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conlapsa est, ac iam paene nihil ex ea nisi solum superest ; quod tu, domine, sive donaveris civitati sive venire iusseris, propter opportunitatem loci pro summo munere accipiet. Ego, si 3 permiseris, cogito in area vacua balineum conlocare, eum autem locum in quo aedificia fuerunt exedra et porticibus amplecti tibique consecrare, cuius beneficio elegans opus dignumque nomine tuo fiet. Exemplar testamenti, quamquam mendosum, 4 misi tibi ; ex quo cognosces multa Polyaenum in eiusdem domus ornatum reliquisse, quae ut domus ipsa perierunt, a me tamen, in quantum potuerit, requirentur. 3 accipiet. Ego, Cat.

6 tibique, B. atque tibi, Ald. accipi et ego, Avant, and Ald.

quae tibi, Avant. 4 eum autem, Avant.

7 exempla, Avant. 8 eundem, Avant. Wilm. 2459, “lares et imagines domini Crassus lectulo posito recubuisset, and nostri Caesaris,' also 1731, 2241, etc. Nat. Deor. i 6, nam cum feriis Latinis

sive donaveris, etc. Having been left ad eum ipsius rogatu . . venissem, to Claudius by testament, it became part offendi eum sedentem in exedra cum C. of the patrimonium Caesaris, although Velleio senatore disputantem. Both apparently the town of Prusa had been gymnasia and public baths on a large allowed to receive the rent, reditum scale were furnished with these exedrae. civitas percepit.'

They were usually semicircular recesses accipiet. The prominent position of with seats in the colonnades, Vitruv. v 'tu'- quod tu domine,' makes the change II, Constituuntur in porticibus exedrae of person rather awkward. We should spatiosae, habentes sedes in quibus philorather have expected 'summum munus sophi, rhetores reliquique qui studiis dabis.'

delectantur sedentes disputare possint.' $ 3. in area vacua. Dig. 50, 16, 211, In large baths like those of Caracalla at 'locus sine aedificio in urbe area'; Suet. Rome these exedrae were often separate Vesp. 8, vacuas areas occupare et from the actual bathing establishment, aedificare, si possessores cessarent, cui- and skirted the stadium, or open grounds cunque permisit.' It is here, all the round the baths. See Middleton's Rome, premises in and around the house not p. 357. On porticibus see note to Ep. actually occupied with buildings. Cf. Plin. 39, § 3. Ep. vi 20, 4, resedimus in area domus tibi consecrare, by an altar or shrine. quae mare a tectis modico spatio divide- dignum nomine tuo. Cf. Ep. 41, bat,' and Ep. vii 27, 10, 'postquam de- opera non minus aeternitate tua quam flexit in aream domus.'

gloria digna.' exedra et porticibus. The exedrae $4. exemplar. Cf. Ep. iv 7, 2, 'eundem were rooms for conversation' or lectures or (librum) in exemplaria mille transcriptum recitations. They were often added to per totam Italiam provinciasque dimisit.' private houses. Cf. Cic. de orat. iii 5, 17, in quantum. Cf. Juv. xiv 318, and cum in eam exedram venisset in

qua Mayor's note.

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LXXI (LXXVI)

TRAIANUS PLINIO S.

Possumus apud Prusenses area ista cum domo conlapsa, quam vacare scribis, ad extructionem balinei uti. Illud tamen

2 balinei ut, Avant.

There is no objection to using the ruined house with the empty space be

longing to it as the site for the new bath at Prusa. You did not, however, clearly

parum expressisti an aedes in peristylio Claudio facta esset. Nam si facta est, licet conlapsa sit, religio eius occupavit solum. say whether the proposed shrine to Claud- connection with this shrine of Claudius ius in the peristylium was completed ; are in marked contrast with his answer because, if so, notwithstanding its ruinous to Pliny on the subject of moving the state, the soil is still consecrated to him. temple of Cybele in Ep. 50, where he quam vacare scribis. Pliny had

said, 'solum peregrinae civitatis capax implied this by the words 'tota collapsa non est dedicationis quae fit nostro iure.' est.'

But political considerations would enter parum expressisti, you have not into the present case, and Trajan could clearly stated.

not sanction any appearance of disrespect religio eius occupavit solum. Cf. to a deified predecessor. Pliny probably Cic. ad Att. iv 1, 7, 'Qui (pontifices) thought that his intention of consecrating si sustulerint religionem, aream prae- the place to Trajan would answer the claram habebimus. Trajan's scruples in requirements of the case.

LXXII [LXXVII]

De adsertione ingenuorum

C. PLINIUS TRAIANO IMPERATORI

Postulantibus quibusdam ut de agnoscendis liberis restituendisque natalibus et secundum epistulam Domitiani scriptam Minicio Rufo et secundum exempla proconsulum ipse cognoscerem, respexi ad senatus consultum pertinens ad eadem geI cognoscendis, Avant.

agnoscendis, Ald, and Budaeus.

This was

Certain persons have demanded that I should myself hear cases concerning the acknowledgment of children and their instalment as free-born citizens, in accordance with a letter of Domitian and the practice of previous proconsuls. I referred to a decree of the senate on these subjects, but this only relates to senatorial provinces, and I have therefore postponed the matter until I receive your instructions.

de agnoscendis liberis. the question as to the acknowledgment of children by their father, when there was any suspicion of adultery on the part of the mother. Ulpian in the Digest, 25, 3, 1, mentions a senatus consultum quod factum est de liberis agnoscendis '; he says, duas species complectitur, unam eorum qui agnoscunt, aliam earum quae falsum pactum subiciunt.' The wife had to give formal notice of her pregnancy within thirty days of the divorce; and the husband might either send 'custodes,' or at once declare that the child was not his.

restituendis natalibus. The 'resti

tutio natalium' was the granting of the privileges of free-born citizenship to one born in a servile condition ; and accord. ingly was often granted to 'libertini,' who then had complete rights over his own property, and could even be enlisted in the legions, which freedmen could never do (see Momms. in Hermes, xix p. 27). The phrase ‘natalibus restituere,' was based on the theory that the original condition of men was one of freedom, and so a slave on becoming ingenuus is only restored to his original right. The natalium restitutio' would be granted only by the emperor himself. See Digest 40, 11, 2, ‘Interdum et servi nati ex post facto iuris interventu ingenui fiunt, ut ecce si libertinus a principe natalibus suis restitutus fuerit. Illis enim utique natalibus restituitur, in quibus initio omnes homines fuerunt non in quibus ipse nascitur, cum servus natus esset, hic enim, quantum ad totum ius pertinet, perinde habetur atque si ingenuus natus esset, nec patronus eius potest ad successionem venire, ideoque imperatores non facile solent quemquam nera causarum, quod de iis tantum provinciis loquitur quibus proconsules praesunt; ideoque rem integram distuli, dum tu, domine, praeceperis quid observare me velis. natalibus restituere nisi consentiente all of which were governed by men patrono,' and again, 3, 'ea res nec who had the honorary title of produbitationem habet nec unquam habuit, consul, although Asia and Africa only quin exploratum sit ad omnem ingenui- were actually held by consulares': the tatis statum restitui eum qui isto beneficio rest by 'praetorii.' See Dio Cass. 53, (nat. rest.) principis utatur.' In the 13, έπειτα δε τους μεν (i.e. the senatorial present case the question of natalium governors) και επετησίους και κληρωτούς restitutio is clearly connected with that είναι, πλήν ει τω πολυπαιδίας ή γάμου

de agnoscendis liberis,' possibly in this προνημία προσείη και έκ τε του κοινού της way. If a child born from an ancilla were γερουσίας συλλόγον πέμπεσθαι, μήτε ξίφος recognised by the father, the latter could παραζωννυμένους, μήτε στρατιωτική εσθήτι, then present a petition to the emperor for χρωμένους και ανθυπάτους καλείσθαι μη the natalium restitutio' on the child's ότι τους δύο τους υπατευκότας αλλά και τους account; but see note on Ep. 73.

άλλους των εστρατηγηκότων ή δοκούντων Minicio Rufo. (L. Minicius Rufus was γε εστρατηγηκέναι μόνον όντας ραβδούχοις apparently a proconsul of Bithynia under τε σφάς εκατέρους όσους περ και εν τω Domitian : he was consul in 88 A.D. ; αστει νενομίσται, χρήσθαι τους δε Censorinus, 17, II. See Mommsen's ετέρους υπό τε εαυτού αιρείσθαι, και πρεσindex.

βευτάς αυτου αντιστρατήγους τε ονομάζεσθαι ipse cognoscerem. The proconsul καν εκ των υπατευκότων ώσι, διέταξε.' At might decide the question de liberis the present time Bithynia was in a doubt. agnoscendis,' and he might make the ful position; it was still a senatorial necessary preliminary inquiries in con- province, but for the time being it was nection with the restitutio natalium,' but

administered by a legatus Augusti, a the latter he could in no casé grant of his change, which as far as Pliny knew, Trajan own authority.

might have intended to make permanent, ad senatus consultum. Possibly and indeed, after 135 A.D. it did become the one mentioned by Ulpian above. regularly an imperial province.

iis provinciis quibus proconsules quid observare me velis. Cf. praesunt, i.e. the senatorial provinces,

Ep. 68.

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LXXIII (LXVIII]

TRAIANUS PLINIO S.

Si mihi senatus consultum miseris, quod haesitationem tibi fecit, aestimabo an debeas cognoscere de agnoscendis liberis et natalibus suis restituendis.

3 veris, Avant. If you will send me the decree of the the rescript of Trajan concerning the senate which causes your hesitation, I Opentol, who were born ingenui, but will consider whether it is your duty to having been brought up as slaves, redecide the cases you mention.

quired the restitutio natalium before they si mihi senatus consultum miseris. could regain their original ‘ingenuitas. There would of course be the original From this point of view there is a decree in the tabularium at Rome, but temptation to adopt here the reading of on so small a point, it was simpler for Avantius. Pliny to send a copy than to have the natalibus suis restituendis. This, archives rched for it.

however, would be referring natales not natalibus suis restituendis. It to the original condition of men, generseems not improbable that, the question ally, as the Digest explains it, but to the of the restitutio natálium' was raised in particular birth of the individuals in BitŘynia at this time in connection with question.

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I

Appuleius, domine, miles, qui est in statione Nicomedensi, scripsit mihi quendam nomine Callidromum, cum detineretur a Maximo et Dionysio pistoribus, quibus operas suas locaverat, confugisse ad tuam statuam perductumque ad magistratus

suas

§ 1. A soldier named Appuleius, sire, bonum faceret panem, eius duodecimam stationed at Nicomedeia has informed me philosophiae dedisses, ipse bonus iamthat a certain Callidromus having escaped pridem esses factus. Nunc illum qui from two bakers to whom he had hired norunt, volunt emere millibus centum, te his services, took refuge before your qui novit, nemo centussis.' The pistores statues, and gave the following account had several departments of their trade. of himself to the magistrates. He was There were pist. siliginarii, Orell. 4263 ; formerly a slave of Laberius Maximus, pist. dulciarii, Mart. xiv 222 ; pist. was taken prisoner in the Dacian war, lactarii. They usually worked by night ; and then sent as a present by Decebalus Mart. xii 57, 5, 'negant vitam Ludito Pacorus the Parthian king, in whose magistri mane, nocte pistores, Aerariorum service he remained for several years. marculi die toto.' They were formed into Ultimately he made his

escape
and

corpora or collegia, Orell. 1810. At arrived at Nicomedeia. § 2. As he re- Rome the collegia pistorum' were espepeated the same story to me I thought it cially important in connection with the best to send him to you. · This, however, corn supply of the city, and Trajan who I delayed to do, while I searched for a was jealous of collegia generally gave gem engraved with the figure of Pacorus special privileges to these. Cf. Middlein his royal robes, of which he declares ton's description of the tomb of Eurysaces that he has been robbed. $ 3. I should outside the Porta Praenestina at Rome, have liked to send you this with the man p. 429. himself. The ingot from a Parthian mine quibus operas

locaverat, which I have despatched he declares that Digest, 33, 2, 3, 'Hominis quoque liberi he brought with him. It is sealed with operae legari possunt, sicut locari et in my signet-ring, a chariot and four.

stipulationem deduci.' The workman is § 1. in statione Nicomedensi. Nico- the locatur operarum,' the employer the medeia was apparently the headquarters

'conductor operarum.

If the work was of the auxiliary troops which had been not performed as agreed upon, the conassigned to Pliny ; cf. note on Ep. 21. ductor could resort to an 'actio conducti.'

cum detineretur, on being forcibly On the other hand, the remedy open to detained.

the locator was an actio locati. See pistoribus, probably bakers and Hunter's Roman Law, pp. 338-340. The millers combined. At Pompeii certainly comic poet Plautus is said by Varro to the two trades were carried on together, have hired his services to a baker; Aul. as we see in several of the houses. Rich Gell. iii 3, 'cum pecunia omni, quam in people often had their own 'pistores'; operis artificum scenicorum pepererat, in Suet. Caes. 48, domesticam disciplinam mercationibus perdita, inops Romam in parvis ac maioribus rebus diligenter rediiset, et ob quaerendum victum ad adeo severeque rexit, ut pistorem, alium circumagendas molas, quae trusatiles apquam sibi panem convivis subicientem pellantur, operam pistori locasset.' compedibus vinxerit.' These pistores confugisse ad tuam statuam. The often fetched high prices. Cf. M. Varro, first appearance of any special sanctity Trepi édeo uátwv in Aul. Gell. xv 19, ‘si being given to the statue of the emperor quantum operae sumpsisti ut tuus pistor was the consecration of the temple of indicasse servisse aliquando Laberio Maximo captumque a Susago in Moesia et a Decebalo muneri missum Pacoro, ParDivus Iulius by the triumviri ; Dio Cass. quam in Capitolium (cf. Plin. Panegyr. 47, 19, προς δε τούτοις, απείπον μεν 1. c.) aliave Urbis templa perfugere, ut μηδεμίαν εικόνα αυτού, καθάπερ θεού, τινος eo subsidio ad flagitia utatur.' By the ως αληθώς όντος, εν ταις των συγγενών time of Antoninus Pius the right was αυτού εκφοραίς πέμπεσθαι ... απηγόρευ- formally acknowledged ; Gaius, iii 53, σαν δε μηδένα εις το ηρώον αυτού καταφυ- 'Nam consultus a quibusdam praesidibus γόντα επ' αδεία, μήτε ανδρηλατείσθαι, provinciarum de his servis qui ad fana μήτε συλάσθαι'; and from this time there deorum vel ad statuas principum conseems to have been a certain right of fugiunt, praecepit ut si intolerabilis videasylum connected with the statues of the atur dominorum saevitia, cogantur servos emperors, whether living or dead, though suos vendere,' etc. See also Digest, 48, emperors like Tiberius put a certain check 19, 28, 7, 'ad statuas confugere vel upon it. Suet. Tib. 26, 'prohibuit etiam imagines principum in iniuriam alterius statuas ac imagines nisi permittente se prohibitum est . . . nisi quis ex vinculis poni, permisitque ea sola conditione ne vel custodia detentus a potentioribus ad inter simulacra deorum sed inter ornamen- huiusmodi praesidium

fugerit : his ta aedium ponerentur.' So Trajan's

enim venia tribuenda est. See Momms. moderation is contrasted with Domitian's Staatsrecht, vol ii p. 736. conduct; Plin. Panegyr. 52, 'Itaque Laberio Maximo. Manius Laberius tuam statuam in vestibulo Iovis optimi Maximus was consul II. ordinarius in 103 maximi unam alteramve et hanc aeream A.D., Henz. 5442. He was one of the cernimus. At paulo ante aditus omnes, generals in the Dacian war; Dio Cass. omnes gradus totaque area hinc auro hinc 58, 9, επειδή ο Μάξιμος εν τω αυτό argento relucebat seu potius polluebatur, χρόνο την τε αδελφήν αυτού (tc. Dececum incesti principis statuis permixta balus) και χώριον τι ισχυρόν είχεν.' The deorum simulacra sorderent.' We find present passage seems to show that he was the statue of Augustus an asylum after legate of Moesia (probably Moesia supehis death; Tac. Ann. iv 67, ultroque rior). He was afterwards banished by struebantur, qui monerent (Agrippinam) Trajan, and recalled by Hadrian ; Spart. perfugere ad Germaniae exercitus, vel Vit. Hadr. 5. See Momms. index. celeberrimo foro effigiem divi Augusti am- a Susago, a Dacian general, or some plecti.' Also that of Iulius; Suet. Aug. king allied to Decebalus. 17, 'Antonium iuvenem, maiorem de a Decebalo muneri missum Pacoro. duobus Fulvia genitis, simulacro divi On the Dacian war, see life of Trajan, Iulii, ad quod post multas et irritas preces pp. 7-9. For Decebalus cf. Ep. viii 4, 2, confugerat, abreptum interemit'; also pulsum regia, pulsum etiam vita regem, Suet. Tib. 50, novissime calumniatus nihil desperantem.' This passage is immodo ad statuam Augusti, modo ad portant since it proves that Decebalus exercitus confugere velle, Pandatariam was in communication with the Parthian relegavit.' Cf. Suet. Tib. 58, where king, whom in all probability he attempted after a man was condemned of maiestas to draw into the war against Trajan. If for removing the head from a statue of he had succeeded, serious embarrassment Augustus to put on another, 'damnato might have been caused to the emperor, reo, paullatim hoc genus calumniae eo who could not well have spared any of processit ut haec quoque capitalia essent, his western legions at that time for an circa Augusti simulacrum servum exci- oriental campaign. disse, vestimenta mutasse, nummo vel pluribusque annis in ministerio anulo effigiem impressam latrinae eius fuisse. I have not seen it pointed intulisse.' Tac. Ann. i 73, 'Falanio out before, but these words are a clear obiciebat accusator quod venditis proof that the old date assigned to Pliny's hortis statuam Augusti simul mancipasset.' mission to Bithynia 103-105 is wrong. If Tac. Ann. iii 36, 'Incedebat enim deter- Callidromus, as is probable, was taken rimo cuique licentia, impune probra et prisoner in the first war, he was no doubt invidiam in bonos excitandi arrepta

sent to Pacorus in the interval between imagine Caesaris . . . igitur C. Caestius the first and second wars, i.e. between senator disseruit principes quidem instar 102 and 104 A. D., and as he stayed several deorum esse : sed neque a diis nisi iustas years in Parthia, it necessarily makes the supplicum preces audiri, neque quem- date of the letter at any rate later than 105.

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