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quod dicebatur divi Augusti, ad Asiam pertinens : recitatae et epistulae divi Vespasiani ad Lacedaemonios et divi Titi ad eosdem (et Achaeos), et Domitiani ad Avidium Nigrinum et Armenium Brocchum proconsules, item ad Lacedaemonios : quae ideo tibi non misi, quia et parum emendata et quaedam non certae fidei videbantur et quia vera et emendata in scriniis tuis esse credebam.

I Anniam, Avant. and Ald, and Cat. ad eosdem Acheos, Avant.
3 eosdem et Achaeos, Budaeus and B. ad eosdem dein ad Achaeos, Ald.

5 parum emendata, Budaeus. parum emendatae, Avant and Ald.

nibus Saborensium.' It was the duty of the Duoviri to have such letters and edicts engraved on brass. "II viri C. Cornelius Severus et M. Septimius Severus publica pecunia in aere inciderunt.'

ad eosdem (et Achaeos). This is the reading of B. and Budaeus, and therefore seems to be the reading of the codex. I cannot help suspecting, however, that Achaeos was originally a gloss, and that the original reading was simply ‘ad eosdem,' because though emperors often addressed epistulae to towns repre. sented by their magistrates, they would never write direct to the people of a province like Achaia. In such cases the letters would certainly be 'ad proconsulem Achaiae.'

ad Avidium Nigrinum et Arm. Brocch. proconsules. These were probably proconsuls of Achaia. The name of their province could only be omitted (1) if it was Bithynia (cf. Ep. 56 and 58), which is impossible ; or (2) if it was the same province to which the recipients of the other letters, i.e. the Lacedaemonii, belonged. Avidius Nigrinus seems to have been sent by Trajan on a special mission to Achaia with the title of 'legatus Augusti pro. pr.,'to reform the general condition of the province. See Wilm. 874; C. I. L. iii 567, and Mommsen's notes ad loc. Whether Trajan chose him because he had already been proconsul of

the province, as Pliny was chosen for Bithynia, because he had some special knowledge of it, is quite uncertain.

item ad Lacedaemonios. The question seems to have had either special importance or special difficulties in Sparta ; perhaps the traditions of this ancient discipline made the exposure of small or ailing children more common than elsewhere.

parum emendata, somewhat incorrect, i.e. carelessly copied.

quaedam non certae fidei, of doubtful authenticity, i.e. there was suspicion that the copies were intentionally incorrect. in scriniis tuis.

Scrinia are properly cases for papers or books. *Cf. Plin. Ep. v 5, habere ante se scrinium solebat. So Suetonius, Gram. 9, says that there was a statue of Orbilius at Beneventum 'appositis duobus scriniis.' Mart. i 3, 'scrinia da magnis, me manus una capit.' Sall. Cat. 46, 'Flaccum praetorem scrinium cum litteris quas a legatis acceperat, eodem adferre iubet.' Under the empire, the scrinia, or later, the 'sacra scrinia,' Cod. Iust. xii 9, were the official bureaux where the s public archives were kept. After Diocletian there were four of these : scr. memoriae ; scr. epistularum; scr. libellorum; and scr. dispositionis, each with their own magister, and all under the 'magister of. ficiorum.




Quaestio ista quae pertinet ad eos qui liberi nati expositi, deinde sublati a quibusdam et in servitute educati sunt saepe

§ 1. The question relating to free-born then brought up in slavery by their persons who have been exposed, and rescuers has been often raised, but no

tractata est, nec quicquam invenitur in commentariis eorum principum qui ante me fuerunt, quod ad omnes provincias sit constitutum. Epistulae sane sunt Domitiani ad Avidium Nigri- 2 num et Armenium Brocchum, quae fortasse debeant observari :

4 debebant, Ald.

Were an

decision of my predecessors is found libertate in servitium trahi significat,' which was intended to apply to all pro- Prisc. p. 1208 P., and Livy. iii 44, 'ut vinces. § 2. Possibly the letters of Domi- virginem in servitutem adsereret,'cf. Suet. tian to Nigrinus and Brocchus ought to be Dom. 8, id. Aug. 74, id. Vitell. 10, 'qui observed, but among the provinces men- non contenti epulo ubique publice praetioned in these rescripts Bithynia is not bito, quoscunque libuisset, in libertatem included. I am therefore of opinion that adserebant.' those who wish to be emancipated on The adsertor was usually, though not this account should not be prevented necessarily, a relation. Cf. Suet. Vesp. from making a public declaration of their 3, and an interesting case in De illustribus freedom, and that it is not necessary for grammaticis, c. 21, ‘C. Melissus Spoleti them to purchase their freedom by the natus, ingenuus, sed ob discordiam repayment of their maintenance.

parentum expositus, cura et industria § 1. in commentariis. See note on educatoris sui altiora studia percepit : ac Ep. 105.

Maecenati pro grammatico datus est quod ad omnes provincias sit muneri. Cui quum se gratum et acceptum constitutum. Wherever the local custom in modum amici videret, quamquam was clear and well defined, it would be adserente matre, permansit tamen in statu recognised and sanctioned by imperial servitutis.' constitution, but in Bithynia, where in libertatem vindicabuntur. In neither local custom nor imperial rescript the 'causae liberales' there could be cited, Trajan could make his 'adsertor libertatis' and an 'adsertor decision unhampered.

servitutis’; Gaius, iv 16, gives the legal § 2. Epistulae sane sunt Domit. etc. formulae used, “hunc ego hominem ex iure Trajan mentions those particularly because, Quiritium meum esse aio secundum suam though they were not written in reference causam sicut dixi. Ecce tibi vindictam to all provinces, yet they, unlike the other imposui.' The other side repeated the letters to a particular town, did apply to same words, and the praetor gave the the whole of some one province, ap- order' Mittite ambo hominem.' Pending parently indeed to more than one.

the decision of the case the 'vindiciae sed intra eas provincias de quibus were according to the XII Tables given rescripsit. I have adopted Keil's con- secundum libertatem,' i.e. the claimant jecture, which involves" least departure provisionally retained his freedom. Cf. from the reading of Avantius who read the case of Virginia, Livy, iii 44, sq.; 'inter quas est Bithynia'; which Aldus Dig. 1, 2, 24 ; Cic. de Rep. iii 32. The altered into non est Bithynia,' omitting phrase' in libertatem vindicare' is also ‘inter quas.' Mommsen suggests ‘prae- used popularly apart from its legal sense, terita est Bithynia. Domitian, while cf. Cic. ad Fam. ii 5, 2, ‘rempublicam writing to these two proconsuls of Achaia, in libertatem vindicare.' Caes. Bell Gall. seems to have mentioned certain other vii 1, ‘Galliam in lib. vind.' provinces to which his ruling applied. neque ipsam libertatem redi

assertionem denegandam. mendam pretio alimentorum. This This is the answer to the question de answers the question de alimentis.' conditione.' A disputed case of freedom Trajan's decision is equitable in itself, but was called a 'causa liberalis. See Cod. to a certain extent would serve to disIust. vii 17. A person who claimed his courage the habit of rescuing exposed freedom could make his adsertio only children. Possibly, as De la Berge through a representative (adsertor) Mart. suggests, Trajan may have had a scheme i 53, who as in the process of vindicatio for charging the several towns with the had to touch the claimant with his hand maintenance of such children, or possibly (manu adserere). The term 'adsertio,' he proposed to institute in the provinces however, had two applications : «adsertio 'alimentationes 'similar to those in Italy. tam a servitate in libertatem quam a However, Trajan's decision was reversed


sed intra eas provincias de quibus rescripsit, inter quas non est Bithynia ; et ideo nec adsertionem denegandam iis qui ex eiusmodi causa in libertatem vindicabuntur puto neque ipsam libertatem redimendam pretio alimentorum.

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Legato Sauromatae regis, cum sua sponte Nicaeae, ubi me invenerat, biduo substitisset, longiorem moram faciendam, domine, non putavi; primum, quod incertum adhuc erat quando libertus tuus Lycormas venturus esset, deinde, quod ipse pro

ficiscebar in diversam provinciae partem, ita officii necessitate 2 exigente. Haec in notitiam tuam perferenda existimavi, quia

proxime scripseram petisse Lycormam ut legationem, si qua venisset a Bosporo, usque in adventum suum retinerem. Quod diutius faciendi nulla mihi probabilis ratio occurrit, praesertim cum epistulae Lycormae, quas detinere, ut ante praedixi, nolui, aliquot diebus hunc legatum antecessurae viderentur.

11 huic, Avant.

§ 1. I thought it best that the legate of King Sauromates should not make a longer stay than two days at Nicaea where he found me, partly because it was quite uncertain when Lycormas would arrive, and partly because I was compelled by the duties of my office to visit a different part of the province. § 2. I mention this, because, as I told you, Lycormas asked me to keep any embassy from Bosporus until his arrival. There seems no good reason for doing this any longer, especially as the despatches of

Lycormas will probably reach you as it is, some days before this legate.

§ 1. legato Saur. reg. On these legati see note on Ep. 43. This was doubtless the legatio expected by Trajan, Ep. 63.

ipse proficiscebar in diversam provinciae partem. Cf. Ep. 33, 'cum diversam partem provinciae circumirem.'

§ 2. petisse Lycormas, etc. ; see Ep. 63.

nulla probabilis ratio, no sufficient


De reliquiis sepultorum transferendis

C. PLINIUS TRAIANO IMPERATORI Petentibus quibusdam ut sibi reliquias suorum aut propter iniuriam vetustatis aut propter fluminis incursum aliaque his similia quaecumque secundum exemplum proconsulum transferre permitterem, quia sciebam in urbe nostra ex eiusmodi causa collegium pontificum adiri solere, te, domine, maximum pontificem consulendum putavi quid observare me velis.

6 conservare, Avant. Several individuals have begged per- existimatione rectoris provinciae transmission to remove the remains of their ferre eas in alium locum poteris. deceased relations from their present collegium pontificum adiri solere. resting-places, which have suffered either Cf. Cic. de leg. ii 23, sic decretum a from lapse of time or the inundations of pontificum collegio non esse ius in loco the river or other causes of a similar kind, publico fieri sepulchrum,' and 'sed citing as precedents the action of previous quum multa in eo loco sepulchra fuissent, proconsuls. However, as I knew that at exarata sunt. Statuit enim collegium Rome the pontifices had to be consulted locum publicum non potuisse privata in such cases, I have thought it right to religione obligari’; Livy i 20, 'nec ask you as pontifex maximus what course caelestes modo

caerimonias sed iusta quoI should follow.

que funebria placandosque manes ut idem

pontifex edoceret.” Orell. 794, ‘reliquiae reliquias. Cf. Suet. Oth. 10,

traiectae eius III Nonas Febr. ex permissu mendans reliquias suas et memoriam,' id.

collegii pontif.'; Orell. 4515; Dig. 7, 8, Aug. 100.

ossa quae ab alio illata sunt vel corpus fiuminis incursum. Cf. Cod. Iust., 'si an liceat domino loci effodere et emere vi fluminis reliquiae filii tui continguntur, sine decreto pontificum vel iussu principis vel alia iusta et necessaria causa intervenit, quaestionis est.

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TRAIANUS PLINIO S. Durum est iniungere necessitatem provincialibus pontificum adeundorum, si reliquias suorum propter aliquas iustas causas transferre ex loco in alium locum velint. Sequenda ergo potius tibi exempla sunt eorum qui isti provinciae praefuerunt et ex causa cuique ita aut permittendum aut negandum. 4 profuerunt, Avant.

ut causa, Keil. ex causa, Cat. It is a hardship to compel the pro- causas. Cf. the wording of the letter of vincials to consult the pontifices if they Antonius quoted above from the Cod. Iust. have any good reason for wishing to sequenda potius exempla eorum transfer the remains of their relations. qui, etc. Cf. Ep. 113, ‘id ergo quod We had therefore better follow the pre- semper tutissimum est, sequendam cuiuscedents of the proconsuls of the province, que civitatis legem puto.' and grant or refuse permission according ex causa, according to the circumto the merits of each case. si ... propter aliquas iustas




De loco balinei Prusensibus concedendo



Quaerenti mihi, domine, Prusae ubi posset balineum quod indulsisti fieri, placuit locus in quo fuit aliquando domus, ut audio, pulchra, nunc deformis ruinis. Per hoc enim consequernur ut foedissima facies civitatis ornetur atque etiam ut ipsa civitas

amplietur nec ulla aedificia tollantur, sed, quae sunt vetustate 2 sublapsa, relaxentur in melius. Est autem huius domus conditio

talis : legaverat eam Claudius Polyaenus Claudio Caesari iussitque in peristylio templum ei fieri, reliqua ex domo locari. Ex ea reditum aliquandiu civitas percepit : deinde paulatim partim spoliata partim neglecta cum peristylio domus tota 6 reparentur, Ald.

8 iusseratque, Cat. 9 ex ea redditum, Avant.

$1. On inquiring where the bath at Prusa which you have sanctioned could be built, the best site appeared to be that of a house which though once a magnificent one is now in ruins. We shall thus secure the adornment of what is at present a blot upon the city, and also enlarge the state without pulling down anything ; indeed, a ruinous building will be opened out and improved. $2. However, there is this point about the house—it was left to Claudius Caesar by the will of one Polyaenus, who ordered a temple to be built to the emperor in the peristylium, and the rest of the house to be let. For some time the rent was received by the state, but gradually both house and peristylium have fallen into ruin, and little but the site remains. The city would esteem it a great favour, sire, if you would either present or sell this on account of its convenient position. $ 3. With your permission I intend to place the bath in the vacant ground, and to fill the space on which the buildings stood with exedrae and porticoes, and to consecrate it to you as the patron of the institution. I send you a copy, though a faulty one, of the will. You will see that Polyaenus left considerable sums for the adornment of the house, which, though they have perished with the house, I will if possible look after.

§ 1. balineum quod indulsisti. Cf.

Ep. 24, possumus desiderio eorum indulgere.' The bath was to be paid for partly by the money called in from private debtors, partly from the grants formerly made for oil, see Ep. 23.

amplietur, may be ennobled. Cf. Mart. viii 66, 'quorum pacificus ter ampliavit Ianus nomina.

relaxentur, may be opened out. The bath would be a more extensive building than the house had been.

$ 2. Claudius Polyaenus, probably a freedman of Claudius.

in peristylio. The peristylium was a square or oblong space, behind the atrium, which was sometimes laid out as a garden, often was adorned with fountains, Suet. Aug. 82, and almost always surrounded with a colonnade.

templum, a shrine ; perhaps little more than an aedicula such as that in which the Lares were usually placed. Cf. Petr. Sat. 29, ‘in aedicula erant Lares argentei positi.' The Lararium usually placed in a corner of the peristylium, as e.g. it is in the house of the Tragic Poet at Pompeii. The worship of the reigning emperor was closely united with that of the public and household Lares. Cf. Ovid. Fast. v 145, ‘Mille Lares, geniumque Ducis qui tradidit illos,' and Dio Cass. 51, 69, και εν τοις συσσιτίοις ουχ ότι τους κοινούς αλλά και τους ίδιοίς πάντας αυτό σπένδειν εκέλευσεν.



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