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ditu suos alere posset. Quod ei praestari volo: summam expensam liberalitati meae feres,

EIUSDEM AD L. APPIUM MAXIMUM

6

Archippum philosophum, bonum virum et professioni suae etiam moribus respondentem, commendatum habeas velim, mi Maxime, et plenam ei humanitatem tuam praestes in iis quae verecunde a te desideraverit.

3 professione, Ald. 4 maioribus, Avant and Ald.

moribus, Ritterhusius.

6

summam expensam feres, more i 6, 21, ‘professio bene dicendi'; Suet. usually referes.

The money would Gram. 8, in professione grammaticae.' come from the fiscus. Why Domitian moribus is the emendation of Ritter. should have been so generous to Archip- husius for the 'maioribus' of the prim. pus does not appear; but Vespasian ed. Döring adopts the 'sua professione? established salaried professorships, Suet. of the Ald. ed., and reading "maioribus,' Vesp. 18, 'primus e fisco Latinis Grae- produces the wonderful translation, 'fit cisque rhetoribus annua centena constit- for more important duties than those of uit.' He also assisted poets and artists his profession.' It is needless to say that ' praestantes poetas necnon et artifices respondentem' could not possibly bear

insigni congiario magnaque mercede this meaning; and besides, the next donavit. See also Tac. de orator. 9, clause of the letter shows that Domitian 'Laudavimus nuper, ut miram et exim- is only recommending Archippus to the iam Vespasiani liberalitatem quod quin- humanitas' of Maximus in any reasongenta sestertia Basso donasset. "Pulchrum

able requests. id quidem indulgentiam principis ingenio mereri !' Possibly Domitian, although

EDICTUM DIVI NERVAE • liberalia studia in initio imperii neglexit' $ 7. There are some things, Quirites, in (Suet. Dom. 20), may have followed this which the happiness of the times might example.

well dispense with an edict; nor need a By summam expensam liberalitati good emperor always give ocular proof of meae feres,' Domitian means that it is to those intentions, which may be sufficiently be put down in the accounts under the understood without. My fellow-citizens head of Private Gifts.' Cf. an amusing may, without further assurance, feel constory in Suet. Vesp. 22, Expugnatus a vinced that in giving up my own tran: quadam quasi amore sui deperiret, quum quillity for the security of the public, I sestertia quadraginta . donasset, ad- did so expressly to confer new favours monente dispensatore, quemadmodum and to maintain those already granted. summam rationibus vellet inferri “Ves- $ 8. However, to prevent any drawback on pasiano” inquit “adamato.”

the public rejoicings being caused either

by the diffidence of the recipients or the EIUSDEM AD L. APPIUM MAXIMUM

memory of the donor, I have thought it § 6. L. Appium Maximum, called necessary to remove all doubt. $ 9. Let Norbanus Appius in Victor. Epit. II, no one think that favours conferred by a was 'legatus Pannoniae' in 88 A.D., and former emperor will be revoked by me, in put down the revolt of Saturninus, legate order that I may get the credit of restorof Upper Germany, Dio Cass. 67, II.

ing them.

They shall remain in full Cf. Mart. ix 84, Cum tua sacrilegos validity, and let no one, to whom the late contra, Norbane, furores Staret pro reign has been propitious, think it necesdomino Caesare sancta fides.' He was sary to resort to fresh petitions. Let consul twice, Orell. 772, and apparently them allow me to devote my time to new proconsul of Bithynia under Domitian. favours; and let them ask only for what See Mommsen's index.

they do not possess. professioni suae, Cf. Cic. de orat.

EDICTUM DIVI NERVAE

Quaedam sine dubio, Quirites, ipsa felicitas temporum 7 edicit, nec spectandus est in iis bonus princeps quibus illum intellegi satis est, cum hoc sibi civium meorum spondere possit vel non admonita persuasio, me securitatem omnium quieti meae praetulisse, ut et nova beneficia conferrem et ante me concessa servarem. Ne tamen aliquam gaudiis publicis adferat 8 haesitationem vel eorum qui inpetraverunt diffidentia vel eius memoria qui praestitit, necessarium pariter credidi ac laetum obviam dubitantibus indulgentiam meam mittere. Nolo existi- 9 met quisquam, quod alio principe vel privatim vel publice con2 quibus illum intellegi satis est, Ber.

omn. quieti m. praet. vel libenter intellegis, Avant.

nova beneficia conferre et ante qui pusillum intellegi satis est,

servare dum ne Ald.

tamen, Ald. 3 cum hoc sibi quisque civium meo- 5 tu tot, Avant. rum spond. posse, me

ut et, B.

me

concessa

secur.

§ 7. edictum. The imperial edicts are general proclamations affecting a number of individuals. The right of issuing them descended to the princeps from the magisterial edict of republican times. They did not necessarily contain a definite command, often a mere communication, or exhortation, or advice. Cf. an edictum divi Augusti in Dig. 48, 18, 8, Quaestiones neque semper in omni causa et persona desiderari debere arbitror, et cum capitalia et atrociosa maleficia non aliter explorari et investigari possunt quam per servorum quaestiones, efficacissimas eas esse ad requirendam veritatem existimo et habendas censeo.' Personal rights granted to certain categories of people were usually granted by edict; cf. C. I. L. v 5050, and the conferment of the ius Latii on the Spaniards. The edicts could always be revoked by the issuers, and became ipso facto invalid on the death of the emperor. It came to be the rule after Titus for a new emperor to confirm the beneficia of his predecessor by edict. Cf. Suet. Tit. 8, natura autem benevolentissimus, quum ex instituto Tiberii omnes dehinc Caesares beneficia, a superioribus concessa principibus, aliter rata non haberent, quam si eadem iidem et ipsi dedissent, primus praeterita omnia uno confirmavit edicto, nec a se peti passus est.' Cf. Dio Cass. 67, 2; and see Momms. Staatsrecht, ii. 1072.

ipsa felicitas temporum. Cf. Tac. Hist, i 1, 'quod si vita suppeditet, prin. cipatum divi Nervae et imperium Traiani uberiorem securioremque materiam senectuti seposui, rara temporum felicitate ubi sentire quae velis et quae sentias dicere licet'; and Agric. 3, et quanquam primo statim beatissimi saeculi ortu Caesar res olim dissociabiles miscuerit, libertatem ac principatum,' etc.

edicit, issues an unwritten edict.

spectandus est, 'to be scanned with the eyes,' in sharp contrast with “intellegi.' Nerva means that a definite edict should be rendered unnecessary by the general knowledge of his character and motives.

vel non admonita, even without the reminder of an edict.

§ 8. eius memoria qui praestitit. Cf. Suet. Donit. 23, Contra senatus adeo laetatus est ut repleta certatim curia non temperaret quin mortuum contumeliosissimo atque acerbissimo acclamationum genere laceraret; scalas etiam inferri, clipeosque et imagines eius coram detrahi et ibidem solo affligi iuberet : novissime eradendos ubique titulos, abolendamque omnem memoriam decerneret.' On the damnatio memoriae' see Momms. Staatsrecht, ii 1078.

obviam dubit. indulg. meam mittere, 'to meet their hesitation by a proof of my special favour.'

§ 9. ideo saltem. This qualification

secutus sit, ideo saltem a me rescindi, ut potius mihi debeat. Sint rata et certa, nec gratulatio ullius instauratis egeat precibus quem fortuna imperii vultu meliore respexit. Me novis beneficiis vacare patiantur et ea demum sciant roganda esse quae non habent.

EPISTULA EIUSDEM AD TULLIUM IUSTUM Cum rerum omnium ordinatio quae prioribus temporibus inchoatae consummatae sunt observanda sit, tum epistulis etiam Domitiani standum est. 2 sint rata et certa, Ber.

3 precibus nec qui non habent, me si ingrata et certa, Avant.

quem fortuna imperii vultu mesint si rata, etc., B.

liore respexit novis, Ald. si enim grata, etc., Ald.

IO

enables Nerva to rescind whatever there seems good reason for rescinding.

ut potius mihi debeat, that I may have all indebted to me alone.

gratulatio, joy.

fortuna imperii, means little more than 'fortuna'; but from an emperor's point of view the chief function of fortuna was to protect the empire.

vultu meliore respexit. Cf. Juv. vii 2, 'Solus enim tristes hac tempestate Camenas Respexit.'

demum, only; on this sense of the word, cf. note on Ep. 22.

The style of this edict is pompous, grandiloquent, and obscure—a striking contrast to the business - like edict of Augustus quoted above. It hardly gives us a favourable idea of Nerva's qualifications for his position. EPISTULA EIUSDEM AD TULLIUM

IUSTUM. § 10. epistulis Domitiani standum est. Cf. Cic. pro Cluent. 47 132, 'si usque L. Gellii iudicio stetit Lentulus;' Liv. xxi 19, etsi priore foedere staretur.'

LVIIII [LXVII]

De eodem Archippo

C. PLINIUS TRAIANO IMPERATORI Flavius Archippus per salutem tuam aeternitatemque petit a me ut libellum quem mihi dedit mitterem tibi. Quod ego sic roganti praestandum putavi, ita tamen ut missurum me notum accusatrici eius facerem, à qua et ipsa acceptum libellum his epistulis iunxi, quo facilius velut audita utraque parte dispiceres quid statuendum putares.

Flavius Archippus adjures me by your per salutem aeternitatemque. Cf. safety and immortal name to forward a on Ep. 41. petition which he has placed in my hands. sic roganti, asking in this solemn I thought that I might grant his request manner. on condition that I informed his accuser accusatrici eius. Furia Prima, see of my intention. I add a memorial below. which I received from her, that, after dispiceres. Cf. 'dispice ergo, domine,' hearing both sides, you may decide what Ep. 54, etc. is to be done.

LX [LXVIII]

TRAIANUS PLINIO S. Potuit quidem ignorasse Domitianus in quo statu esset Archippus, cum tam multa ad honorem eius pertinentia scriberet: sed meae naturae accommodatius est credere etiam statui eius subventum interventu principis, praesertim cum etiam statuarum ei honor totiens decretus sit ab iis qui non ignorabant quid de illo Paullus proconsul pronuntiasset. Quae tamen, mi Secunde carissime, non eo pertinent ut, si quid illi novi criminis obicitur, minus de eo audiendum putes. Libellos Furiae Primae accusatricis, item ipsius Archippi, quos alteri epistulae tuae iunxeras, legi.

5 non, add. Ernesti, om. Avant. and Ald.

It is possible that Domitian may have been ignorant of the status of Archippus when he wrote letters so complimentary. It is, however, more consonant with my character to believe that the latter was restored to his former position by the emperor's intervention. This seems the more probable because he so often received the honour of statues decreed to him by those who were not in ignorance of the sentence of Paullus. Notwithstanding this, however, my Pliny, if any new charge is made against him, you must attend to it. I have read the memorials of Furia Prima and Archippus himself, which you sent with your second letter.

in quo statu esset ; Gaius, Dig: 4, 5, 1, "capitis minutio est status permutatio.' If Domitian had written the letters in ignorance of the position of Archippus, they would of course be valueless as evidence of restoration.

interventu principis. There was no

appeal to the emperor from the judicial decisions of the provincial governors, Mommsen, Staatsrecht, ii p. 931, but the emperor could always modify or annul a sentence so pronounced if he chose.

statuarum ... honor... decretus. See on Ep. 58, 3.

qui non ignorabant. In spite of the consensus of the older editions, it seems necessary to adopt Ernesti's emendation and to insert non.' The decrees al. luded to are evidently those of the Prusiensians, who could not have been ignorant of the sentence pronounced against their fellow-citizen by the proconsul. pronuntiasset. Cf. Cic. de Off

. iii 16, 66, “is igitur iudex ita pronuntiavit,' Cic. de Fin. i 7, 24, 'ut utraque parte audita pronuntiaret.'

quae, which considerations.

non eo pertinent ut minus almost = non prohibent quo minus.

re ex

LXI (LXVIIII]

De lacu Nicomedensium

C. PLINIUS TRAIANO IMPERATORI Tu quidem, domine, providentissime vereris ne commissus i flumini atque ita mari lacus effluat: sed ego in re praesenti

2 praestanti, Avant. § 1. You express some anxiety, sire, connected with the river and so with the lest the lake should be exhausted by being sea, but I believe I have found a means

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2

invenisse videor quemadmodum huic periculo occurrerem. Potest enim lacus fossa usque ad flumen adduci nec tamen in flumen emitti, sed relicto quasi margine contineri pariter et dirimi. Sic consequemur ut nec vicino videatur Alumini mixtus et sit perinde ac si misceatur. Erit enim facile per

illam brevissimam terram quae interiacebit advecta fossa onera 3 transponere in flumen. Quod ita fiet, si necessitas coget, et,

spero, non coget. Est enim et lacus ipse satis altus et nunc in contrariam partem flumen emittit, quod interclusum inde et quo volumus aversum sine ullo detrimento lacus tantum aquae quantum nunc portat effundet. Praeterea per id spatium per I cuniculo, Avant.

vacuo, Avant. and Ald. 4 sic, Cat. ; si, Avant. Ald.

vacuari, Keil. vicino, Cat.

10 ullius, Avant, and Ald. II effundit, Avant.

of obviating this risk. § 2. For the lake may be brought close to the river, without actually joining it, in which case it would be easy to transport goods across from one to the other. 3. But I hope there will be no necessity for this, for the lake is sufficiently deep, and as it is, has a river flowing out of it on its other side. This we can dam up and divert in any direction we please, so that the lake will still send out precisely as much water as it does now. Besides, there are a number of streams along the course of the proposed canal, and if the water from these is collected, it will quite make up for what the lake loses. $ 4. Or if it should seem advisable to make the canal longer and narrower and to connect it immediately with the sea, the flow of the tide will check the drain of water from the lake. But even if there were no such natural checks, it would be easy to replace them by dams and weirs. S 5. However, your librator will be better able to decide these points. Pray do not forget your promise to send one. The work is quite worthy your attention. Meanwhile I have written to Calpurnius Macer for a librator from Moesia.

§ 1. vereris ne commissus flumini, etc. Cf. Ep.42. Theriver alluded to seems to be a small stream rising in the hills to the north of Nicaea, and flowing up in a north-west direction to the Gulf of Nicomedeia.

in re praesenti, 'being on the spot.' Cf. Ep. iii 9, 26, 'non potui magis te in rem praesentem perducere.' Sen. Ep. 6, 5, 'in rem praesentem venias oportet,

quia homines amplius oculis quam auribus credunt’; Liv. xl 9, 'eodem anno inter populum Carthaginiensem et regem Massinissam in re praesenti disceptatores Romani de agro fuerunt.' See Prof. Mayor's note on iii 9, 26.

occurrerem. Occurrerem is to occurram here as the optative to the subjunctive in Greek. There is a greater remoteness and contingency; Pliny does not expect that it will be necessary to take this course.

§ 2. nec tamen in flumen emitti, without its water passing into the river.

quasi margine, a sort of dyke.

contineri, with reference to its own water.

dirimi, with reference to the river.

sic consequemur, so we shall gain these two ends.

et sit perinde ac si misceatur, and shall be virtually united to it; or shall have all the effects of being united to it.

illam brevissimam terram the ' quasi marginem ' above.

$ 3. satis altus, tolerably deep. The question sit ne lacus altior mari, Ep. 41, would not be finally decided till the 'librator' arrived.

in contrariam partem flumen emittit. This is a small stream which flows eastward from the lake into the river Sangarius.

interclusum inde, dammed up on that side, i.e. 'in contrariam partem.

quo volumus aversum, diverted to whatever outlet we like. Pliny speaks as if by blocking up the river and opening a canal on the other side of the lake he

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