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C. PLINIUS TRAIANO IMPERATORI
Diem, domine, quo servasti imperium, dum suscipis, quanta mereris laetitia celebravimus, precati deos ut te generi humano, cuius tutela et securitas saluti tua innisa est, incolumem florentemque praestarent. Praeivimus et commilitonibus 3 innisa, B. and Ald.
4 praeivimus, B. and Ald. immissa, Avant.
praebuimus, Avant. We have celebrated the day, sire, on prisco erga duces honore, qui, bene gesta which, by accepting, you preserved the republica, gaudio et impetu victoris exerempire, with all due joy, praying the citus conclamabantur : erantque plures gods to preserve you to the human race simul imperatores, nec super ceterorum in that health and prosperity on which aequalitatem : concessit Augustus id vo. its safety and protection depends. We cabulum quibusdam, et tunc Tiberius have also administered the oath of fidelity Blaeso postremum'; Plin. Panegyr. 12, to the soldiers, while the provincials « Vident enim Romanum ducem unum ex repeated it with the same zeal and illis veteribus et priscis, quibus imperaloyalty.
torium nomen addebant contecti caedibus diem quo servasti imperium. The campi et infecta victoriis maria,' and Cic. dies imperii' was the day on which the Phil. xiv 4, 11, ‘Sed hoc primum faciam, imperium or proconsular power was con- ut imperatores appellem eos, quorum virferred on the new prince either by the tute, consilio, felicitate maximis periculis senate or the army. The tribunicial servitutis atque interitus liberati sumus.' power might be conferred either before Constitutionally the imperium was equally this in the lifetime of the previous prince,
'valid from whichever source it came, as in the case of Tiberius (Momms. Staatsr. and the dies imperii dated from the first ii p. 775) and Trajan (Plin. Panegyr. § conferment whether by the senate or the 8), or it might be conferred after it. army. Caligula was proclaimed by the Thus Nero's dies imperii was October senate (Henzen, Arvalacten, p. 63, 13, 54 (Momms. Staatsr. ii p. 774): with reference to March 18, 58), quod but he did not receive the tribun. pot. hoc die a senatu imperator appellatus till December 4. So the dies imperii est.' Claudius was proclaimed by the for Vitellius is April 19, 69; Henzen, soldiers, Suet. Claud. 10; so was Nero, Arvalacten, p. 63, ob diem imperii quod Tac. Ann. 12, 69, 'illatus castris Nero .. xiiii K. Mai statutum est'; but he received imperator consalutatur ; sententiam milithe tribun. pot. on April 30. Vespasian's tum secuta patrum consilia.' The case dies imperii was July 1, 69; Suet. Vesp. of Vitellius was exceptional. He was 6, ‘Tiberius Alexander, praefectus Aegypti proclaimed by the legions of lower Gerprimus in verba Vespasiani legiones adegit many in January 69, but he reckoned his Kal. Iul. qui principatus dies in posterum dies imperii to be that on which the observatus est,' and Tac. Hist. ii 79; but senate recognised him, Henzen, Arval. he received the tribunicial power only acten, and Tac. Hist. ii 55, where the after the death of Vitellius on December Ceriales ludi, April 12-19, confirm the 20 ; Suet. Vesp. 12, 'Ac ne tribuniciam date. Vespasian was proclaimed by the quidem potestatem et patris patriae ap- army on July 1 (see above), but was not pellationem nisi sero recepit.' This con- recognised by the senate till December. ferment of the imperium, the real essence But though constitutionally it made no of the principate, mighttake place, as in the difference whether the proclamation came republican days, either from the senate or first from the senate or the army, yet the from the army greeting their victorious former course was considered the most general as imperator; cf. Tac. Ann. iii 74, suitable, and we even find Hadrian Sed Tiberius... id quoque Blaeso tribuit, apologising to the senate, 'quod de imut imperator a legionibus salutaretur ; perio suo iudicium senatui non dedisset,
ius iurandum more sollemni, eadem provincialibus certatim pietate iurantibus. I eadem provincialibus certante (cer- praestantibus et provincialibus, qui tatim, Ber.) pietate iurantibus,
eadem certarunt pietate, iuranti. Avant.
bus, Ald. salutatus scilicet praepropere a militibus
omnia se strenue facturos quae praecepimperator,' Spart. c. 6. Trajan's dies erit imperator, nunquam deserturos nec imperii was January 27, the day of mortem recusaturos pro Romana Nerva's death, and the conferment of publica.' It was taken by all the soldiers the imperium came from the senate and on the emperor's accession, Ioseph. Antiq. was conveyed to Trajan by Hadrian, 19, 4, 2 ; Tac. Ann. 14, II ; Hist. i 53; Spart. Hadr. c. 2. We sometimes find Suet. Claud. 1o, "armatos pro concione that the anniversary of the tribun. power iurare in nomen suum passus est'; Galb. and the dies imperii coincide. Probably II, 'cunctis in verba sua iurasse cogin the first century the law granting the novit'; Otho, 8, 'Germaniciani exercitus tribun. pot. was made retrospective, so as in Vitellii verba iurarant'; Vitell. 15; to date from the dies imperii. On the Vesp. 6, etc. This oath was repeated on calculation of Trajan's tribun. pot. see the anniversary of the dies imperii; cf. life of Trajan, p. 16.
Ep. 102 and 103, and on the ist of quanta mereris laetitia celebravi. January every year, ‘solemni Kalendarum mus. Cf. Livy, xxv 32, Scipio cum Ianuarium sacramento,' Tac. Hist. i 55 ; quibus ante dictum est copiis.'
Suet. Galb. 16, 'ergo primi obsequium generi humano. See on Ep. 1. rupere, ac se Kalendis Ianuarii adigi sacra
incolumem florentemque. Cf. Ep. mento, nisi in nomen senatus, recusarunt,' 1, ‘fortem te ac hilarem . .. opto.' and cf. Tac. Ann. i 8, 'addebat Messala
praeivimus et commilitonibus ius. Valerius renovandum per annos sacrameniurandum. Both in the imperial and tum in nomen Tiberii.' senatorial provinces all the troops took eadem provincialibus certatim piethe sacramentum to the emperor alone, tate iurantibus. The provincial and except in so far as the whole imperial the civil population generally took the house was included ; Tac. Ann. xiv 7, oath voluntarily; cf. Tac. Ann. i 7, 'At praetorianos toti Caesarum domui ob- Romae ruere in servitium consules, patres, strictos'; and Suet. Calig. 15, 'de sorori- eques ; . . consules primi in verba bus auctor fuit ut omnibus sacramentis Tiberii Caesaris iuravere : . mox senatadiceretur - neque me liberosque meos us milesque et populus': though two cariores habebo quam Caium habeo et passages seem to imply that provincial sorores eius.' It was probably the old governors administered the oath to their military oath of which Polybius, vi 21, 2, provincials on the accession of a new gives the formula, η μην πειθαρχήσειν και emperor ; Tac. Ann. i 31, ‘Germanicus πονήσεις το προστασσόμενον υπό των Belgarum civitates in verba eius αρχόντων κατά δύναμιν,’ though Augustus adigit,' and Ioseph. Antiq. 18, 5, 3. Cf. may have slightly altered it to suit its the 'ius iurandum Aritiensium,' č. I. L. new meaning; Dio Cass. 57, 3, 'Toîs ii 172. For praeivimus ius iurandum cf. όρκοις τοις υπό του Αυγούστου καταδειχ- Tac. Hist. i 36, 'praeire sacramentum” ociol.' Veget. 2, 5, 'iurant autem milites ii 74, 'praeeuntem sacramentum.'
TRAIANUS PLINIO S. Quanta religione et laetitia commilitones cum provincialibus te praeeunte diem imperii mei celebraverint libenter, mi Secunde carissme, cognovi literis tuis.
3 agnovi, Avant. I gladly learn from your letter, my the oath of allegiance on the anniversary dear Pliny, of the zeal and affection with of my accession. which soldiers and provincials have taken
C. PLINIUS TRAIANO IMPERATORI
Pecuniae publicae, domine, providentia tua et ministerio nostro et iam exactae sunt et exiguntur; quae vereor ne otiosae iaceant. Nam et praediorum conparandorum aut nulla aut rarissima occasio est, nec inveniuntur qui velint debere rei publicae, praesertim (duodenis assibus), quanti a privatis mutuantur. 5 duodenis assibus, Avant and Ald.
mutuantur, B. and Ald. usuris assibus, Gronovius.
can only quote a single unmistakable instance of the latter.
Henz. 7215, usuras totius anni computatas octono pernumerabo,' i.e. 123 per cent. At the end of the republican period the normal rate of interest owing to the rapid acquisi. tion of large capitals was as low as 4 per cent, though it suddenly rose to 8 per cent. Cic. ad Att. iv 15, 7, ‘fenus ex triente Idib. Quint. factum erat bessibus.' In the provinces it was often considerably more. Verres extorted 24 per cent in Sicily; Brutus 48 per cent in Cyprus; and Cicero in his edict for Cilicia made 12 per cent the maximum rate. This from the time of the early empire seems to have been the normal rate, although Persius v 150, speaks of 11 per cent as avidos deunces.
Twelve per cent was 'centesimae usurae,' or tesima pars sortis,' and this is no doubt the interest about which Pliny is speaking here. “Duodenis assibus, however, can only mean 12 per cent, if the interest of the whole year is calculated. Whether this was ever done, and whether 'asses usurae 'may not mean i per cent, instead of being regarded as equivalent to centesimae usurae, appears uncertain. Salmasius and Gronovius at any rate do not take this view, and read here 'usuris assibus.' Much more satisfactory, if any alteration must be made, seems to be ). A. Ernesti's omission of the two words altogether. Right or wrong, the words seem hardly wanted, as if 12 per cent was the normal rate, it was hardly necessary for Pliny to mention it. See Marquadt, Staatsverw. xi pp. 60, 61.
§ 1. The money owing to the towns, sire, has either been called in, or is in the act of being so. I am only afraid lest it should remain uninvested. There are few opportunities of purchasing land, nor are borrowers of the public funds to be found, at 12 per cent, the private rate of interest. § 2. Would it not be well to lower the rate of interest, and so attract suitable borrowers, or if that course also fails, to compel the decuriones to borrow the money in equal shares, upon their giving proper security? Even if they have to borrow against their will, this will be less of a hardship if the rate of interest is lowered.
publicae pecuniae, etc. Cf. Ep. 17, ' multae enim pecuniae variis ex causis a privatis detinentur,' and Ep. 23, erit enim pecunia ex qua fiat primum ea quam revocare a privatis et exigere iam coepi.'
tua providentia. Cf. supra, Ep. 43, 2, 'memor propositi tui.'
otiosae. Cf. the phrase 'pecuniam occupare,' Cic. pro Flacc. 21, 51 ; id. Verr. 2, 1; 36, 91. Cf. Quint. Declam. 345, pecuniam dedi et ex otiosa iacente patrimonii parte aliquid numeravi.'
et praediorum conparandorum aut nulla, etc. There was one good opportunity in Trajan's reign. Cf. Plin. Ep. vi 19, 6, 'hoc vendendi tempus (i.e. in Italy) tam Hercule quam in provinciis comparandi, dum idem candidati illic vendunt, ut hic emant.'
praesertim duodenis assibus. These words present considerable difficulty, because from the time of Sulla onward, interest was reckoned by the month and not by the year. Marquadt
Dispice ergo, domine, numquid minuendam usuram ac per hoc 2 idoneos debitores invitandos putes, et si nec sic reperiuntur, distribuendam inter decuriones pecuniam, ita ut recte rei publicae caveant ; quod quamquam invitis et recusantibus minus acerbum erit leviore usura constituta. 2 ne sic, Avant and Ald.
3 distribuendum, Avant.
§ 2. despice ergo domine. Cf. Ep. 49.
minuendam usuram ; course adopted in the case of the alimentationes in Italy. In the case of Pliny's own endowment at Comum, it was 6 per cent, 'pro quingentis millibus nummum tricena millia annua daturus’; at Velleia, 5 per cent; at Ligures Baebiani 24 per cent.
idoneos debitores invitandos; cf. Digest, 22, I, 33, ‘Praeterea (praeses provinciae) prospicere debet ne pecuniae publicae credantur sine pignoribus idoneis vel hypothecis.'
distribuendam inter decuriones pecuniam. Trajan's answer shows that the time had not yet come when the position of the decuriones involved burdens and liabilities rather than honours
and privileges. The change did not in fact take place till after the end of the second century, but the very fact that Pliny could make a suggestion of this sort shows the beginnings of the change, and it is hardly surprising that even as early as this there should have been some 'qui inviti fiunt decuriones.' See Ep. 113.
ita ut recte rei publicae caveant. So when Tiberius sent public money to embarrassed debtors for three
without interest, it was on condition 'si debitor populo in duplum praediis cavisset,' Tac. Ann. vi 17. The necessity of giving security for loans of public money, and the greater facilities which the state had of enforcing repayment probably accounted for the reluctance shown to borrow public money.
TRAIANUS PLINIO S.
Et ipse non aliud remedium dispicio, mi Secunde carissime, quam ut quantitas usurarum minuatur, quo facilius pecuniae publicae conlocentur. Modum eius ex copia eorum qui mutuabuntur tu constitues. Invitos ad accipiendum conpellere, quod fortassis ipsis otiosum futurum sit, non est ex iustitia nostrorum temporum. 2 qui facilius, Avant.
3 mutabuntur, Avant.
I agree with you that no other remedy sum of money; cf. Dig. 45, 1, 65, 'nam seems available than to lower the rate of stipulanti denarios eiusdem quantitatis interest and so to facilitate its investment. aureos spondendo obligaberis.' To what extent this should be done, you ex copia eorum. Döring. thinks it must decide according to the number of necessary to explain that this cannot borrowers. To compel men against their mean, 'according to the means of those.' will to borrow money which perhaps fortassis. Cf. Hor. Sat. i 4, 131 ; they have no means of employing, is in- also once or twice in Cicero and the consistent with the justice of the age we elder Pliny. live in.
non est ex iustitia nostrorum tem. quantitas usurarum.
For quant. a
Cf. Ep. 97 ad fin.
C. PLINIUS TRAIANO IMPERATORI Summas, domine, gratias ago quod inter maximas occupationes in iis de quibus te consului me quoque regere dignatus 2 es: quod nunc quoque facias rogo. Adiit enim me quidam in
dicavitque adversarios suos a Servilio Calvo, clarissimo viro, in triennium relegatos in provincia morari: illi contra ab eodem se restitutos adfirmaverunt edictumque recitaverunt. Qua
§ 1. I must express my extreme grati- clarissimo viro. This in the second tude, sire, that amid your important en- century came to be a sort of official title gagements, you have deigned to direct to men of senatorial position. Cf. Orell. me in the matters on which I have con- 3115 ; Mart. ix 94 ; also Plin. Ep. iii 8,
I hope you will do so once tribunatum quem a Neratio Marcello,
§ 2. A person came to me, and clarissimo viro impetravi tibi'; also ix informed me that certain adversaries of 13, ‘permitto tibi, vir clarissime Veiento.' his, though banished for three years by Panegyr. 90, “pro collega meo Cornuto Servilius Calvus, are still in the province. Tertullo, clarissimo viro'; and infra, Ep. They, on the other hand, affirm that they 77 ; Orell. 784; and Henz. 5404. were recalled by the same proconsul, in triennium relegatos. This was a whose edict on the point they cite. On mild kind of exile introduced by Augustus these grounds I thought it better to refer for unimportant offences. It involved no the whole case to you. § 3. Your instruc- loss of the civitas and no confiscation of tions were that I should not recall any property, and was therefore sharply conone banished either by myself or by the trasted with the deportatio in insulam' proconsuls who preceded me, but the which involved both. Suet. Aug. 51, case of those banished and recalled by 'alterum levi exilio punire satis habuit'; my predecessors is not touched on. There id. Calig. 25; Claud. 23, 'ipse quondam was therefore no course but to consult novo exemplo relegavit ut ultra lapidem you, both about the present point and tertium vetaret egredi ab urbe,' 38; Nero, also about those who, though banished for 16, pantomimorum factiones cum ipsis life, are found in the province. S 4. For simul relegatae.' Tac. Ann. iii 17, 'M. instances, even of this, have been brought Piso exuta dignitate
in decem annos to my notice. One man was brought relegaretur'; vi 49, 'urbe in decem annos before me who had been banished for life
prohibita est'; Ovid, Trist. v II, 15, by Iulius Bassus. As I knew that the * Nec vitam nec opes nec ius mihi civis acts of Bassus had been rescinded, and ademit'; and line 21, 'Ipse relegati non that the senate had allowed all those exulis utitur in me Nomine.' The grades affected by his decisions to have their of relegatio were ' releg. in tempus,' recases re-tried within two years, I asked legatio in perpetuum,'
and 'relegatio in the man whether he had stated his case insulam.' *Cf. Dig. 48, 22, 4, ' Relegati to the proconsul. He said No. 85. I in insulam in potestate sua liberos ream therefore driven to ask you whether he tinent : quia et alia omnia iura sua reshould be sent back to his punishment, or tinent: tantum enim insula eis egredi whether some stronger measures, and if non licet.' The sentence of relegatio so, what, should be taken against him could be pronounced by the emperor, and others in his position. I append the praefectus urbi, the senate, and the the decree of Calvus and his edict, as provincial governors. The latter usually well as the decree of Bassus.
banished to the more deserted parts of § 2. adversarios suos, his adver- their province, Dig. 48, 22, 7, 10, 'sed saries in some criminal case.
et in eas partes provinciae quae sunt dea Servilio Calvo. P. Servilius Calvus sertiores, scio praesides solitos relegare'; was proconsul of Bithynia between 108 'sed extra provinciam suam potest releand IIO A.D.
gare.' The crimes usually punished by