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auctore liberati sunt, hos oportebit poenae suae reddi : si qui vetustiores invenientur et senes ante annos decem damnati, distribuamus illos in ea ministeria quae non longe a poena sint. Solent enim eiusmodi ad balineum, ad purgationes cloacarum, item munitiones viarum et vicorum dari.

idoneo auctore. Cf. Cic. Brut. 15, ad purgationes cloacarum. At 57, cuius eloquentiae est auctor, et idoneus Rome the cloacae were under the charge quidem mea sententia, Q. Ennius.' of the 'curatores riparum et alvei Tiberis

vetustiores, of longer standing in et cloacarum sacrae urbis,' Wilmann, 851. regard to their position as convicts. These officials let the duty out on contract senes, in regard to age.

to certain mancipes or redemptores, who ministeria, inferior employments. Cf. were especially looked down upon; cf. Sen. de Benef., beneficium esse quod Juv. iii 32; and the workmen employed alienus dat: officium esse filii, uxoris, etc., were usually criminals.

Prof. Mayor ministerium esse servi quem conditio sua quotes Hieronymus, 'in urbibus eos qui eo loco posuit ut nihil eorumque prae- aliquid commisere flagitii videmus stat imputet.'

mundare spurcitias cloacarum.' sint; subj., because quae practically= ad munitiones viarum. Cf. Suet. & άν.

Calig. 27, cited above. eiusmodi, men of this sort.

vicorum. A vicus was properly a comad balineum, for cleansing the public plex of buildings; and so in a city, either baths. The managers of the baths, who a quarter, or a street, quod ex utraque generally undertook the work on con- parte viae sunt aedificia,' Varro, de l. Lat. tract, were bound by their agreement to 5, 145. The streets of a city, however, keep the baths open between certain are also sometimes 'viae”; cf. Lex. Iul. hours, to have fresh water every day, and Municip. 7, 'quae viae in urbem Romam to clean the baths out at least every proprius ve urbem Romam passus M., utei month. Cf. Hübner and Mo en, Lex continente habitabitur, sunt,' etc. ; see Metalli Vipascensis, Eph. Epigr. iii 105 Tac. Ann. xv 38, 'flexis atque enorminiseq. The last duty was usually performed bus vicis.' by convicts.

De collegio fabrorum Nicomedensium instituendo



Cum diversam partem provinciae circumirem, Nicomediae vastissimum incendium multas privatorum domos et duo publica opera quamquam via interiacente, Gerusian et Iseon, absumpsit.

3 Isson, B. and Ald.

While I was absent in another part of orders for these to be provided. It is the province, Nicomedeia was visited with for you to decide whether a collegium of a serious fire, which destroyed many

firemen should not be formed, not to exprivate houses and two public buildings, ceed 150 in number.

I will take care the Gerusia and the Iseon. The fire that they are bona-fide firemen, and that spread, both ng to the wind and the their

are not used for other lethargy of the people, who are said to purposes. It cannot be hard to watch have remained mere spectators of the so small a number. disaster. And indeed there are no fire- $1. circumirem, i.e. to attend at the engines or buckets, and no appliances various conventus in the province. for extinguishing fires. I have given vastissimum incendium. Fires were


2 Est autem latius sparsum primum violentia venti, deinde inertia hominum, quos satis constat otiosos et inmobiles tanti 2 quos, Ritterhusius.

quod. Ald.


extremely frequent in Rome, and though evral and fifty other citizens, who were mention of them in other towns is rare, then to appoint a Gymnasiarch. It was they were not likely to be fewer in the no doubt a sort of ar putaveîov where there provinces, where less adequate precautions were common meals and common festivals were taken against them. The height of for deserving citizens in their old age. the houses, the narrowness of the streets, Iseon. This is no doubt the correct and the wooden projections which were reading, instead of the meaningless Isson frequently attached to the lower stories, of the Aldine text. The worship of Isis all helped to make the danger greater. was first introduced into Rome soon after In 27 A.D. there was a great fire on the the second Punic war, and the sanctuary Caelian, Tac. Ann. iv 64; in 37 A.D. one of the goddess was placed on the Capitol, on the Aventine and in the Circus, cf. 'Isis Capitolina,' C. I. L., i 1034; 'Isis Tac. Ann. vi 45. Fires in Caligula’s triumphalis, C. I. L. vi 355. Cf. also time are incidentally mentioned, Suet. Suet. Dom. I; Tac. Hist. iii 74. In spite Calig. 16. The great fire under Nero of frequent prohibitions of the senate, is described, Tac. Ann. xv 38 seq. after the worship gained ground, and 93 B.C. which temples were protected by having the first public temple to Isis was built their open spaces enclosed by a wall. by the triumviri in the Campus Martius, Under Titus there was a fire in the Dio Cass. 47, 15. Subsequently other Campus Martius for three days and temples were added, but all had to be nights, Suet. Tit. 8. Under Antoninus outside the pomoerium, Dio Cass. 53, 2. Pius 340 dwelling-houses were destroyed The worship of Isis was particularly by a single fire. All this took place in popular among women ; cf. Juv. vi 522 Rome in spite of the 7000 firemen or seq. Tiberius tried to check it, Tac. vigiles instituted by Augustus, and dis- Ann. ii 85, but later emperors favoured tributed into the seven cohortes vigilum it, as Otho, Suet. Oth. 12, 'sacra etiam under the command of the praefectus vigil- Isidis saepe in lintea religiosaque veste

In the provincial towns there can propalam celebrasse dicitur,' Domitian, hardly have been more protection against Eutrop. 7, 23. Cf. also Lucan, 8, 831. fire as a rule than Pliny finds at Nico- The worship was extended throughout medeia. In 58 A.D. Lugdunum was al- the western provinces. It is attested by most completely destroyed in a single inscrr. at Capua, Orell. 1871; Southern night, Seneca, Epp. 91; Tac. Ann. xvii Gaul, Orell. 1876; Vicus Aquensis in 13. In 53 A.D. Bononia suffered much Switzerland, Orell. 457 ; at Noreia in by a fire, and was assisted by a grant of Noricum, Orell. 2034; in lower Gerten million sesterces ; Tac. Ann. xii 58. many, Orell. 1894. In the east and the

quamquam, with partic. Cf. Plin. Greek provinces the Isis-cult was both Ep. i 12, 3, 'quamquam plurimas vivendi more ancient and more extended. The causas habentem'; also iii 4, 5; and following inscrr. from Böeckh, C. I. Gr., iii 6, 4; Juv. iv 60, 'quamquam diruta ’; prove its existence at Chios, 2230 ; Delos, and Ep. 39.

2293 ; Ephesus, 2955; Paros, 2411 ; Gerusian. This has nothing in com- Strabo mentions it in Cyprus; Appian mon with the political institution of the in Rhodes. In Andros was discovered, same name in Ephesus, Strab. 14, 1, 21. on four slabs of marble, a hymn to Isis, Its true character is shown by a passage edited by Sauppe in 1842. in Vitruvius, 2, 8, 10, ‘Croesi (domum) § 2. alioqui, apart from that. Sardiani civibus ad requiescendum sipho, properly a small pipe, 'quem aetatis otio seniorum collegio Gerusiam diabeten vocant mechanici,' here and in dedicaverunt.' It is mentioned also by the Digest a fire-engine. Pliny h.n. 35, 14, 9, and by many inscrr. hama, fire-bucket. Cf. Juv. xiv 305, of Asia Minor. In particular, an inscrip. • Dispositis praedives hamis vigilare corecently found on the site of the Lycian hortem Servorum noctu Licinus iubet.' town, Sidyma (mentioned in Mommsen, nullum instrumentum ad incendia Rom. Gesch. v. p. 326) relates that the compescenda. A list of these instru. senate and people determined to institute menta is given in the Digest, 23, 7, 18, a gerusia, and to elect for it fifty Bovi. 'Acetum quoque, quod extinguendi in

mali spectatores perstitisse; et alioqui nullus usquam in publico sipho, nulla hama, nullum denique instrumentum ad incendia conpescenda. Et haec quidem, ut iam praecepi, parabuntur. Tu, domine, dispice an instituendum putes collegium fabrorum 3 dumtaxat hominum CL. Ego attendam ne quis nisi faber

3 ut haec, Ald. 1

et haec, Ald.

3 parabuntur, Cellarius.

parabantur, B. and Ald.

cendii causa paratur, item centones Dig. 47, 22, 2, says, 'quisquis illicitum (pieces of sack-cloth) siphones, perticae collegium usurpaverit, ea poena tenetur quoque et scalae et formiones (mats) et qua tenentur qui hominibus armatis loca spongias et hamas et scopas (brooms) publica vel templa occupasse iudicati contineri plerique et Pegasus aiunt.' sunt.' See also Dig. 47, 22, I, “Man

$ 3. collegium fabrorum. Collegia datis principalibus praecipitur praesidibus might be either religious brotherhoods, as provinciarum ne patiantur esse collegia the Collegium Aesculapii et Hygiae, Wilm. sodalicia neve milites collegia in castris 320, or burialclubs, as the Collegium Lanu- habeant.' Among the collegia most frevinum (Henz. 6086), or guilds of workmen, quently mentioned in inscrr. we find like the various collegia fabrum. In all collegia fabrum et centonariorum, and cases, however, they had peculiar 'sacra’of simply coll. centonariorum. The centheir own, which were the outward sign of tones were coverings of matting or cloth their union, definite officers, a common trea- used for protecting military engines sury, an annual fête-day, and a regular against fire, and also for extinguishing constitution drawn up in the lex collegii, fires in towns ; in which connection they of which the best example is the lex collegii are mentioned in the Digest cited above. Lanuvini. The original number of col- In all probability these collegia centon. legia fabrum said to have been founded by were corps of firemen such as Pliny Numa Pompilius, gradually received both wished to establish at Nicomedeia. They in Rome and the municipal towns large are found at Lugdunum, Henz. 7256 ; additions, some with, some without, the Sarmizegethusa, Henz. 6919; Aquileia, consent of the senate. In Rome the Orell. 4082; Salonae, Orell. 4429, and various collegia were under the control of in a large number of Italian towns ; see the praefectus urbi, in the Italian towns Index in Henzen, pp. 171 and 172. Marof the aediles, in the provinces of the quadt, Privatleben, p. 698, supposes that legati or proconsuls. Towards the close the coll. dendrophororum and tignariof the republic many of these collegia orum were also used for firemen. See were used as political clubs, and caused also Marquadt, Staatsverw. ii p. 530. disturbances and corruption at the comitia. dumtaxat hominum CL. Dumtaxat In consequence in 68 B.C. by a senatus is often used in defining either a maximum consultum, collegia sublata sunt quae or minimum in numerical statements. adversus rempublicam videbantur esse,' Cf. Dig. 25, 4, 1, 10, ‘mittantur mulieres Ascon. in Pis. 4. Clodius, however, in liberae dumtaxat quinque.' Lex Acil. 58 B.C., restored these and added fresh

Repet. 32, 'secum duxerit dumtaxat hoones ; Cic. pro Sext. 25, 'ut collegia mines IIL.' For dumtaxat defining a non modo illa vetera contra senatus con- minimum, see Dig. 50, 16, 202. The sultum restituerentur sed . . . innumer- members (populus, plebs) of the collegia abilia alia nova conscriberentur,' and were sometimes a fixed number, some. Dio Cass. 38, 13. Caesar again, 'cuncta times unlimited. The collegium Aescucollegia praeter antiquitus constituta dis- lapii et Hygiae, e.g., was to be for "hotraxit,' Suet. Caes. 42, a policy followed minibus numero LX.' by Augustus, id. Aug. 32; and Claudius, ne quis nisi faber. There were to Dio Cass. 60, 6; and Nero, Tac. Ann. be no honorary members by whom the xiv 17, 'collegia quae contra leges insti- coll. might be used for political ends. tuerant (Pompeiani) dissoluta.' The for- See Dig. 50, 6, 6, 12, 'nec omnibus promula used for those which were legally miscue qui adsumpti sunt in his collegiis constituted was 'quibus ex senatus con- immunitas datur, sed artificibus dumsulto coire licet,'Orell. 1567, etc. Ulpian, taxat.'


recipiatur, neve iure concesso in aliud utantur; nec erit difficile custodire tam paucos.

I utantur, Mommsen. utatur, Ald.





Tibi quidem secundum exempla conplurium in mentem venit posse collegium fabrorum apud Nicomedenses constitui. Sed meminerimus provinciam istam et praecipue eas civitates eiusmodi factionibus esse vexatas. Quodcumque nomen ex qua

cumque causa dederimus iis qui in idem contracti fuerint 2 hetaeriae aeque brevi fient. Satius itaque est conparari ea quae

I conplurium, Cat. conplurimum, B. and Ald.

5 fuerint, hetaeriae quae breves fient, B. and Ald.

quamvis breves fient, Cat. ÈTaipiai étaipol que brevi fient, Orell. You think that a society of firemen

The Bodleian MS. and Aldus might be formed at Nicomedeia, as at read hetaeriae quae breves fient. Keil many other places. But we must re- supposes the original to have been member that your province has been hetaeriae que brevi fient after a lacuna. especially disturbed by factions arising The reading in the text is an admirable from such institutions. Whatever name conjecture of Bishop Lightfoot. The they bear, it is almost certain that men Taiplal at Athens were societies not so united will become a political club. It recognised by the state, but at best only will be better therefore to supply the tolerated. Their aim was always more or necessary apparatus in case of fire, to warn less political. They were sometimes émi the landlords to take precautions for them- katalúpel ToŮ onuou, Demosth. contr. selves, and, in case of necessity, to make Steph. ii 8 26, or επί νεωτέροις πράγμασιν ; use of the populace in extinguishing fires. Sometimes they were συνωμοσίαι επί δίκαις

secundum exempla conplurium. kal åpxais, Thuc. viii 54. Cf. Demosth. in See the Index in Henzen for places where Mid. § 139; in Zenoth. § 10, etc. To these collegia existed.

what an extent the collegia did actually provinciam istam, your province. mingle in politics is shown in the Cf. supra, Ep. 32, 'te in istam pro- Pompeian wall inscrr. See especially vinciam missum.

Wilmann, 1952 g- p. etc. . . .

.. where praecipue eas civitates, i.e. Nico- the muliones, furunculi, aurifices, lignarii, medeia and perhaps Nicaea. These dis- tonsores, and pomarii recommend their turbances were among the ' multa emen- special candidate for the aedileship. In danda' which made a special imperial Aurelian's time the monetarii caused what legate necessary. We learn from Dio Vopiscus, Aurel. 38, describes as bellum Chrys. how Nicomedeia and Nicaea were

in the city. always quarrelling about the title of Tpútn § 2. dominos praediorum. Here the Trolls, and very likely the collegia may praedia are the urbana praedia ; cf. Dig. have had an active part in these conten- 50, 16, 198, 'urbana praedia omnia aeditions, just as we find that the quarrel ficia accepimus ...; urbanum praedium between Nuceria and Pompeii caused the non locus facit sed materia.' dissolution of a number of illegal collegia, ut et ipsi inhibeant, to employ these Tac. Ann. xiv 17, cited above.

means at their own expense; a rare use qui in idem contracti fuerint. This of the word. Cf. 'imperium inhibere,' was the common definition of all col- Liv. 36, 28. legia, which were a collection of a number adcursu populi. Cf. Tac. Ann. iv of personae for some common object. 41, 'populi adcursus multitudinem ad

hetaeriae aeque brevi flent. They fuentium increpat.' Ovid. Fast. ii 372, will become political associations all the adcursu praeda recepta Remi.'

ad coërcendos ignes auxilio esse possint admonerique dominos praediorum ut et ipsi inhibeant, ac si res poposcerit, adcursu populi ad hoc uti.


Votorum nuncupatio


Sollemnia vota pro incolumitate tua, qua publica salus continetur, et suscepimus, domine, pariter et solvimus, precati deos ut velint ea semper solvi semperque signari. 2 suscepimus, Gierig.

suscipimus, B. and Ald.

We have offered our annual vows,

io Latias mundi conventus in aras, sire, for your safety and that of the Suscipit et solvit pro duce vota suo. empire which is involved in it. May Suet. Aug. 97, Tac. Ann. iv 17, ‘ponti. heaven grant that they may always be fices eorumque exemplo ceteri sacerdotes, both offered and confirmed.

cum pro incolumitate principis vota susThis letter was written on the 3rd ciperent, xvi 22,' etc., Gaius, Dig. 16, 233, January 112 A.D.

§ 1. Post Kalendas Ianuarias die tertio sollemnia vota. The 'vota publica' pro salute principis vota suscipiuntur.' for the emperor's safety were solemnly Publica vota were also made on the anni. paid on the Capitol at Rome, in the various versary of the emperor's accession; cf. Ep. camps and in the provinces, and fresh 52, and Panegyr. 94; on his return from vows undertaken for the coming year, on a journey, Suet. Tib. 38, 'vota pro itu the 3rd January. Cf. Plut. Cic. 2, Capitol, et reditu suo suscipi passus’; and on his Pert. 6° denique tertium nonarum diem birthday, Mart. iv 1. (Ianuarii) votis ipsis,' etc., vota solverer signari. Catanaeus says, 'post enim to pay vows for the past year ; suscipere nuncupationem signata servabantur ad vota=to make vows for the coming year ; finem anni cum persolvebantur et alia nuncupare vota=solemnly to repeat the nova nuncupabantur.' vows made. Cf. Mart. viii 4, Quantus



Et solvisse vos cum provincialibus diis inmortalibus vota pro mea salute et incolumitate et nuncupasse libenter, mi Secunde carissime, cognovi ex litteris tuis.

I am rejoiced to hear, my dear Pliny, that you and the provincials have paid

your vows for my safety and renewed them for the coming year.

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