Page images

tratus indicavit appellatum me a Claudio Eumolpo. Cum Cocceianus Dion in bule adsignari civitati opus cuius curam

2 cocciamis diambulae, Avant.

rived, Eumolpus again pleaded want of preparation, and asked for a longer adjournment. $ 5. Dio, however, demanded an immediate hearing. After many arguments on both sides, I determined to grant the adjournment, and meanwhile to ask your advice, and I therefore ordered both parties to draw up a memorial of their demands, in order that you might see the case stated in their own words. Dio promised to do so, but Eumolpus, though he was willing to state the claims of the town in a memorial, professed, that in regard to the question of interment, he was merely the advocate of Archippus. § 6. The latter promised to draw up a memorial. At present, though I have waited many days. they have neither of them done so. Dio's memorial I append to this letter. $ 7. I visited the spot myself, and saw your statue placed in the library. The spot where the bodies are said to be interred is in an unoccupied space, shut in by a colonnade. I especially ask for your instructions, as the case naturally excites great attention, since the facts are not denied and are defended by precedents.

§ 1. Prusae ad Olympum. See on Ep. 17.

intra hospitium, in the governor's lodgings. A house would be provided for the entertainment of a provincial governor during his stay in any town.

eodem die exiturus. Cf. Ep. 67, quod ipse proficiscebar in diversam provinciae partem.'

appellatum me, i.e. to give a decision in the case.

Claudio Eumolpo. The Emperor Claudius had probably in some way assisted the town of Prusa or given it some additional privileges. See Ep. 70, where the name of Claudius is borne by another inhabitant of the town, who also left a house to the emperor Claudius by his will and dedicated a shrine to him. Compare with this the frequency of the name Iulius in Gaul, of Flavius in Spain to which Vespasian gave the ‘ius Latii,' and of Ulpius in the towns along the Danube frontier, founded or reconstituted by Trajan.

Cocceianus Dion. Dio, surnamed Chrysostomus, seems to have received

the name Cocceianus on account of his intimate friendship with the emperor Nerva, of whom he speaks (Or. xlv) as αυτοκράτορος φιλανθρώπου κάμε αγαπώντος και πάλαι φίλου.After travelling in Egypt and elsewhere he gave himself up to rhetoric and philosophy in his native city of Prusa, where his father Pasicrates had left him a considerable property, until under Domitian he went to settle in Rome. He was, however, suspected by Domitian, and was included in his sentence of banishment upon all philosophers from Rome and Italy. Suet. Dom. 10, 'philosophos omnes urbe Italiaque summovit.' He then wandered, disguised as a beggar, among the Danubian tribes, and on Domitian's death was the means of winning over the Danubian legions to his friend Nerva. He then returned to Rome; Or. xlv, 'åvýelv μεν προς τον βέλτιστον Νέρβαν,’ by whom and also by Trajan he was held in great favour. “Τραιανος γούν και αυτοκράτωρ αναθέμενος αυτόν επί της Ρώμης εις την χρυσήν άμαξαν έφ' ής οι βασιλείς τας εκ των πολέμων πομπάς πομπεύουσιν έλεγε θαμα επιστρεφόμενος ες τον Δίωνα Τι μεν λέγεις ουκ οίδα φιλώ δε σε ώς έμαυτόν.Notwithstanding this, however, when the Prusensians sent an embassy to invite him back to Prusa, he gave up all his prospects of advancement at Rome and returned home. But though he strove to increase the splendour and importance of his native town by public buildings and by inducing Trajan to make it a conventus for judicial proceedings (Or. xl, ευ γάρ ίστε ότι και τους οικοδομήμασι και ταις εορταϊς και τα δικάζειν αυτοι και το μη παρ' ετέροις εξετάζεσθαι μήδε συντελεϊν άλλοις .

πέφυκε το φρόνημα των πόλ. εων και μείζον αξίωμα γίγνεσθαι το του δήμου, και πλέονος τυγχάνεις τιμής και παρά των επιδημούντων ξένων και παρά Tôv ňyeuóvwv '), and though he spent his own money freely on these and similar objects (Or. xlvi, "Xelectoúpynka υμίν τας μεγίστας λειτουργίας '), he was never popular, and finally returned to Rome and remained there till his death.

in bule. Cf. Ep. 110, 'bule et ecclesia consentiente'; 112, 'eos qui in bulen a censoribus leguntur'; and 116; also buleutae in Ep. 39.

adsignari is explained below by tradi.

egerat vellet, tum Eumolpus adsistens Flavio Archippo dixit exigendam esse a Dione rationem operis ante quam rei publicae traderetur, quod aliter fecisset ac debuisset. Adiecit etiam 2 esse in eodem positam tuam statuam et corpora sepultorum, uxoris Dionis et filii, postulavitque ut cognoscerem pro tribunali. Quod cum ego me protinus facturum dilaturumque pro- 3 fectionem dixissem, ut longiorem diem ad instruendam causam

i Eumolpus adsistens, Cat. Eumolpus adsistente, Ald. 4 in aedem, Avant. ; in eodem opere, Ald. 7 ad struendam, Avant. and Ald.

[ocr errors]

In the Digest, 18, 162, etc., the word is used of property handed over by the vendor to the purchaser.

opus cuius curam egerat. We learn from Dio's speeches what this was. Having succeeded in getting Prusa made a conventus, he wished to make it worthy of its position by splendid public buildings. He therefore offered generous donations himself and got his friends also to subscribe towards building an extensive porticus or colonnade. Οr. xl., p. 487, λόγον τινά είπον υπέρ έργου τινος, ουκ αυτός μόνον αλλά και των ηγεμόνων εσπουδακότων βουλομένων την πόλιν άμεινον κατασκευάζειν και σεμνοτέραν ποιείν άπασαν.’ Of this work he himself voluntarily took charge (curam egit), έπει δε αρχήν έλαβεν όσα μεν αυτός έπαθον μετρών και διαμετρών και λογιζόμενος όπως μη γένοιτο απρεπές μήδε αχρείον ... και τελευταίον εις τα όρη φθειρόμενος, ουκ ών έμπειρος των τοιούτων ουδένος ουδε άπορων έργου τινος ...

¿ @ νύν επεξιέναι.

adsistens Flavio Archippo, presenting, i.e. as counsel. Cf. Plin. Ep. vii 6, 3, 'adsistebam Vareno,' and Dig. 6, 1, 54.

Flavio Archippo. See on Ep. 58.

exigendam esse rationem operis. Dio, as having had charge of money subscribed for a public object, would be obliged, if required, to render in his eŮDúval. See Schömann, Antiq. of Greece, p. 407. This inquiry would give the opportunity, even if there had been no misappropriation of the money, to criticise Dio's management of the matter from the commencement. The demand being made, though it was probably made maliciously, could not but be allowed by Trajan. See Ep. 82, 'ratio totius operis effecti sub cura Cocceiani Dionis excutiatur,' etc.

quod aliter fecisset ac debuisset. In constructing the porticus it was found necessary to pull down a private smithy,

and this was seized as an opportunity by Dio's enemies to raise the cry that he was demolishing the city; although as a matter of fact the building pulled down was so mean and low, “ ώστε μήδε τοις χαλκεύσιν εξήν διάρασθαι σχεδον, αλλά ειργάζοντο κεκυφότες.

See Or. xl, p. 487, και τινες ήσαν οι σφόδρα οδυρόμενοι το χαλκείον το του δείνος, χαλεπώς έχοντες ει μη μενει ταυτα τα υπομνήματα της παλαιάς ευδαιμονίας.'

§ 2. in eodem. The reading of Avantius 'in aedem,' or even the emendation of Beroaldus 'in aede,' can hardly be correct, because Pliny says (87) that the statue was in a bibliotheca : while the bodies were in the open area. In eodem would be loosely in the same building,' by which the accusers wilfully misrepresented the facts.

tuam statuam et corpora sepultorum. This under the régime of Ti. berius or Domitian might have been magnified into a charge of "maiestas.' Cf. Suet. Tib. 58, ‘statuae quidam Augusti caput dempserat, ut alterius imponeret . . Damnato reo, paullatim hoc genus calumniae eo processit ut haec quoque capitalia essent; circa Augusti simulacrum servum cecidisse, vestimenta mutasse,' etc. Tac. Ann. i 74 ; Dio Cass. 57 24 ; and 67, 12, Yurì ráp τις ότι απεδύσατο ενάντιον εικόνος του Δομιτιανού εκρίθη τε και απώλετο.'

$ 3. ad instruendam causam. Cf. Cic. pro. Cluent. 6. , ' Hoc enim ipsum iudicium, hoc periculum, illa accusatio, omnis testium copia .

• a matre hoc tempore instruitur,' and 'instruit accusatores, instruit testes'; also Tac. Ann. ii 74, 'qui crimina et accusationem tanquam adversus receptos iam reos instruebant.' Cic. Verr. iudicium nondum se satis instruxerat Dig. 22, 4, I, •Instrumentorum nomine ea omnia accipienda sunt quibus causa instrui potest; et ideo tam testimonia


4, 19, 'ad

4 darem utque in alia civitate cognoscerem petiit. Ego me audi

turum Nicaeae respondi. Ubi cum consedissem cogniturus,

idem Eumolpus, tamquam adhuc parum instructus, dilationem 5 petere coepit: contra Dion ut audiretur exigere. Dicta sunt

utrimque multa, etiam de causa. Ego cum dandam dilationem et te consulendum existimarem in re ad exemplum pertinenti, dixi utrique parti ut postulationum suarum libellos darent. Volebam enim te ipsorum potissimum verbis ea quae erant

proposita cognoscere. Et Dion quidem se daturum dixit : 6 Eumolpus respondit conplexurum se libello quae rei publicae

peteret, ceterum quod ad sepultos pertineret, non accusatorem se sed advocatum Flavii Archippi, cuius mandata pertulisset. Archippus, cui Eumolpus sicut Prusiade adsistebat, dixit se libellum daturum. At nec Eumolpus nec Archippus quam

plurimis diebus expectatis adhuc mihi libellos dederunt: Dion 7 dedit, quem huic epistulae iunxi. Ipse in re praesenti fui et 2 ubi consedissem, Avant.

13 qui Eumolpus sicut Prusiade, Avant. ubi cum sedissem, Ald.

cui Eumolpus sicut Prusiade, B. 6 te, om. Avant, and Ald.

and Ald. II pertineret, Schaeffer.

14 At, Schaeffer; Ita, Avant. and Ald. pertinet, Avant. and Ald. quam personae instrumentorum loco ha- § 6. advocatum Flavii Archippi. bentur.'

Cf. above adsistens Fl. Arch.' ut in alia civitate cognoscerem. sicut Prusiade. Taking Prusiade to Professedly to secure impartiality; really be an adjective as in Ep. 58, we must perhaps to prevent the discovery to which understand conventu or regione. The Pliny's personal visit to the building in reading of Avantius is here corrupt, 'qui question led. See $ 7.

Eumolpus sicut Prusiade.' The Ald. ed. $ 4. ubi cum consedissem. This is has 'cui Eumolpus sic ut Prusiade,' probOrelli's emendation for the reading of ably from a collation of the MS. ; but ‘ut Avantius ‘ubi consedissem.' The 'cum' Prusiade' can hardly be right, as all conmay easily have dropped out owing to cerned in the case were citizens of Prusa. the following con.' Cf. Cic. Verr. ii 1, It, however, suggests the right reading, in 7, § 19, 'quo die primum iudices citati sicut Prusiade. in hunc reum consedistis.' Suet. Calig. At. Ita, the reading of Avantius, can 38, “Cognoscebat autem de talibus causis, hardly be correct here, because even if, taxato prius modo summae, ad quem as Döring and Schäffer maintain, it often conficiendum consideret.'

means tumor deinde, this is not the tamquam, on the ground that. Cf. meaning required here. We rather want from Furneaux's list, p. 51, Tac. Ann. 'but' or nevertheless; probably, as Keil i 12, 6 ; ii 84, 3; xii 39, 5; xiii, 43, 8; suggests, 'at' is the correct reading. xiv 41, 1.

$ 7. in re praesenti, on the spot. § 5. etiam de causa, i.e. the parties See on Ep. viii 3; and Ep. 61, 1. did not confine themselves to the ques- in bibliotheca positam. The biblition of adjournment (dilatio).

otheca was probably an exedra, which, in re ad exemplum pertinenti. Cf. as Vitruvius

says, constituuntur in portion Ep. 29.

cibus.' See Suet. Aug. 58, 'addidit libellos darent. Cf. Ep. 59 and 60 porticus cum bibliotheca.' On the cusand 47, exegi ut quae dicebant quae. tom of placing busts and statues in que recitabant in libello complecterentur.' libraries both public and private, cf.

quae rei publicae peteret, i.e. 'ra- Plin. h. n. xxxv 2, ‘si quidem nunc ex tionem operis exigendam esse.'

auro argentove aut certe ex aere in bibli

vidi tuam quoque statuam in bibliotheca positam : id autem in quo dicuntur sepulti filius et uxor Dionis in area conlocatum, quae porticibus includitur. Te, domine, rogo ut me in hoc 8 praecipue genere cognitionis regere digneris, cum alioqui magna sit expectatio, ut necesse est in ea re quae et in confessum venit et exemplis defenditur. 2 filii eius et, Avant.

5 sit, Avant and Ald.; est, Orell. 6 defenditur deliberare. Ald.


otheca dicantur illis quorum immortales tence. Orelli's slight alteration, howanimae in locis iisdem loquuntur ;' and ever, makes the reading of the prima id. ib. vii § 115, M. Varronis in biblio- ed. quite intelligible and satisfactory. theca quae prima in orbe ab Asinio Pol- in confessum venit. Cf. Quint. v lione ex manubiis publicata Romae est, 14, 28, 'ad liquidum confessumque perunius viventis posita imago est.' Suet. ducere omnia'; id. viii, 48, adhuc Tib. 70, ' quibus poetis admodum delec- versamur in confessis'; Vell. Paterc. ii tatus, scripta eorum et imagines publicis 85, 5, 'fuitque in confesso’; Tac. de bibliothecis inter veteres et praecipuos orat. 25, dummodo in confesso sit'; auctores dedicavit.' Mart. ix Ep. ad also in Seneca and Pliny the elder. Here Turanium, 'Epigramma . . . ad Ster- the reference is either to Dio's libellus, tinium clarissimum virum scripsimus qui to common notoriety.

Pliny had imaginem meam ponere in bibliotheca himself seen that the statue and the sua voluit. Plin. Ep. iv 28, 1, “Heren- sepulchre were in the building, though nius Severus magni aestimat in not under the same roof. bibliotheca sua ponere imagines municip- et exemplis defenditur. This seems um tuorum.'

on the whole better than Mommsen's in area ; see on Ep. 70, 3.

suggestion ‘nec exemplis defenditur.' The § 8. in hoc praecipue genere cog. general expectation which the case occanitionis, i.e. in a case of maiestas. sioned would be better explained by the

ut necesse est. This is Orelli's fact that many others were in the same emendation for 'ut necesse sit’ of Avan- position as Dio, and that hitherto the tius. As this latter reading was evidently propriety of such proceedings had not incomplete by itself, Aldus added the been questioned. word : deliberare' at the end of the sen



Potuisti non haerere, mi Secunde carissime, circa id de quo i me consulendum existimasti, cum propositum meum optime

You could hardly have really doubted, public advantage of the town, and one my dear Pliny, about the matter on which to which Dio neither does nor can with you thought it necessary to consult me. propriety object. You knew it was not my policy to § 1. Potuisti non haerere. There is a gain respect for my person by fear and certain amount of annoyance about the terror or charges of treason. Dismissing tone of rajan's answer, which considertherefore that side of the question which, ing Trajan's well-known moderation, his even if there were precedents to support friendship for Dio, and the trumpery it, I should not pursue further, you must nature of the charge, is perhaps not exact a full account of the work carried uncalled for. out by Dio, a course required by the cum , propositum meum optime

nosses non ex metu nec terrore hominum aut criminibus 2 maiestatis reverentiam nomini meo adquiri. Omissa ergo ea

quaestione, quam non admitterem, etiam si exemplis adiuvaretur, ratio totius operis effecti sub cura Cocceiani Dionis excutiatur, cum et utilitas civitatis exigat nec aut recuset Dion aut debeat recusare. 4 tua, add. Avant, and Ald.

5 ei litis, Avant. sub cura tua a Cocceiano Dione, Cat.

civitatis, B. and Ald. nosses, etc. Pliny certainly professed 'sub curatura C. D.' which, though to know this when he pronounced his ingenious, it is impossible to accept owing Panegyric; see Panegyr. 42, 'Locupleta. to the rareness of the word 'curatura. bant et fiscum et aerarium non tam Catanaeus reads 'sub tua cura a CocVoconiae et Iuliae leges quam maiestatis ceiano Dione,' which implies that Pliny singulare et unicum crimen eorum qui would superintend the examination, crimine vacarent. Huius tu metum which, though possible, is hardly likely. penitus sustulisti, contentus magnitudine The same objection lies against the readqua nulli magis caruerunt quam qui sibi ing of the ed. Basileensis, 'sub cura tua maiestatem vindicabant.' Cf. also 88 34 Cocceiano Dioni.' On the whole, I have and 35, on the fate of the delatores under thought it better to cut the knot by Trajan.

omitting 'tua' altogether. etiam si exemplis adiuvaretur. utilitas civitatis exigat. This is the As a matter of fact the exempla were on reading of the Aldine edition. It is conthe other side, et exemplis defenditur.' firmed by a marginal reading in B. The

sub cura Cocceiani Dionis. The emendations of Beroaldus, utilitas eius oldest editions have sub cura tua exigat,' and of Catanaeus, 'utilitas Cocceiani Dionis,' which is evidently reipublicae id exigat,' are uncalled for. faulty somewhere. Orelli conjectures


De Nicaeensibus

C. PLINIUS TRAIANO IMPERATORI Rogatus, domine, a Nicaeensibus publice per ea quae mihi et sunt et debent esse sanctissima, id est per aeternitatem tuam salutemque, ut preces suas ad te perferrem, fas non putavi negare acceptumque ab iis libellum huic epistulae iunxi.

Being implored, sire, on the part of and I append their memorial to this the Nicaeans by what I am bound to letter. hold most sacred, your immortal name per aeternitatem tuam, etc. Cf. on and prosperity, to carry their petitions to Ep. 59, etc. you, I could not refuse their request,


TRAIANUS PLINIO S. Nicaeensibus, qui intestatorum civium suorum concessam vindicationem bonorum a divo Augusto adfirmant, debebis

It will be your duty to give your serious they are entitled, by an edict of Augustus, attention to the Nicaeans, who assert that to claim the property of all citizens of

« PreviousContinue »