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Est 4

causa necessarium credidi rem integram ad te referre. sicut mandatis tuis cautum est ne restituam ab alio aut a me relegatos, ita de iis quos alius et relegaverit et restituerit nihil conprehensum est. Ideo tu, domine, consulendus fuisti quid observare me velles, tam Hercule de his quam de illis qui in perpetuum relegati nec restituti in provincia deprehenduntur. Nam haec quoque species incidit in cognitionem meam. enim adductus ad me in perpetuum relegatus a Iulio Basso proconsule. Ego, quia sciebam acta Bassi rescissa datumque a senatu ius omnibus de quibus ille aliquid constituisset ex integro agendi, dumtaxat per biennium, interrogavi hunc quem relegaverat an adisset docuissetque proconsulem : negavit. Per 5 3 equos, Avant. ; quos, B and Ald. 9 dictumque, Avant. 5 tam Hercule de his quam de illis, Ald. 12 negavit, om. B. and Ald. add. Cat.

tam Hercule quam de his, Avant.

relegatio were adulterium, stuprum, cal- gravioribus non absolutionem modo verum umnia, repetundae, vis, and falsum.' See etiam laudem merebatur,' of receiving also Dig. 48, 19, 28.

presents from the provincials. These he restitutos. Cf. Cic. pro. Mil., 'quae asserted he had received merely ‘ut fuisset iusta causa restituendi mei, nisi amicus,' and only ‘natali suo aut Saturnfuisset iniusta eiciendi.' Suet. Claud. alibus'; but this confession prejudiced 12, 'neminem exulum, nisi ex senatus his case, 'quod lex munera quoque auctoritate, restituit.'

accipi vetat. The accusation was ap§ 3. ab alio, i.e. by one of the pro- parently brought by the concilium consuls.

provinciae,' which sent over to Rome quid observare me velles. Cf. Ep. Theophanes and other legati. Theo46, 'quid me putes observare debere.' phanes is described as “fax accusationis

tam Hercule de his quam de et origo’; he was a factious man to illis. I have followed the reading of the whom Bassus had given some personal Aldine edition ; which, I have very little offence. Pomponius Rufus and Herendoubt, is here correct. The omission of nius Pollio and Varenus Rufus were the 'de his' would be extremely harsh. Cf. accusers appointed by the senate; LucEp. vi 19, 6, 'Proinde si poenitet te ceius Albinus defended. At the end, Italicorum praediorum, hoc vendendi iv 9, 16, 'Censuit Baebius Macer, consul tempus tam Hercule quam in provinciis designatus, lege repetundarum Bassum comparandi.'

teneri ; Caepio Hispo, salva dignitate, § 4. haec quoque species, a case of iudices dandos' (see introd. p. 46), 'uterthis kind.

que recte. quia scilicet et Macro a Iulio Basso proconsule. C. Iulius legem intuenti consentaneum fuit damBassus was of noble birth ; Ep. iv 9, 4, nare eum qui contra legem munera acex generis claritate' and of great in- ceperat, et Caepio, cum putaret licere dustry, 'homo laboriosus.' He served senatui, sicut licet, et mitigare leges as quaestor in Bithynia ; iv 9, I,

et intendere, non sine ratione veniam satus est sub Vespasiano a privatis duo- dedit facto, vetito quidem non tamen bus, ad senatum remissus diu pependit, inusitato.' Caepio's proposal was carried, tandem absolutus vindicatusque. Titum although some objected to it, on the timuit, ut Domitiani amicus, a Domitiano ground that conviction of repetundae,' relegatus est : revocatus a Nerva, sortitus- even before the iudices involved degradaque Bithyniam rediit reus.'

He was

tion from the senate, 'negant enim contherefore sent out to Bithynia as pro- gruens esse retinere in senatu cui iudices consul in 98 A.D. He was accused by dederis.' The result of the trial before the provincials of repetundae, and among the iudices' was, as we learn from the other points, in which 'quamvis auditu present letter, that the acts of Bassus in

accu

quod effectum est ut te consulerem reddendum eum poenae suae an gravius aliquid et quid potissimum constituendum putares et in hunc et in eos, si qui forte in simili conditione invenirentur. Decretum Calvi et edictum, item decretum Bassi his litteris subieci. Bithynia were rescinded. He, however, dumtaxat per biennium. See Ep. * in senatu remansit,' Ep. vi 29, 10, and 33, 3. was even promoted to the consulship two proconsulem, i.e. the proconsul of years later i.e., in 105 A.D., Henz. 99 or roo. 6857

§ 5. ut to consulerem reddendum. acti Bassi rescissa. See above. On the omission of utrum, cf. Ep. 32, etc.

datumque a senatu ius. This would decretum, i.e. of condemnation. be in consequence of the decision of the edictum, of restoration. iudices : action was taken by the senate his litteris subieci.

Cf. Ep. 47 because Bithynia was under senatorial

and 48. government at the time.

LVII (LXV]

TRAIANUS PLINIO S.

I

Quid in persona eorum statuendum sit, qui a P. Servilio Calvo proconsule in triennium relegati et mox eiusdem edicto

restituti in provincia remanserunt, proxime tibi rescribam, cum 2 causas eius facti a Calvo requisiero. Qui a Iulio Basso in per

§ 1. What should be done in the matter by Augustus originally to command the of those who were banished for three troops stationed in the city in the year 5 years and then recalled by P. Servilius B.C. Dio Cass. 55, 10, é rápxous Tŵv Calvus, I will inform you shortly, after δορυφόρων τό τε πρώτον Κύιντόν τε Οστώριον inquiring from Calvus the reasons for his Σκαπούλαν και Πούπλιον Σαλούιον "Απρον action. $2. The person who was banished απέδειξε.'

Till the time of Alexander for life by Iulius, and who, without using Severus they were with few exceptions of his right of appeal within the two years, equestrian rank. Suet. Tit. 6, 'praestill remained in the province, must be fecturam quoque praetori suscepit numsent bound to my Praetorian prefects. quam ad id tempus nisi ab equite Romano A mere return to his punishment will not administratam'; also Tac. Hist. iv 68. suffice for a case of contumacy.

Unlike the other military appointments § 1. in persona eorum. Persona is of the empire, this praefecture was, as a not here 'a living person' or 'character, rule, a collegiate one, perhaps for the as in Juv. 4, 15, 'cum dira et foedior omni reason suggested by Maecenas in Dio crimine persona est'; still less is it used Cass. 54, 24, τό τε γάρ ένι ανδρί αυτήν in the classical sense of a 'part sustained (i.e. την φρουράν) επιτρέπεσθαι σφαλερόν by any one.' It is rather used in the ¿OTl.' Thus, cf. Suet. Calig. 56, 'non semi-legal sense of standing' or 'posi- sine conscientia . praefectorum praetion.' Cf. Suet. Aug. 27, 'namque illis torii'; Tac. Ann. xii 42, ni praetoriin multorum saepe personam per gratiam arum cohortium cura exsolverentur Lusius et preces exorabilibus, solus magnopere Geta et Rufius Crispinus'; Tac. Ann. contendit, ne cui parceretur'; and Suet. xiv 51, “quippe Caesar duos praetoriis coCaes. 43, ‘Lecticarum usum ...

nisi hortibus imposuerat’; Tac. Hist. i 46, certis personis et aetatibus perque certos * praetoriis praefectos sibi ipse legere.' dies ademit.'

Hist. 92; iii 5; Henz. 6771. Occa§ 2. agendi, i.e. ex integro. See Ep. sionally, however, there was a single 56.

praefectus praetorio,' as Seius Strabo. mitti ad praefectos praetorii mei. Ann. i 7, whose son, Aelius Seianus, The praefectii praetorii were appointed was first the colleague of his father, then

petuum relegatus est, cum per biennium agendi facultatem habuerit, si existimabat se iniuria relegatum, neque id fecerit atque in provincia morari perseverarit, vinctus mitti ad praefectos praetorii mei debet. Neque enim sufficit eum poenae suae restitui, quam contumacia elusit. 2 existimat, Avant, and Ald.

5 quem, Avant and Ald.

mens.

sole praefect; Tac. Ann, i 24; Macro, Dio Cass. 58, 9, also under Claudius ; Tac. Ann. xii 42, 'distrahi cohortes ambitu duorum, et si ab uno regerentur intentiorem fore disciplinam’; Tac. Hist. i 14, Ducenius Geminus; Suet. Galb. 14; Cornelius Laco; Tac. Hist. iv 68, Arrecinus Cle

The collegiate tenure of the office was probably what kept it within due bounds, since after this restraining influence was removed the praefectus praetorio became a sort of grand vizier. During the first two centuries the office was chiefly a military one, nor did the judicial importance of the praefect begin until the reign of Hadrian. On the present occasion the person in question was sent to the praefects, not to be tried by them, but only to be kept in safe custody, till the emperor should himself take

the matter into consideration. So the
Apostle Paul was kept in Rome by the
praetorian guard. Ep. ad Philip. i 13,
* ώστε τους δεσμούς μου φανερούς εν Χριστώ
γενέσθαι εν όλω το πραιτωρίω.' So in a
rescript of Alexander, Cod. Tust. 4, 65,
4, 'Et Divi Pii et Antonini litteris certa
forma est ut domini horreorum effracto-
rum eiusmodi querellas deferentibus cus-
todes exhibere necesse habeant nec ultra
periculo subiecti sint. Quod vos quoque
adito praeside provinciae impetrabitis.
Qui si maiorem animadversionem exigere
rem deprehenderit, ad Domitium Ulpi.
anum praefectum praetorio, reos remit-
tere curabit.'
contumacia.

Cf. Dig. 42, I, 53, 'contumacia eorum qui ius dicenti non temperant, litis damno coercetur.'

LVIII (LXVI)
De Archippo philosopho

C. PLINIUS TRAIANO IMPERATORI

Cum citarem iudices, domine, conventum inchoaturus I Flavius Archippus vacationem petere coepit ut philosophus.

2 vocationem, Avant. vacationem, B. and Ald.

§ 1. When I was summoning the jury- and by a decree of the people of Prusa. men, sire, in order to begin the assizes, He adduced besides a letter written to Flavius Archippus sought exemption on him by you, and a decree and a letter of the ground that he was a teacher of philo- your illustrious father, confirming the sophy. § 2. It was, however, asserted by favours of Domitian. § 4. Accord some that he ought not so much to be ingły, notwithstanding the nature of the exempted as altogether removed from accusation against him, I have taken no the album iudicum,' and sent back to step until I could consult you. I append the punishment from which he had the documents relied on by the two escaped. $ 3. A decree of Velius Paullus, parties. the proconsul, was cited, by which § 1. citarem iudices. Cf. Cic. Verr. Archippus was condemned to the mines. ii 1, 7, 19, iudices citati in hunc reum Nor did he produce any proof of restora- consedistis.' tion. He asserted, however, that this conventum inchoaturus. The word was implied by a petition which he had conventus is used not only of the place presented to Domitian, together with the where the assizes were held, as in complimentary reply of that emperor, Plin. h, n., passim ; and Juv. viii 128,

M

2. Fuerunt qui dicerent non liberandum eum iudicandi necessitate,

sed omnino tollendum de iudicum numero reddendumque poe3 nae, quam fractis vinculis evasisset. Recitata est sententia

Veli Paulli proconsulis, qua probabatur Archippus crimine falsi damnatus in metallum: ille nihil proferebat quo restitutum se doceret. Adlegabat tamen pro restitutione et libellum

I non modo liberandum, Ald.

Nec per conventus et cuncta per oppida, Suet. Caes. 7; but also of the assizes themselves. Cf. Gaius, 1, 20, 'ultimo die conventus'; Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 11, 28, ex iis oppidis in quibus consistere praetores et conventum agere solent'; Cic. ad Att. v 21.

Flavius Archippus. Cf. Ep. 81 and 82, where he makes a charge against the rhetorician Cocceianus Dio.

vacationem petere ut philosophus. Dig. 50, 4, 18, 30, ‘magistris qui civilium munerum vacationem habent, item grammaticis et oratoribus et medicis et philosophis, ne hospitem reciperent a principibus fuisse immunitatem indultam et divus Vespasianus et divus Hadrianus rescripserunt. But cf. 50, 5, 8, ‘Philosophis qui se frequentes atque utiles per eandem studiorum sectam contendentibus praebent, tutelas, item munera sordida corporalia remitti placuit, non ea quae sumptibus expediuntur.

§ 2. iudicandi necessitate. Cf. Dig. 50, 5, 13, 'qui autem non habet excusationem, etiam invitus iudicare cogitur.'

omnino tollendum de iudicum numero. If, however, he had been restored, his civic position would have been as before. Cf. Dig. 50, 3, 3, “Si in metallum datus in integrum restitutus sit perinde ac si nec damnatus fuisset ad munera vel honores vocatur.' The names of the iudices at Rome, and no doubt in the provincial 'conventus,' were enrolled in the album iudicum.' Cf. Cic. Phil. v 5; Suet. Tib. 51; Claud. 16, “Splendidum virum Graeciaeque provinciae principem, verum Latini sermonis ignarum non modo albo iudicum erasit

sed etiam in peregrinitatem redegit’; Domit. 8.

fractis vinculis. Cf. Dig. 48, 19, 8, quoted on note to Ep. 31.

§ 3. Veli Paulli proconsulis. Velius Paullus was on the staff of Trajan in the Dacian wars. Cf. Mart. ix 32, ‘Dum comes Arctois haereret Caesaris armis, Velius hanc Marti pro duce vovit avem.' Cf. also Mart. v 4 and vii 72.

crimine falsi damnatus in metallum, see on Ep. 31, 2. The damnatio in metallum was the severest punishment next to death, and involved 'capitis deminutio maxima.' It was the 'lex Cornelia de falsis' which dealt with this crime.

adlegabat. Cf. Plin. Panegyr. 70, hoc senatui adlegandum putasti,'. and

Volo ego, qui provinciam rexerit non tantum codicillos amicorum nec urbana coniuratione eblanditas preces sed decreta coloniarum, decreta civitatum adleget'; Suet. Aug. 47.

pro restitutione, as an argument for his restoration.

libellum, see on Ep. 47, 2. epistulas eius, i.e. to the proconsuls of Bithynia, Terentius Maximus and Appius Maximus.

ad honorem suum pertinentes. Cf. the letter below, 'bonum virum et professioni suae etiam moribus respondentem.'

decretum Prusensium, i.e. a decree of the decuriones. The nature of the decree may be inferred from Trajan's answer, Ep. 60, 'cum etiam statuarum ei honor totiens decretus sit.' As Mommsen points out, Rom. Gesch. v 266, the decreeing of statues and other honor. ary insignia was one of the chief employ. ments of the local senates, and one of the chief ends of local ambition. Their number made them meaningless, and the statues were often paid for by the persons honoured with them. No town, however small, or ruinous, or deserted, could refrain from its honorary decrees, and its equestrian and other statues. Apart from the question whether Archippus had been restored to his civil rights, the very fact that a man convicted of forgery should have been the recipient of these decrees speaks volumes for their value. Wilm. 961 contains a decree of this sort (somewhat imperfect) of the decuriones of Aquileia in honour of C. Minicius Italus. Cf. also Wilm. 2374a, where 'ordo universus statuas numero quinque de publico

a se Domitiano datum et epistulas eius ad honorem suum pertinentes et decretum Prusensium. Addebat his et tuas litteras scriptas sibi, addebat et patris tui edictum et epistulam, quibus confirmasset beneficia a Domitiano data. Itaque, quamvis 4 eidem talia crimina adplicarentur, nihil decernendum putavi, donec te consulerem de eo quod mihi constitutione tua dignum videbatur. Ea quae sunt utrimque recitata his litteris subieci.

3 sui, Avant.

EPISTULA DOMITIANI AD TERENTIUM MAXIMUM.

Flavius Archippus philosophus inpetravit a me ut agrum 5 ei ad c circa Prusiadem, patriam suam, emi iuberem, cuius re2 ut agrum ei adderem circ. Prus. ut agrum ei DC (ad c, B) circ. Prus. patr. patr. suam tam uberem, Avant. suam emi iuberem, B. and Ald.

Prusiam, Cat. Prusiadem, Cellarius.

.

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faciendas decrevit' in honour of Annia Aelia Restituta from Calama, in Africa. See the index in Wilm., p. 668, for other examples.

tuas litteras scriptas sibi, probably containing a formal confirmation of Nerva's edict and letter.

patris tui. Cf. Ep. 8, 'divus pater tuus,' etc.

quibus confirmasset; subj. because it is still the statement of Archippus which is being quoted.

beneficia a Domitiano data ; see below.

4. crimina adplicarentur; a curious phrase, of which there is no other example.

constitutione tua. Gaius. I, 5, 'constitutio principis est quod imperator decreto vel edicto vel epistula constituit : nec unquam dubitatum est quin id legis vicem obtineat, cum ipse imperator per legem imperium accipiat.' But, on the other hand, special or personal decisions were not regarded as precedents. Ulp. Dig. 1, 4, 1, 2, 'constitutiones personales

ad exemplum non trahuntur : nam quae princeps alicui ob merita indulsit, vel si quam poenam inrogavit vel si cui sine exemplo subvenit, personam non egreditur.' The case of Archippus seems to belong rather 'to the latter class. Momms. Staatsrecht., ii 840 and 873.

utrimque recitata. The sententia Veli Paulli' was of course included, though it has not been preserved.

EPISTULA DOMITIANI AD TERENTIUM

MAXIMUM. Terentius Maximus seems to have been a procurator managing the emperor's domain lands in Bithynia. See on Ep. 27.

§ 5. ut agrum ei ad ē. emi iuberem. This is the marginal reading of Iucundus in the Bodleian copy. Avantius has ‘ut agrum ei adderem

tam uberem,' etc. Aldus, perhaps thinking the sum 100,000 sesterces too small, conjectured DC for ad č. But Pliny, we find (Ep. vi 3, I), bought an'agellus' for his old nurse for 100,000. I therefore restore the Bodleian reading.

circa Prusiadem. This is the conjecture of Cellarius. Catanaeus reads 'Prusiam.' Prusiadem,' i.e. agrum or regionem, is no doubt right. Archippus was a native of Prusa, and wished to have a farm as near to the territory of Prusa as possible. In this case, however, 'patriam suam' is in loose apposition to ‘Prusiadem'; otherwise we must read Prusam.'

liberalitati meae. Cf. Tac. Hist. i 20, 'bis et vicies milies sestertium donationibus Nero effuderat : appellari singulos iussit, decima parte liberalitatis apud quemque eorum relicta'; Suet. Tib. 46, unam modo liberalitatem ex indul. gentia vitrici prosecutus.' So Suetonius says of Augustus in regard to Horace, una et altera liberalitate locupletavit,' vit. Hor. Suet. Claud. 29, 'revocatas liberalitates eius,' and Galb. 15.

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