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cohortis plenissimum testimonium meruerit Iulii Ferocis et Fusci Salinatoris, clarissimorum virorum. Meum gaudium meamque gratulationem filii honore continebis.

3 honore continebo, Keil. continebis, B. continerent, Avant. and Ald.

Iulii Ferocis. Ti. Iulius Ferox (C. I.L. i p. 187) was consul designatus in 99 A.D. (Plin. Ep. ii 11, 5, 'consul designatus Iulius Ferox, vir rectus et sanctus '), curator alvei Tiberis in 101 (see inscr. cit.), at the date of this letter is evidently legatus Augusti' of some military province, and in 116 A.D. was proconsul of Asia. See Mommsen's index. Pliny writes to him Ep. vii 13.

Fusci Salinatoris. His name was Pedanius Fuscus Salinator.

He was proconsul of Asia between 98 and 102 (see Mommsen's index), and father of the

Fuscus Salinator mentioned in Ep. vi 11, and vii 9.

fllii honore continebis, a curious phrase of which I can find no other example in the active of the verb contineo, though in the passive we find such expressions as artes quae coniectura continentur,' Cic. Div. i 14, 24. Translate • By honouring his son, you will give me also cause for joy and congratulalion,' i.e. you will comprise my joy, etc., under.' I have restored this reading from the margin of the Bodleian copy, It seems decidedly better than continebo (Keil) or continerem (Orelli).


Ob diem natalem


Opto, domine, et hunc natalem et plurimos alios quam felicissimos agas aeternaque laude florentem virtutis tuae gloriam incolumis et fortis aliis super alia operibus augeas.

3 augebis, Avant. and Ald.

It is my earnest wish, sire, that you may spend this birth-day, and many future ones, in happiness and prosperity, and that in continued health and strength you may go on increasing by ever new achievements your glorious reputation.

hunc natalem. This fixes the date

of the letter to September 17, 112 A. D. See note on Ep. 17 A.

aliis super alia operibus. Cf. Ep. vii 8, 1, ‘aliis super alias epistulas'; Panegyr. 14, ‘aliis super alias expeditionibus'; Suet. Ner. 41, 'aliis super alios nuntios.'



Agnosco vota tua, mi Secunde carissime, quibus precaris ut plurimos et felicissimos natales florente statu rei publicae nostrae agam.

I thank you for your good wishes, my days amid happiness to myself and prosdear Pliny, that I may spend many birth- perity to the republic.


De aqua Sinopensium perducenda


Sinopenses, domine, aqua deficiuntur ; quae videtur et i bona et copiosa ab sexto decimo miliario posse perduci. Est tamen statim ab capite paulo amplius mille passibus locus suspectus et mollis, quem ego interim explorari modico inpendio iussi, an recipere et sustinere opus possit. Pecunia curantibus 2 nobis contracta non deerit, si tu, domine, hoc genus operis et salubritati et amoenitati valde sitientis coloniae indulseris.

3 passibus, om. Avant. 4 susceptus, Avant. suspectus, B. and Ald.


The people of Sinope, sire, are in want of water, which I think could be brought in great plenty and of good quality from a place sixteen miles away. There is, however, one spot about a mile from the spring, which is soft and marshy. Of this I have ordered a survey to be made, to see whether it can bear the weight of an aqueduct. The money for the work will be forthcoming, if you will sanction an undertaking so conducive to the health and comfort of this thirsty colony.

Sinopenses. Sinope was always important on account of its splendid harbour. It was the birthplace and capital of Mithri. dates, king of Pontus, who did much to enlarge and beautify it. Lucullus made it a free and autonomous town(Appian, Mithr. 73), and in 48 B.C. it received colonists sent by Iulius Caesar ; Strab. 12, p. 546;

Plin. h. n. vi 2, 2; Digest, 50, 16, 1 and 10, 'est in Bithynia Apamena (colonia) et in Ponto Sinopensis.' The full title was Colonia Iulia Caesarea Felix Sinope, Eckhel, ii 391, etc. In Strabo's time it was a large well-built and well-fortified town, but it gradually declined in import

§ 1. aqua deficiuntur. Cf. below, sitientis coloniae.' A small stream ran into the harbour of Sinope, but like most of the rivers of Asia Minor, it was of little use either for navigation or water supply.

a sexto decimo miliario, probably along the road between Sinope and Pompeiopolis.

posse perduci. Cf. Ep. 37, `ex quo videtur aqua posse perduci.'

§ 2. pecunia . contracta non deerit. Cf. Ep. 23, 'erit enim pecunia ex


qua fiat.'



Ut coepisti, Secunde carissime, explora diligenter an locus ille quem suspectum habes sustinere opus aquae ductus possit. Neque enim dubitandum puto quin aqua perducenda

2 susceptum, Avant.

Be sure to have a careful examination made, my Pliny, whether the place which you suspect can sustain the weight of an aqueduct. Water must without doubt

be brought to Sinope, provided the town can accomplish the work with its own resources. It will contribute much to the health and comfort of the place.

sit in coloniam Sinopensem, si modo et viribus suis adsequi potest, cum plurimum ea res et salubritati et voluptati eius conlatura sit. aquae ductus. See on Ep. 37.

si modo et viribus suis adsequi quin aqua perducenda sit. Cf. Ep. potest. Cf. Ep. 24, “si instructio 38, 'curandum est ut aqua in Nicome- novi balinei oneratura vires Prusensium densem civitatem perducatur.'

non est.'

De petitione Amisenorum


Amisenorum civitas libera et foederata beneficio indulgentiae tuae legibus suis utitur. In hac datum mihi libellum ad

2 datum mihi publice, Ald.

P. 348.

The free and confederate city of Amisus enjoys by your permission its own laws. I send you a memorial which I received from this place in relation to benefit-clubs. I should be glad to learn how far these should be allowed, how far prohibited.

Amisenorum civitas libera et foederata. Amisus was a flourishing town with a good harbour. It was enlarged and partly rebuilt by Mithridates, who occasionally used it for his royal residence. Cic. pro leg. Manil. 8, “Sinopen atque Amisum quibus in oppidis erant domicilia regis omnibus rebus ornata atque referta.' It was taken by Lucullus in 71. B.C. (Appian, Mithr. 82), and in 47 B.C. by Pharnaces ; Dio Cass. 42, 48, kaltep επί πλείστον αντισχούσαν.' As a reward for its obstinate resistance Iulius Caesar made it a free state ; Dio Cass. 42, 48, τούς τε 'Αμισηνούς ελευθερία ήμείψατο.It was formally joined to Bithynia in 33 B.C. by Antonius, as the era of the town on its coins proves (Eckhel, ii 349). Freedom seems to have been granted to it a second time by Augustus; Strab. 12, p. 547, είτ' ελευθερώθη πάλιν μετά τα 'Ακτιακά υπό Καίσαρος του Σεβαστού.Pliny, h. η. vi 2, speaks of it as 'liberum,' and gives its distance from Sinope as 130 miles ; so also the legend 'Αμισού ελευθέρας on coins, Eckhel, ii 347, 348.

This is the only mention of it as a 'foederata civitas,' but the words of Trajan are so clear on the point that there can be no doubt about its position. The 'civitates foederatae' were the highest class of autonomous cities, while the civitates liberae' might at

any time lose their freedom, as e.g. Byzantium (see note on Ep. 77); the existence of a formal “foedus' obviated this risk. The terms of the foedus were different in different cases, but they always granted internal autonomy (libera et foederata), but never independent foreign policy; it was always stipulated 'ut eosdem quos populus Romanus amicos atque hostes habeant,' Livy, xxxviii 8, 10. See also the league with Astypalaea ; C. I. Gr. 2485; and Hicks' Greek Hist. Inscrip.

A copy of the foedus engraved in bronze was kept in the Capitol at Rome, and also in the city concerned. Suet. Vesp. 8, 'aerearumque tabularum tria milia quae simul conflagraverunt restituenda suscepit . instrumentum imperii pulcherrimum ac vetustissimum, quo continebantur senatus consulta, plebiscita de societate et foedere et privilegio cuicumque concessis.' Civitates foederatae could only lose their freedom or privileges in exceptional cases, such as war (Dio Cass. 41, 25, in the case of Massilia), or outrageous abuse of their position ; Suet. Aug. 47, “urbium quasdam foederatas, sed ad exitium licentia praecipites libertate privavit.' Their position was similar to that of the Italian allied towns previous to the lex Iulia of 90 B.C.

As sovereign states they had the right of coinage, of admitting exiles to their citizenship (Cic. pro Balb. 12, 29; Tac. Ann. iv 43; xiii 47), while they were exempted from all interference on the part of the provincial governors ; Strab. 4, p. 181, και την αυτονομίαν

eranos pertinentem his litteris subieci, ut tu, domine, dispiceres quid et quatenus aut permittendum aut prohibendum putares.

i heranos, Avant.


εφύλαξαν ήν εξ αρχής είχεν ή πόλις ώστε μη υπακούειν τών εις την επαρχίαν πεμποuévwv otpatnywv'; Cic. in Verr. ii 66, 160, “Tauromenitani, quorum est civitas foederata qui maxime ab iniuriis nostrorum magistratuum remoti consuerant esse praesidio foederis. Cf. also Suet Calig. 3, *(Germanicus) libera ac foederata oppida sine lictoribus adibat,' and Tac. Ann.

ji 53.

See Ep. 113, ‘sequendam cuiusque civitatis legem puto.' Digest, 50, 4, 3, 'ceteri

legibus patriae suae et provinciae oboedire debent.'

ad eranos pertinentem. The épavou in Greek towns were either social clubs, the chief object of which was the celebration of periodical banquets, or benefit societies for mutual help and support, ‘ad sustinendum tenuiorum inopiam.' A common fund was formed by contributions (έρανοι, εισφοραί) from the members (ερανισταί). If any member fell into distress, he received a subsidy, which, however, he was expected to refund as

as his circumstances permitted. These clubs, like the collegia in Roman towns, had a regular organisation. They had their archieranistae and prostatae as well as treasurer, secretaries, and legal advisers. All legal cases concerning them had to be decided within a month. See Schömann, Antiq. Iur. Publ. Gr., p. 305, 4, and Antiquities of Greece, p. 362. Amisus, as a colony from Athens, may very likely, as Döring suggests, have derived this institution direct from the mother city.

beneficio indulgentiae tuae. This was true de facto ; Trajan puts the case de iure, quibus de officio foederis utuntur.'

legibus suis utitur. Each autonomous provincial town had its own leges municipales, which were originally given to it by the commission which organised the province. Cf. Digest, 42, 5, 37, *Antiochensium Coelae Syriae civitati, quod lege sua privilegium in bonis defuncti debitoris accepit, ius persequendi pignoris durare constitit'; Cic. in Verr. 2, 49, 120, 'legati Centuripini, Halesini, Catinenses, etc. . . dixerunt neminem ulla in civitate senatorem factum esse gratis, neminem, ut leges eorum sunt, suffragiis.' Digest, 43, 25, 34, 'si non lex municipalis curatori reipublicae amplius concedat’; 3, 4, 6, 'nisi lex municipii prohibeat.




Amisenos, quorum libellum epistulae tuae iunxeras, si legibus istorum, quibus de officio foederis utuntur, concessum est eranum habere, possumus quo minus habeant non inpedire, eo facilius, si tali conlatione non ad turbas et ad inlicitos

3 eia num, Avant. qui minus. Avant, and Ald.

If the laws of Amisus, depending on a formal treaty, permit the institution of a benefit club, we cannot hinder it, and especially if the contributions are applied, not to the furtherance of riotous and illegal assemblies, but to the support of the needy members. In the other states which are subject to our law these institutions are prohibited.

de oficio foederis, according to formal obligation of the treaty.

possumus . non inpedire. Compare with this unreserved recognition of

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coetus sed ad sustinendam tenuiorum inopiam utuntur. In ceteris civitatibus, quae nostro iure obstrictae sunt, res huiusmodi prohibenda est. permittitur tenuioribus stipem menstruam Ep. 34, where a collegium fabrorum conferre, dum tamen semel in mense is refused to Nicomedeia ; and Ep. 96, coeant, ne sub pretextu huiusmodi illici- post edictum meum quo secundum mantum collegium coeat.'

data tua hetaerias esse vetueram.' All quae nostro iure obstrictae sunt. clubs and associations of this sort were These would include not only the great technically 'hetaeriae': Gaius, Digest, mass of provincial towns--the civitates 47, 22, 3, 1, 'Sodales sunt qui eiusdem stipendiariae — but also the municipia, collegii sunt, quam Graeci étalplav coloniae, and towns of Latin right.

vocant.' rəs huiusmodi prohibenda est. Cf.


Ius trium liberorum amico petit



Suetonium Tranquillum, probissimum honestissimum eruditissimum virum, et mores eius secutus et studia iam pridem,

domine, in contubernium adsumpsi tantoque magis diligere 2 coepi, quanto hunc propius inspexi. Huic ius trium liberorum necessarium faciunt duae causae : nam et iudicia amicorum

§ 1. Suetonius Tranquillus, sire, is a consilio inspiceretur nonagenarius senex, man of the greatest honesty, integrity, and an circumsectus esset.' He was an intilearning, whom in consequence of his mate friend of Pliny 'contubernalis meus,' tastes and character I have long since and also a man of letters,' 'scholasticis admitted to my intimate friendship, and porro dominis, ut hic est,' as early as 97 the more closely I have seen him, the A.D... (Ep. i 24). Pliny writes to him, i more I have learned to love him. § 2. 18, iii 8, v 10, and xi 34. In 101 A.D. He desires the ius trium liberorum for two Pliny obtained for him a military tribune. reasons, that his friends may give effect ship under Neratius Marcellus (Ep. iii 8) to their favourable judgment of him in which however Suetonius preferred to their wills, and that


kindness may pass on to a relation. Under Hadrian afford him what an unfruitful marriage has he held the post of ab epistulis, from denied. $ 3. I know how great a favour which however he was dismissed, Spart. I am asking, but I remember your pre

Hadr. I. vious indulgence to my requests. I should in contubernium adsumpsi, adnot make the request from a distance, mitted to my intimate friendship. Cf. were I not so anxious to obtain it.

Ep. i 24, 'contubernalis meus'; also i 19, § 1. Suetonium Tranquillum. C. municeps meus et condiscipulus et ab Suetonius Tranquillus was of equestrian ineunte aetate contubernalis. rank. His father Suetonius Lenis served § 2. ius trium liberorum, see note on Otho's side in the war against Vitel- on Ep. 2. lius as “tertiae decimae legionis tribunus iudicia amicorum promeretur. angusticlavius,' Suet. Oth. 1o. Suetonius Cf. Suet. Aug. 66, 'amicorum suprema was himself born somewhat about that iudicia morosissima pensitavit.' By the time, as he describes himself as an adol- lex Papia Poppaea, 'orbi, ob id quod escens twenty years after Nero's death. liberos non habebant, dimidias partes Suet. Ner. 57, and also Suet. Dom. 12, hereditatum legatorumque perdunt, olim Interfuisse me adolescentulum memini solida fidei commissa videbantur capere

a procuratore frequentissimoque posse ; sed postea senatus consulto


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