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Ea conditio est civitatis Byzantiorum confluente undique i in eam commeantium turba ut secundum consuetudinem praecedentium temporum honoribus eius praesidio centurionis legionarii consulendum habuerimus. Si Iuliopolitanis succurrendum eodem modo putaverimus, onerabimus nos exemplo: plures enim, et quanto infirmiores erunt, idem petent. Fiduciam diligentiae tuae habeo ut credam te omni ratione id ac rum ne sint obnoxii iniuriis. Si qui autem se contra dis- 3 ciplinam meam gesserint, statim coërceantur; aut si plus 4 si, om. Avant, and Ald.

tanto magis eadem requirent quanto 6 et quanto infirmiores erunt idem

infirmiores erunt, Ald. petent, B.

7 tuae, om. Avant, and Ald. petent, om. Avant.

add. Cat.


§ 1. The condition of Byzantium is so exceptional on account of the crowd of travellers who pass through it, that, in pursuance of the custom of former times, I have thought it fit to assist the magistrates -by some legionary soldiers under a centurion. If we should help Iuliopolis in the same way, we should hamper ourselves with a precedent, for other towns, and especially the weaker ones, will ask for the same thing. § 2. I trust to your energy to see that the town is not exposed to injury. $ 3. Put down at once any violations of discipline; or if the offence is too great to be punished on the spot, in the case of soldiers, report the matter to their commanding officers, and in the case of travellers to Rome, give information to me.

§ 1. confluente undique commeantium turba. Byzantium, in almost as true a sense as Alexandria, might be called the meeting-point of east and west. Ovid (Trist. i 11) calls it 'gemini maris ianua. See Gibbon's description of its situation, vol. ii 287, etc.

§ 2. plures enim, et quanto, etc. The Aldine edition reads “plures enim tanto magis eadem requirent quanto,' etc., but the original reading is shown in the Bodleian copy of Avantius, where 'petent' is added in the margin after “idem.

Fiduciam diligentiae tuae. Orelli conjectures 'fiduciam eam,' which, however, is not absolutely necessary.

§ 3. contra disciplinam meam. Disciplina here includes the military meaning of the word, but is more extensive, and, as the following words show, applies to civilians as well as soldiers. For disciplinam in non-military sense cf. Suet. Caes. 48, 'domesticam disciplinam'; id. Aug. 65, 'disciplina domus '; Cic. de orat. i 34, 159, disciplina reipublicae.'

in re praesenti, see on Ep. 8, 3; 62, 1; here, of course, it means by the 'praeses provinciae.'

legatis eorum. By legati are here to be understood, not the legati of provinces, but the 'legati legionum,' who had under their command not only the soldiers of their legion, but also all the auxiliary alae or cohortes attached to it, Momms. Hermes, xix 2. These legati were always of praetorian rank. Cf. Tac. Hist. i 48, legioni post praeturam praepositus '; id. Ann. ii 36. See also Tac. Ann. i 44, iv 73, xiv 32; Hist. i 57 ; Marquadt. Staatsverw. ii 457, 458.

quod deprehenderis notum facies. This is the emendation of Ritterhusius for the reading of Avantius, 'quae depr. notum fac,' which Döring not very convincingly defends.

si in urbem versus venturi erunt. By these are evidently meant merchants or other civilians on their way home to Rome from the Eastern provinces. For in urbem versus, cf. Cic. ad Fam. iv 12,

admiserint quam ut in re praesenti satis puniantur, si milites erunt, legatis eorum quod deprehenderis notum facies ; aut si in urbem versus venturi erunt, mihi scribes.

I amiserint, Avant. 2 quod, Ritterhusius. quae, Avant. and Ald.

'supra Maleam in Italiam versus navigaturus erat;' Sall. Catil. 56, 4, 'modo ad urbem modo in Galliam versus castra

movere ;' Caes. Bell. Gall. vi 33, 'ad oceanum versus.'

De magistratibus provincialium



Cautum est, domine, Pompeia lege, quae Bithynis data est, ne quis capiat magistratum neve sit in senatu minor annorum

§ 1. It was enacted, sire, by the lex victorious general in making the necesprovinciae, which Pompeius drew up for sary arrangements. So they were sent Bithynia, that no one should hold a to L. Aemilius Paulus in Macedonia, magistracy or be admitted to the senate Livy xliv 18; to Q. Mummius in under the age of thirty years.

This im- Achaia. Polyb. 39, 15, to Aquilius in plies that those who have held a magis- Asia, Strab. 14, p. 646, to Rupilius in tracy have a right to enter the senate. Sicily: Cic. Verr. ii 16, 40. These de§ 2. But by an edict of Augustus, the cem legati’ received instructions from minor magistracies might be held at the the senate, Livy xlv 17, 'in senatu age of twenty-two. $ 3. The question agitata est summa consiliorum ut inchoata arises whether those elected at this age omnia legati a domo ferre ad imperatores can be admitted into the senate by the possent’; though, doubtless, in most censors, and if so, whether by a parity cases, the 'imperatores' made what arof reasoning those may be admitted rangements they liked.

The organisaunder the age of thirty, who, though tion and arrangements of the province they have not held one of those minor were drawn up in the form of a 'lex magistracies, might have done so. This

provinciae,' by which the province was course has been taken, and indeed is said in future to be administered, although to be necessary, because it is better to imperial edicts, laws, or senatus consulta admit to the senate the sons of honour- could alter or modify the ‘lex provinciae' able citizens than members of the lower in details. Cf. the edictum Augusti’ orders. § 4. Having been asked by the mentioned here, and Cic. ad Att. v 21, censors elect for my opinion, I considered II, "At ille profert senatus consultum that by interpreting the law and the edict Lentulo Philippoque consulibus ut qui together, those who had held a magis- Ciliciam obtineret ius ex illa syngrapha tracy might also be admitted to the diceret.' Of these leges provinciae we senate under the age of thirty. $5. I know of the lex Rupilia for Sicily, Cic. was doubtful, however, about the case of accus. in Verr. ii 16, 39, 'legem esse those who, though qualified by age, had Rupiliam, quam P. Rupilius consul not actually held a minor magistracy, and de decem legatorum sententia dedisset : I have therefore preferred to ask for your hanc omnes semper in Sicilia consules instructions. I append the sections of praetoresque servare'; the lex Aemilia the law in question and the edict of for Macedonia, Livy xlv 32; a lex Augustus.

Metelli for Crete, Livy Epit. 100; a lex 1. Pompeia lege. Under the re- Aquilii and a lex Pompeii for Asia, public, when a new province was to be Strab. xiv 1, and Dio Cass. 37, 20; and organised a commission of ten legati of the present lex Pompeia for Bithynia. senatorial rank was sent to assist the Dio Cass. 37, 20, τά τε πλείω έθνη

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triginta. Eadem lege conprehensum est ut qui ceperint magistratum sint in senatu. Secutum est dein edictum divi Augusti, 2 quo permisit minores magistratus ab annis duobus et viginti capere. Quaeritur ergo an qui minor triginta annorum gessit 3 των εν τη Ασία τη ηπείρω τότε αυτοίς 'Quibus hac lege in municipio colonia όντων νόμοις τε ιδίοις και πολιτείαις κατεσ


in senatu decurionibus τήσατο και διεκόσμησεν, ώστε και δεύρο conscripteis esse non licebit, ni quis αυτούς τους υπ' εκείνου νομισθείσι χρήσ- eorum in mun. col. praef.

II viraDal'; and Strab. 12 p. 541. Cf. Ep. tum, IIII viratum, aliamve quam potes114, 115. By the lex provinciae (1) the tatem ex quo honore in eum ordinem province was divided into regions or perveniat, petito neve capito.' See also civitates, each with its territorium ; (2) the Decretum Tergestinum, Henz. 7168, arrangements were made and districts 'ut — prout qui meruissent vita atque marked out for the collection of the censu, per aedilitatis gradum in curiam taxes ; (3) the province was divided into nostram admitterentur.

All the magisconventus for judicial purposes ; (4) the trates sat in the senate, both during their mutual relations were defined between year of office and after it, until the next the senate, magistrates, and popular as- quinquennial census, without being formsemblies.

ally senators, which they only became ne quis capiat magistratum, etc. after a regular lectio of the censors. There were usually four necessary quali- Accordingly, there were always two fications for the municipal magistracies classes of persons in the senate, 'senaand for admission into the decuriones : tores, et quibus in senatu sententiam (1) ingenuitas; cf. Lex Malacit. c. dicere licet,' the latter of whom passed 54, 'qui comitia habere debebit . by each fresh lectio into the former. Cf. primum II viros ... deinde . . . aedi- Lex Iul. Municip. 196, 'neve ibi senator, les item quaestores ex eo genere ingenu- neve decurio neve conscriptus esto, neve orum hominum,' etc. ; (2) criminal pun- sententiam dicito.' ishment must never have been undergone : § 2. edictum divi Augusti. Dio Lex Iul. Municip., 'nei quis ... in Cass. 54, 7, και ες την Ασίαν κομισθείς eorum quo municipio . . . in senatu πάντα τα εκεί και τα εν τη Βιθυνία διέ

quei furti quod ipse fecit ταξεν. . fecerit condemnatus pactusve est erit, minores magistratus ab annis duoqueive iudicio fiduciae, pro socio, tutelae, bus et viginti capere. Minores is mandatis, iniuriarum deve dolo malo con- almost redundant, since the lesser magisdemnatus est erit,' etc. ; and Lex Malicit. tracies would of course be held first. c. 54, 'ne cuius comitis rationem habeat Dig. 50, 4, II, ut gradatim honores qui in earum qua causa erit propter quam deferantur, edicto, et ut a minoribus ad si civis Romanus esset in numero decuri- majores perveniatur, epistula Divi Pii ad

eum esse non liceret'; (3) Titrinum exprimitur'; and Dig. 50, 4, the trades of praeconium, dissignatio, 14, 5, 'gerendorum honorum non prolibitina must never have been practised, miscua facultas est, sed ordo certus huic Lex Iul. Municip. 1 94; (4) the candi- rei adhibitus est ; nam neque prius madate must either have served a number iorem magistratum quisquam, nisi miof campaigns, or have attained the norem susceperit, gerere potest.' The thirty. Lex Iul. Municip. 1 89, quae minimum age for candidates seems to minor annos XXX natus est erit, nei quis have been generally lowered to twenty

in municipio colonia prae- five. Dig. 50, 4, 11, 'neque enim minfectura II viratum IIII viratum neve ores viginti quinque annis decuriones quem alium magistratum petito neve collegi nisi ex causa possunt'; and Lex capito neve gerito nisi quei eorum stipen

Malicit. c. 54.

Possibly this change dia equo in legione III aut pedestria in may have been made by Augustus : he legione VI fecerit’; also Cic. in Verr. certainly made similar changes in connecii 49, 122.

tion with the Roman senate. Dio Cass. eadem lege comprehensum est. 52, 20, and we find him here reducing Cf. Lex Malacit. c. 54, de quo hac lege the age still lower. cautum comprehensumque est.'

§ 3. minor triginta annorum. See ut qui ceperint magistratum sint Roby, 1273, 'In descriptions of size, in senatu. Cf. Lex Iul. Municip. § 27, age, etc., plus, amplius, minus, are used


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magistratus possit a censoribus in senatum legi, et si potest, an ii quoque qui non gesserint possint per eandem interpretationem ab ea aetate senatores legi a qua illis magistratum gerere permissum est; quod alioqui factitatum adhuc et esse neces

sarium dicitur, quia sit aliquanto melius honestorum hominum 4 liberos quam e plebe in curiam admitti. Ego a destinatis

censoribus quid sentirem interrogatus, eos quidem qui minores triginta annis gessissent magistratum putabam posse in senatum et secundum edictum Augusti et secundum legem Pompeiam legi, quoniam Augustus gerere magistratus minori

bus annis triginta permisisset, lex senatorem esse voluisset qui 5 gessisset magistratum. De iis autem qui non gessissent, quam

vis essent aetatis eiusdem cuius illi quibus gerere permissum est, haesitabam ; per quod effectum est ut te, domine, consulerem quid observari velles. Capita legis, tum edictum Augusti litteris subieci. 2 an ex iis quoque, Ald.

6 a destinatis, B. and Ald. possit quis. Ald.

adest natis, Avant. with a noun of size, or age, which, if not 3, 18, ‘Atque haec etiam vocabuli istius put in the ablative is subjoined in the ratio, dicitur quam Gabius Bassus in proper case with or without quam.' Thus commentariis suis scriptam reliquit. Senawe can have ‘minores triginta annis,' tores enim dicit in veterum aetate qui see below, $ 4; or 'minor quam triginta curulem magistratum gessissent, curru annorum'; cf. Dig. 4, 4, 1,

solitos in curiam vehi; quinque viginti annorum natu’; or as senatores qui magistratum curulem nonhere, minor triginta annorum.' Cf. dum ceperant, pedibus itavisse in curiam : Lex Malacit. c. 54, where both these last propterea senatores nondum maioribus forms are used; and Livy xxxviii 38, honoribus functos, pedarios nominatos.' ne minores octonum denum annorum. quia sit aliquanto melius honestoThe genitive in these cases is the gen. of rum hominum liberos quam e plebe quality, 'younger than a person of thirty in curiam admitti. This evidently imyears.

plies that in the provincial towns the a censoribus in senatum legi. The tendency was already beginning for the lectio senatus took place every five years better families to abstain from the ordinary by the authority of the II viri quinquen- cursus honorum, which was thus left to nales or censores, who then had to make those of more plebeian origin. It was the out the album decurionum.' So in the custom from the time of Augustus for the album Canusinum, ‘II viri quinquennales sons of decuriones to be allowed to be nomina decurionum in aere incidenda present in the senate, and to be entered curaverunt.'

in the album under the title of 'praetexan ii qui non gesserint ... possint tati,' but without the right to vote. Cf. senatores legi. At every lectio the Suet. Aug: 38, liberos senatorum, quo censors had three classes of men out of celerius reipublicae adsuescerent, protinus whom to make up the album for the next a virili toga latum clavum induere et five years—(1) survivors from the last curiae interesse permisit.' It is possible album ; (2) magistrates and ex-magis- that the custom grew up of admitting trates of the last five years ; (3) those these praetextati into the senate rather who, though they had never been magis- than ex-magistrates. trates, had all the necessary qualifications. § 4. destinatis=designatis. Cf. Suet. Marquadt, ii p. 187. Men chosen out Caes. 1, 'flamen dialis destinatus'; id. of this last class were called 'pedani,' Tib. 31, 'destinatos magistratus’: Tac. and in Rome 'pedarii.' See Aul. Gell. Ann. i 3, destinari consules.'

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TRAIANUS PLINIO S. Interpretationi tuae, mi Secunde carissime, idem existimo hactenus edicto divi Augusti novatam esse legem Pompeiam ut magistratum quidem capere possent ii qui non minores duorum et viginti annorum essent, et qui cepissent, in senatum cuiusque civitatis pervenirent. Ceterum non capto magistratu eos qui minores triginta annorum sint, quia magistratum capere possint, in curiam etiam loci cuiusque non existimo legi posse. I ut existimo, Avant.

4 quia coepissent, Avant, idem existimo, B. and Ald.

qui accepissent, Ald. 3 duo, Avant.

Agreeably with your interpretation, my dear Pliny, I am of opinion that the lex Pompeia was so far modified by the edict of Augustus that any persons of not less than twenty-two years can hold a magistracy, and those who have so held, may be admitted into the senates of their respective towns. But I do not think that men under thirty years who have not held a magistracy can be admitted to the senate, merely because they are capable of holding a magistracy.

Interpretationi tuae . . idem ex. istimo. This is the marginal reading in

the Bodleian copy of Avantius, who read unintelligibly 'ut existimo.'

hactenus, to this extent. Cf. Sen. Ep. 88, ‘meritoria officia sunt: hactenus utilia, si praeparant ingenium non detinent,' and Plin. Ep. ix 15, 3, 'Patrem familiae hactenus ago quod aliquam partem praediorum, sed pro gestatione percurro.'

quia magistratum capere possint. See Ep. 79, quaeritur an non gesserint possint . . . ab ea aetate senatores legi a qua illis magistratum gerere permissum est.'

ii qui

De Dione qui reliquias suorum religioso loco posuisset


Cum Prusae ad Olympum, domine, publicis negotiis intra i hospitium eodem die exiturus vacarem, Asclepiades magis

§ 1. While I was attending to public improper use of the money. § 2. He business, sire, at Prusa, on the last day added that your statue had been placed of my stay there, I learnt that an appeal in the temple in question, although the was made to me by Claudius Eumolpus. bodies of Dio's wife and daughter were It seems that at a meeting of the senate buried there, and begged me to investiCocceianus Dio wished some public work, gate the matter publicly. § 3. I conof which he had had the management, sented, and offered to delay my departure, to be handed over to the town, but Eu- but he begged for a longer time to pre. molpus, representing Flavius Archippus, pare his case, and urged that the trial insisted that the expenses of the work should be held in another town. $ 4. I must be first audited, as he had made an fixed on Nicaea, but when the day ar


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