publicam contulisse ac prope I Ecdicus, Cat.
3 bule, B.; boyali, Avant. Medicus, B. and Ald.
4 utebanturque, Avant. and Ald. 2 milia, add. Ald., om. Avant.
nitebaturque, ed. Basileensis. The ecdicus of the city of Amisus came the towns of Italy and the provinces were to my tribunal, and sued Iulius Piso for retained long after the comitia in Rome the sum of 40,000 denarii which had had been abolished, not only in connecbeen publicly granted to him twenty tion with elections, but in decrees and years ago, pleading your commands that municipal ordinances of all kinds. Cf. donations of this sort should not be Henz. 7171, splendidissimus ordo conmade. Piso, on the other hand, urged sentiente populo . censuerunt,' and that he had contributed much to the city, 'ordo populusque Corfiniensum'; 5171, and had almost exhausted his means. ‘ordo splendidissimus et universus popuHe also pleaded the time elapsed since
constituit'; 5185, 'decuriones the gift, and claimed that he should not et plebs.' Momms. Inscrip. Neap. 2342, be compelled to pay back a sum which decurionem decreto et populi consensu.' would ruin him, and which had been In the Greek provinces the ecclesiae are granted in return for many public services. mentioned at Tarsus ; Dio Chrys. ii, I have left the case undecided for your p. 43, oŰs . . εχρήν απελάσαι και μη consideration.
παραδέχεσθαι ταϊς εκκλησίαις'; Prusa, § 1. Ecdicus Amisenorum civ. The Dio Chrys. or. 48, p. 236, 'apôtov Mèv ecdicus was a public prosecutor in finan- ώ άνερες το κρατίστα Ουαρίνω δεί χάριν cial matters. We only know of the title ημάς ειδέναι ότι βουλομένοις ημίν εκκληin connection with Asia Minor. Cf. Cic. σιάσαι πάλιν εφήκεν '; Tralles, C. I. Gr. ad Fam. xiii 56, 'Mylasii et Alabanden- 2927, τους ψηφίσμασι της τε βουλής και ses pecuniam Cluvio debent. Dixerat του δήμου. .' mihi Euthydemus, quum Ephesi essem, mandatis tuis, quibus eiusmodi se curaturum ut Ecdici Mylasii Romam donationes vetantur. It is easy to mitterentur. Id factum non est. Legatos understand how this custom of public audio missos esse, sed malo ecdicos, ut donations was liable to be abused, and as aliquid confici possit.' The Latin equi- Trajan gave Pliny special instructions to valent would be cognitor civitatis,' or rectify the financial affairs of the cities in later times, 'defensor civitatis.' Avan- (Ep. 18), this was one of the first practices tius and Aldus read “Medicus.'
to which he would put a stop. donata ei publice. Cf. Digest, 50, contulisse et erogasse, i.e. 2, 8, ‘Decurionibus facultatibus lapsis previous to the donatio. Piso's contenalimenta decerni permissum est, maxime tion is that the donatio was given to him si ob munificentiam in patriam patri- to make up for what he had previously monium exhauserint.'
spent upon the city. Cf. “id quod pro bule et ecclesia consentiente. Cf. multis accepisset.' Ep. 81, 116; 39, 112, 114, for mention reddere cogeretur. In later times of the bule and buleutae. In some of th revocatio of donations made by inthe free towns of Greek constitution, the dividuals to one another was carefully members of the bule were selected every provided for in certain cases. See Cod. year, and received pay for their attend- viii 5, 5, 'de revocandis donationibus.'
The popular assemblies also in
totas facultates erogasse dicebat. Addebat etiam temporis spatium postulabatque ne id quod pro multis et olim accepisset cum eversione reliquae dignitatis reddere cogeretur. Quibus ex causis integram cognitionem differendam existimavi, ut te, domine, consulerem quid sequendum putares.
TRAIANUS PLINIO S.
Sicut largitiones ex publico fieri mandata prohibent, ita, ne multorum securitas subruatur, factas ante aliquantum temporis retractari atque in inritum vindicari non oportet. Quidquid ergo ex hac causa actum ante viginti annos erit, omittamus. Non minus enim hominibus cuiusque loci quam pecuniae publicae consultum volo.
It is true that my instructions forbid public grants of money to be made, but to avoid undermining the position of individuals, such grants if made before a certain date must not be revoked nor called in question. Any case therefore previous to the last twenty years, we will leave out of account. For I have the interests of individuals at heart no less than those of the cities.
retractari. Cf. Suet. Aug. 34, ‘leges
retractavit’; Verg. Aen. xiiii, nihil est quod dicta retractent.'
in inritum vindicari, should be reclaimed as invalid. Cf. the phrase "in libertatem vindicare.'
non minus enim hominibus, etc. Similarly Trajan refused to compel the decuriones, as Pliny suggested, to become public fund-holders, Ep. 55.
consultum volo. Cf. Cic. de Fin, iii 17, 'liberis consultum volumus.'
C. PLINIUS TRAIANO IMPERATORI
Lex Pompeia, domine, qua Bithyni et Pontici utuntur, eos i qui in bulen a censoribus leguntur dare pecuniam non iubet : sed ii quos indulgentia tua quibusdam civitatibus super legiti2 in bulen a, B. and Ald. in bulena a, Avant.
3 sed iis, Avant.
The Lex Pompeia, sire, by which of one or two thousand denarii. SubseBithynia and Pontus are regulated, does quently Anicius Maximus, when pronot compel those senators appointed by consul, ordained, though only in reference the censors to pay an entrance fee; but to a few cities, that those also appointed those who have been added to the senates. by the censors should pay a fee, varying of particular states in excess of the legiti- in different towns. Will you therefore mate number have paid an entrance-fee decide whether for the future all senators
mum numerum adicere permisit et singula milia denariorum 2 et bina intulerunt. Anicius deinde Maximus proconsul eos
etiam qui a censoribus legerentur, dumtaxat in paucissimis 3 civitatibus, aliud aliis, iussit inferre. Superest ergo ut ipse
dispicias an in omnibus civitatibus certum aliquid omnes qui deinde buleutae leguntur debeant pro introitu dare.
Nam quod in perpetuum mansurum est a te constitui decet, cuius factis dictisque debetur aeternitas.
6 bulentae, Avant.
shall pay some fixed and compulsory administravit,' etc. ; Orell. 3882, 3745, entrance-fee? For any permanent ruling
hunc decuriones ob liberalitatem cum must proceed from you.
esset annorum sex ordini suo gratis § 1. Lex Pompeia. See note on Ep. adlegerunt'; 1229, 3816, 'hunc decuri
ones gratis in ordinem suum adlegerunt qui in bulen a censoribus leguntur. duumviralium numero’; 4020, 'Q. II See on Ep. 79, 3.
virali. ornamentis suffrag. sanct. ordinis quos indulgentia tua super legiti- honoratus'; 5280, 7147.
Cf. also Ep. mum numerum adicere permisit. In 39, 5, 'ex ea pecunia quam buleutae addition to the decuriones appointed in additi beneficio tuo aut iam obtulerunt ob the ordinary way by the censors, persons introitum aut nobis exigentibus conwho had specially distinguished them- ferunt.' selves were with special permission of the super legitimum numerum, usually emperor (tua indulgentia) appointed by a IOO. See on Ep. 8, 2. In the album decree of the senate itself. These were Canusinum, however, the four adlecti called 'adlecti,' i.e. properly, men ap- inter quinquennalicios are included in the pointed from another order. Cf. Suet. 100; and only the patroni and praetexClaud. 24, “libertinorum filios in senatum tati are 'super legitimum numerum.' adlegisse'; Vesp. 9, 'honestissimo quoque et singula milia denarorium et Italicorum et provincialium adlecto.' bina ; probably according as they were These adlecti' might be merely, ap- merely appointed to the bule, or were pointed to the senate without special dis- ranked among one of the higher classes tinction; or they might be classed among in it. the higher grades of decuriones. Cf. § 2. dumtaxat. See note on Ep. 33. Orell. 2533, Veratio Severiano
§ 3. quod in perpetuum mansurum lecto in ordin. decurion. civi amantis- est. Cf. Ep. 108, 'per quod utilitatibus simo, qui cum privilegio sacerdoti Caeni- eorum in perpetuum consulatur.' nensis munitus potuisset et honorib. et cuius factis dictisque debetur munerib. facile excusari, praeposito amore aeternitas, 'whose every word and deed patriae, et honorem aedilitat. laudabiliter deserves to be immortalised,' Melmoth.
TRAIANUS PLINIO S.
Honorarium decurionatus omnes qui in quaque civitate Bithyniae decuriones fiunt inferre debeant necne, in universum I in, om. Avant, and Ald.
2 in, om. Avant., add. Ald.
No general rule can be laid down as to whether all senators should be bound to pay a fee or not. The safest course is here, as always, to follow the custom of
each city, at any rate in regard to those who are made senators against their will. Those who are appointed with their own consent will, I imagine, be anxious by
a me non potest statui. Id ergo quod semper tutissimum est, sequendam cuiusque civitatis legem puto, sed adversus eos qui
2 sed adversus, B. scilicet adversos, Avant, and Ald.
payment of the money to secure a pre- pertinent relictis in alia loca transmigrasse ference over the rest.
probabitur, praeses provinciae in patrium Honorarium, a fee, usually from the solum revocare et muneribus congruentipoint of view of the person who receives bus fungi curet. Id.50, 2, 2, 8, `maiores it, as Digest, II, 6, 1, .in honorariis ad- annis quinquaginta quinque ad decuriovocatorum,' etc. ; here from that of the natus honorem inviti vocari constitutioni. person who pays it. It is defined as id bus prohibentur.' However the tendency munus quod honoris causa erogatur.' to all this had only just begun in Trajan's
in universum non potest statui. time, and the position was still one geneCf. Ep. 97, 'neque enim in universum rally of honour and dignity. aliquid quod quasi certam formam habeat qui sponte funt id existimo acconstitui potest.'
turos, etc. The passage is corrupt as it sequendam cuiusque civitatis le- stands in Avantius, 'inviti fiunt decuriones gem. Cf. Ep. 48, 66, 84, 109, which id existimo acturos ut praefatio ceteris all contain instances of the regard which praeferatur.' Catanaeus altered this to Trajan paid to local privileges and local inviti fiunt decuriones : id existimo accustoms.
turos : ut erogatio ceteris praeferatur,' sed adversus eos, but as regards which Gesner interprets to mean 'I those. Aldus conjectured 'scilicet.' imagine that the censor will take care
qui inviti fiunt decuriones. This is that those who pay (erogatio=qui erothe earliest allusion to compulsory appoint- gant) shall be preferred to those who do ment to the municipal senates. The not. I do not, however, see that apart tendency, however, begins from about from MS. authority (which we cannot this time to elect to the senate, not from assume in Catanaeus) erogatio (payment) ex - magistrates so much as from the has any advantage over praefatio (solemn wealthier class of possessores. So Pliny promise to pay; cf. Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 80, (Ep. 79) in asking whether those who 186, 'praefatio donationis '); while either have not held any magistracy may be word with 'ceteris praeferatur' forms an appointed senators after the age of twenty- unendurable phrase. Schaefer suggests two adds, 'quod alioqui factitatum adhuc ‘inviti fiunt decuriones. Ceteros existimo et esse necessarium dicitur, quia sit ali- id acturos ut erogatio praeferatur,' which quanto melius honestiorum hominum leaves the last clause without any intelliliberos quam e plebe in curiam admitti.' gible meaning. Orelli emends 'inviti fiunt Later still this was carried further, and decuriones, id existimoacturos ut praestatio Paulus says in the Digest, 50, 2, 7, § 2, ceteris proferatur'='I imagine the censors
decurionum honoribus plebeii fungi pro- will take care that payment should be hibentur.' These wealthier decuriones deferred in the case of the rest. But then held the magistracies after their this still leaves "acturos' without a appointment to the senate, and this subject ; while the fact of immediate or gradually came to be the rule. Digest, later payment seems unconnected with 50, 2, 7, 2, 'is, qui non sit decurio, the case in point. Mommsen suggests duumviratu vel aliis honoribus fungi non 'inviti fiunt. Qui sponte fiunt decuriones potest. The decuriones were also ex- ita existimo facturos ut praefati id ceteris pected to undertake various curationes praeferantur'; praefati id meaning by and munera for the central government, a statement that they will pay the fee.' as, e.g. that of collecting the tributum ; With the help of these two last emendaDigest, 50, 1, 17, 7, exigendi tributi tions I venture to read inviti fiunt munus inter sordida munera non habetur, decuriones. Qui sponte fiunt id existimo et ideo decurionibus quoque mandatur.' acturos ut praestatione ceteris praeferFinally the decuriones were compelled antur. to assume the responsibility for all the praestatione. Cf. Digest, 31, I, 35, burdens and liabilities of their cities, and praestatio dotis ’; ib. 10, 3, 7, vecțitheir position became an almost unbear- galium praestatio. Cod. Iust. 3, 33, 10, able slavery. Cf. Digest, 50, 2, 1, 'de- * sub certa annua praestatione.' curiones quos sedibus civitatis ad quam
inviti fiunt decuriones. Qui sponte fiunt id existimo acturos, ut praestatione ceteris praeferantur. I fiunt decuriones id existimo acturos fi. dec.; exist. id act. ut erogatio ut praefatio ceteris praeferatur,
ceteris praeferatur, Ald. Avant.
For conjectures see note ad loc.
C. PLINIUS TRAIANO IMPERATORI
Lege, domine, Pompeia, permissum Bithynicis civitatibus adscribere sibi quos vellent cives, dum ne quem earum civitatum quae sunt in Bithynia. Eadem lege sancitur quibus de 2 dum ne quem earum civitatum, B.
dum civitatis non sint alienae sed dum neque merum civ. Avant.
suarum quisque matrum civ, Ald. dumtaxat earum civ. Cat.
§ 1. The cities of Bithynia, sire, are allowed by the lex Pompeia to confer their citizenship on any persons they like, provided they are not already
citizens of any Bithynian community. The same law lays down the reasons which justify expulsion from the senate by the censors. § 2. Accordingly I have been consulted by some of the censors as to whether they are bound to expel those who belong to another Bithynian city. $ 3. The law ex. pressly forbids such men to be admitted as citizens, but it says nothing about their expulsion from the senate. Moreover I hear that many senators in every state are. in this position, and, as this part of the law has long been neglected, that great confusion would be caused to individuals and cities by insisting on it. I therefore thought it best to ask your advice. I append the clauses of the law in question. Lege Pompeia, see on Ep. 79.
adscribere sibi quos vellent cives. All communities consisted of cives and incolae, the latter being those who had taken up a permanent abode (domicilium) in the city. These incolae might become citizens either by the adoption of a civis or by ' adlectio inter cives' on the part of the municipality. Cod. Iust. 10, 39, 7, 'cives quidem origo, manumissio, adlectio vel adoptio, incolas vero domicilium facit.'
dum ne quem earum civitatum, etc. A Roman citizen could only receive the civitas of another city joined by a foedus with Rome by losing as an exile or voluntary giving up the Roman civitas.
Cic. pro Balb. xii 29, ‘Quod si civi Romano licet esse Gaditanum sive exilio sive postliminio sive reiectione huius civitatis,' and again atqui ceterae civitates omnes non dubitarent nostros recipere in suas civitates si idem nos iuris haberemus quod ceteri. Sed nos non possumus et huius esse civitatis et cuiusvis praeterea; ceteris concessum est.' Cf. also Tac. Ann. iv. 43, “Tum tractatae Manssiliensium preces, probatumque P. Rutilii exemplum. Namque eum legibus pulsum civem sibi Smyrnaei addiderant. Quo iure Vulcatius Moschus exulin Massilienses receptus bona sua reipublicae eorum ut patriae reliquerat.' În Achaia apparently there was no restriction on the adlectio of cives from other cities of the same province. Cf. Cic. pro Balb. xii 30, ‘Itaque in Graecis civitatibus videmus Athenis, Rhodios, Lacedaemonios, ceteros undique adscribi multarumque esse eosdem homines civitatum.' But this would obviously give rise to many inconveniences and confusions, which Pompeius in drawing up the lex provinciae for Bithynia and Pontus aimed at avoiding by this proviso, 'dum ne quem earum civitatum quae sunt in Bithynia.' As to the reading, I have restored that of the Bodleian copy where the reading of Avantius ‘dum neque merum civitatum’is altered by an obvious correction. Catanaeus reads 'dumtaxat earum civitatum,' and the Aldine edition 'dum civitatis non sint alienae, sed suarum quisque matrum civitatum.' But these are evidently mere conjectures, and