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universos ut a me rationes coloniae legerentur, numquam tamen esse lectas ab ullo proconsulum, habuisse privilegium et vetustissimum morem arbitrio suo rem publicam administrare. Exegi ut quae dicebant quaeque recitabant libello conplecte- 2 rentur, quem tibi qualem acceperam misi, quamvis intellegerem pleraque ex illo ad id de quo quaeritur non pertinere. Te rogo 3 ut mihi praeire digneris quid me putes observare debere. Vereor enim ne aut excessisse aut non inpresse officii mei partes videar.

I rationes, Ald. ; stationes, Avant. 7 praecipere, Avant.
6 ad id, Cat.

praeire, B. and Ald.
addi, Avant, and Ald.

$ 5.


Cf. Ep. 92.

may have been sent out by Augustus, who on the colonial position of Apamea in does not, however, mention Bithynia Or. xli, pp. 103-105. among the provinces to which he had sent ab ullo proconsulum.

Cf. Ep. 33, colonists. Momms. Res gest. div. Aug. p. 83. Its full title, as we know from privilegium. Cf. Ep. 109, 'nam sive coins, Colonia Iulia Concordia habent privilegium quo ceteris creditoriAugusta Apamea, Eckhel, ii 406; and bus anteponantur,' etc. see C. I. L. iii 335; Plin. h. n. 5, 32. arbitriosuorem publicam adminisFrom the Digest, 50, 15, 1, 10, we trare, not, however, according to its own learn that Apamea possessed the 'ius laws, as in the case of the civitates foederaItalicum'; in other words, that it was

tae. exempted from the poll-tax and the land- § 2. quae dicebant, their statements; tax; that its landholders had quiritary quae recitabant, their citations, from ownership of the soil, and could apply such documents as the lex coloniae, etc. the legal processes of usucapio, in iure Cf. Cic. pro Flacc. 17, 40, Qui de tabulis cessio, mancipatio and

vindicatio ; publicis recitat iis, quae in accusatoris Marquadt, Staatsverw. i p. 91. An inscr. potestate fuerunt, non debet habere in Orell. 3311 mentions a road restored auctoritatem.' and paved, 'ab Apamea ad Nicaeam.' libello, is a memorial or petition, Suet.

cognoscere publicos debitores, etc. Aug. 53, 'Promiscuis salutationibus Cf. on Ep. 17, 'reipubl. Prusensium admittebat et plebem, tanta comitate impendia reditus debitores excutio.' The adeuntium desideria excipiens, ut quemcolonies and towns of Latin right were dam ioco corripuerit, quod sic sibi libelnot, like the civitates foederatae, beyond lum porrigere dubitaret quasi elephanto the interference of the provincial gov, stipem,' and id. ib. 50, 'in diplomatibus ernors, but practically their municipal libellisque et epistulis signandis initio affairs were left to their own management. Sphinge usus est. The officer or secretOtherwise Spain, on the whole of which ary who had the charge of answering the Vespasian conferred the ‘ius Latii,' would libelli was said 'libellos agere' cf. Dig: have been entirely exempt from 20, 5, 12 libellos agente Papiniano.' governor's interference ; but Plin. h. n. His usual title was a libellis,' Suet. 3, 12, reckons the colonies as belonging Dom. 14, 'Epaphroditum a libellis capitali to the several conventus, thus proving poena condemnavit,' Wilm. 1249 h.; cf. that in judicial matters they were sub- Ep. 59. ject to the governor's tribunal. Even 83. praeire digneris. Cf. Ep. 43, $ 4. as regards the various free cities in vereor enim ne. Cf. Ep. 45. Pliny's Greece,' their liberties, as Mommsen says, extreme diffidence gives

certain Rom. Gesch. 5, p. 263, were liable to be monotony to his style. Avantius reads overturned by a stroke of the proconsul's 'praecipere,' but this is corrected from pen.

Iucundus in the margin of the Bodleian coloniae. Dio Chrysostom expatiates copy to 'praeire.'






Libellus Apameorum quem epistulae tuae iunxeras remisit mihi necessitatem perpendendi qualia essent, propter quae

videri volunt eos qui pro consulibus hanc provinciam obtinuerunt

abstinuisse inspectatione rationum suarum, cum, ipse ut eas 2 inspiceres, non recusaverint. Remuneranda est igitur probitas

eorum, ut iam nunc sciant hoc quod inspecturus es ex mea voluntate salvis quae habent privilegiis esse facturum. 2 perpendendi, Cat.2

4 cum ipse (ut eas inspiceres) non perpendi, Avant, and Ald.

rescusaverim, Avant. perpendi .n., B.

cum ipsum te ut eas inspic. non

recusaverint, Ald.

The memorial of the Apameans which you append to your letter relieves me from the necessity of considering the reasons they assign for the non-inspection of their accounts by the proconsuls, since they do not refuse to allow your inspection. You must therefore reward their honesty, by assuring them that your inspection will be by my especial desire, without any prejudice to their existing privileges.

epistulae tuae iunxeras ; cf. Ep. 58, ea quae sunt utrimque recitata his litteris subieci.'

propter quae videri volunt, account of which they wish it to appear.'

ipse ut eas inspiceres, that you should inspect them ; the 'ipse' emphasises the contrast between Pliny and the

proconsuls. The 'prima editio' here reads 'cum ipse (ut eas nspiceres) non recusaverim.

iam nunc, for the moment. Trajan leaves the general question as to their liability to inspection undecided ; and the words videri volunt’imply that Trajan was not quite satisfied on the point. The present inspection, however, is all that he lays stress on at present, and as they consent to this, it may be put down on this occasion to the emperor's special wish, the question of privilege being left for future consideration.

hoc quod inspecturus es facturum, that you are going to carry out this inspection '; 'hoc' is not the antecedent of quod ': the relative clause is simply explanatory of 'hoc.'

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De religioso teinplo transferendo



Ante adventum meum, domine, Nicomedenses priori foro novum adicere coeperunt, cuius in angulo est aedes vetustissima

§ 1. Before my arrival, sire, the people site, because it is on a lower level than of Nicomedeia began to build a new forum the buildings which are now being raised. in addition to the one they had before. § 2. When I inquired whether the temple In a corner of it stands an ancient temple was subject to any special condition, i of the Great Mother,' which must be found that the manner of dedication here either restored or removed to a fresh differs from ours. Therefore consider,

Matris Magnae aut reficienda aut transferenda ; ob hoc praecipue, quod est multo depressior opere eo quod cum maxime 2 quod cum maxime, Gruter.

quod nunc, maxime, Avant. quo cum maxime, Ald.




sire, whether a temple dedicated thus her honour and lasted April 4-10. Thirwithout conditions can rightfully be teen years later a temple was dedicated removed. Its removal, if there is to the goddess on the Palatine, Livy, 36, religious objection, is on other grounds 36; inside the pomerium, because the the most convenient course.

foreign goddess was identified with the aedes vetustissima Matris Magnae. magna mater of the old Roman religion The Phrygian goddess Cybele, so called and with Maia or Ops. The cult was from a mountain in that country, was put under the charge of a Phrygian priest worshipped in Phrygia and the neighbour- and priestess and a number of Galli (cf. ing parts of Asia Minor from very early Juv. ii 110, seqq. ; viii 176), who performed times. From similarity of attributes and the ritual after their national customs, of the attendant rites of cult, she, as the but Roman citizens were forbidden to Meyaan untnp Tv Dewy (Diod. v. 49) was take part in it. Under the empire, confused sometimes with the Cretan however, the oriental rites in connection goddess Rhea or 'Pela, while again Rhea with Cybele and Attis were sanctioned,

sometimes identified with TÔ a new festival was instituted in March, (Aeschyl. Suppl. 901) and even with the and the goddess was regarded as the Samothracian Demeter (Eurip. Hel. fertiliser and protectress of the fruits of 1304). At what period her worship the earth; cf. Plin. h. n. 18, 16, 'verum passed from Asia Minor to Greece is not quo anno mater deum advecta Romam known, but certainly before the time of est, maiorem ea aestate messem quam Pindar. In Phrygia its existence is at- antecedentibus annis decem factam esse tested by the coins of the Phrygian towns ; tradunt.' On the 15th March, called in it was celebrated on Mount Ida in Mysia ; the Calendar 'canna intrat,' the collegium there was a temple near Lampsacus, and cannophororum,' many inscriptions conanother in Cyzicus ; also at Magnesia in cerning which have been found near the Lydia, andat Sardes (Herod. v 102); while Metroon in Ostia, celebrated their feast in one of the principal seats of the worship memory of the reeds under which Attis was Pessinus in Galatia. The ritual of concealed himself, C. I. L. i p. 388. On her worship turned on the relations March 23-arborintrat—the sacred fig-tree between the goddess and her priest Attis was carried into the Palatine temple by the or Atys. Of this myth several versions collegium dendrophororum, C. I. L. vi 641, are given; (1) by Diodorus, iii 58 and 59 ; v 81; Arnob. 5, 16. On March 23 was (2) by Pausanias, Achaica, vii 17, 5; (3) the tubilustrium, in which Attis was by Ovid, Met. x 104 Fast. iv 223, etc. ; searched for amid the blowing of horns (4) by Catullus, 62 ; (5) by Servius, ad and the clang of musical instruments. Verg. ix 116. The worship of this Next day was the ‘dies sanguinis,' in which Phrygian goddess was the first of the the archigallus wounded his arm in symbol oriental cults to be introduced into Rome. of the self-inflicted wound of the mad During the second Punic war the Sibyl- Attis; Mart. ii 84, 3, ‘Alba minus saevis line books declared (Liv. 29, 10, 3), lacerantur brachia cultris, Quem furit ad quandoque hostis alienigena terrae Italiae Phrygios enthea turba modos.' Stat. bellum intulisset, eum pelli Italia vinci- Theb. x 170, 'Sic Phryga terrificis genitrix que posse, si mater Idaea a Pessinunte Idaea cruentum Elicit ex adytis.' Hist. Romam advecta foret' also Ovid, Fast. Aug. Vit. Claud. 4, cum nuntiatum esset iv 259 : Accordingly in B.c. 204 the viiii Kal. Apr. ipso in sacrario matris Romans asked for and obtained from sanguinis die Claudium imperatorem facKing Attalus the sacred stone at Pessinus

On the 27th was the Hilaria, and under the symbol of which the goddess on the 28th the lavatio Deae, when the was worshipped ("silex coloris furvi atque sacred stone was taken to the Almo and atri, ferri qui posset hominis manu'). washed ; Lucan, i 599; Mart. iii 47, 2, For the reception of the goddess in the ' Phrygiamque Matris Almo qua lavat aedes Victoriae in Palatio, see Livy, 29, ferrum'; Ovid. Fast. iv 340; Ammian. 14, 13, and Juv. iii 138, 'hospes numinis 23, 3, 7 ; after which the oriental orgies Idaei.' The Megalesia were founded in had free play. The goddess was called


2 surgit. Ego cum quaererem num esset aliqua lex dicta templo,

cognovi alium hic alium apud nos esse morem dedicationis. Dispice ergo, domine, an putes aedem cui nulla lex dicta est salva religione posse transferri : alioqui commodissimum est, si religio non inpedit.

I dicata, Ald. ; dicta, B.

Cybele or Phrygia Mater ; Verg. Aen. vii 39, 'alma parens Idaea deum id. Aen. x 252 ; Mýtnp Alduunun, Herod. i 80, and •Berecynthia mater' Verg. Aen. vii 784; ix 82. Her priests were Galli, or Corybantes, or Curetes; see Pauly, Real Encyclop. s.v. 'Rea.'; Marqdt. Staatsverw. iii, p. 367 seqq. In later times the taurobolium or criobolium, which with its atonement by blood has exercised so curious an influence on Christian theology, was engrafted upon the worship of the Magna Mater as well as upon that of Mithras.

cum maxime, at the present time. Cf. supra, Ep. 17 B.

§ 2. aliqua lex dicta templo. The pontifices on consecrating a temple drew up a lex dedicationis' or lex templi,' in which the extent of the sacred enclosure, the rights of the temple, the administration of its revenues, and the ceremonies of the sacrifices were defined. Cf. Serv. ad Verg. Aen. ii 761, 'Asylum non est in omnibus templis nisi quibus consecrationis lege concessum est. The' lex arae Narbonensis’ is extant, Wilm. 104, dating from II A.D. One of its clauses is 'si quis tergere, ornare, reficere volet, quod beneficii causa fiat, ius fasque esto,' and

ceterae leges huic arae titulisque eaedem sunto quae sunt arae Dianae in Aventino';

also C. I. L. iii, the lex of a temple at Salonae ; and C. I. L. ix 3513, ‘lex dedicationis aedis Iovis Liberi' at Furfo, Bruns. Fontes Iur. Rom. p. 88, ‘Lapide facta hoiusque aedis ergo, uteique ad eam aedem scalasque, lapide structa, endo columnae stant citra scalas ad aedem versus, stipitesque aedis huius tabulamentaque, utei tangere sarcire tegere devehere, defigere mandare ferro oeti promovere referre ius fasque esto.'.

dispice ergo. Cf. Ep. 17 B, 33, 3..

salva religione. Cf. Ep. 48, salvis quae habent privilegiis. Ep. 31, 'salva magnitudina tua.'

si religio non inpedit. According to the Roman dedication a temple or piece of ground once consecrated could only be used for other purposes by exauguratio or evocatio deorum ; cf. Livy i 55, et ut libera a ceteris religionibus area esset tota Iovis templique eius, quod inaedificaretur, exaugurare fana sacellaque statuit . . . nam quum omnium sacellorum exaugurationes admitterent aves in Termini fano non addixere'; and v 54, hic quum augurato liberaretur Capitolium Iuventus Terminusque maximo gaudio patrum vestrorum moveri non passi.


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Potes, mi Secunde carissime, sine sollicitudine religionis, si loci positio videtur hoc desiderare, aedem Matris deum

If the question of site requires it, you solum peregrinae civitatis. Strictly may without any religious scruple trans- speaking, all civitates were peregrinae fer the temple of the Mother of the Gods except the coloniae of Roman citizens and to a more convenient position. The the municipia ; but practically the towns absence of a lex dedicationis' is of no possessing the ius Latii were counted consequence, since the soil of an alien

among the Roman towns, and the term state is not capable of dedication accord- peregrinae was confined to the civitates ing to our laws.

liberae, foederatae, and stipendariae.


transferre in eam quae est accommodatior ; nec te moveat quod lex dedicationis nulla reperitur, cum solum peregrinae civitatis capax non sit dedicationis quae fit nostro iure.

Gratias agentis

C. PLINIUS TRAIANO IMPERATORI Difficile est, domine, exprimere verbis quantam percepe- i rim laetitiam, quod et mihi et socrui meae praestitisti ut adfinem eius Caelium Clementem in hanc provinciam transferres. Ex illo enim mensuram beneficii tui penitus intellego, cum 2 tam plenam indulgentiam cum tota domo mea experiar, cui referre gratiam parem ne audeo quidem, quamvis maxime possim. Itaque ad vota confugio deosque precor ut iis quae in me adsidue confers non indignus existimer. 2 adfinem eius, Beroaldus.

6 nec, Avant and Ald. ad finem eius, Avant. and Ald.

quamvis maxime possim, Avant. ad finem consulatus, Cat.

quamvis Maximo possim, Ald.

quamvis maxime debeam, Cat. § 1. I cannot adequately, sire, express adfinem eius. That this was the my joy that out of regard to my mother- correct reading was first seen by Beroalin-law and myself you have transferred dus. The reading of Avantius was ad Caelius Clemens, her relation, to this finem eius, which Catanaeus emended into province. § 2. Your kindness is a ad finem consulatus. This, however, is proof that you extend your indulgence to impossible: (1) it would leave unexplained my whole family. I dare not even the favour to Pompeia and Pliny ; (2) a attempt to repay it, whatever my ability provincial governorship was never given might be. I therefore have recourse to immediately after the consulship; (3) if the gods, of whom I pray that I may not he was to be proconsul of Bithynia, the be unworthy of your constant benefits. senate and not Trajan would appoint

§ 1. difficile est exprimere, etc. Cf. him ; (4) transferres' implies change Ep. 2 and 10.

from one province to another. Clemens socrui meae. This was Pompeia was probably either a procurator or the Celerina, the mother of his second wife, praefect of some auxiliary cohort. who died in 97 A.D., Ep. ix 13, 4, ' quam- § 2. mensuram beneficii tui. Cf. quam tum maxime tristis amissa nuper mensura nostri orbis.' Tac. Agric.

Pliny's wife was Pompeia's 12, and Juv. iv 72, 'sed deerat pisci daughter by her first marriage'; she after- patinae mensura. wards married Vettius Proculus, Ep. ix cui referre gratiam parem.

Cf. 13, 13, uxoris meae quam amiseram

Ep. 5. vitricus.' Pliny writes to her, Ep. i 4, quamvis maxime possim, however whence it appears that she had estates great my power may be. The reading is at Ocriculum, Narnia, Carsulae, and probably incorrect. The Aldine edition Perusia. In Ep. iii 19, Pliny borrows had 'quamvis Maximo possim.' Catanmoney from her to buy a neighbouring aeus emended to 'quamvis maxime debestate, 'accipiam a socru cuius arca non eam,” which has usually been followed. secus ac mea utor.' After the death of • Immense as my indebtedness is,' howVerginius Rufus, she seems to have bought ever, is not what is required, for it was his villa at Alsium, Ep. 16 io, 'cum the greatness of the debt which made venissem in socrus meae villam Alsien- Pliny shrink from an attempt to express sem, quae aliquando Rufi Verginii fuit.' his thanks for it.


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