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Pro Rosiano Gemino


Rosianum Geminum, domine, artissimo vinculo mecum tua i in me beneficia iunxerunt. Habui enim illum quaestorem in consulatu ; mei sum observantissimum expertus. Tantam mihi post consulatum reverentiam praestat et publicae necessitudinis

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§ 1. Your kindness, sire, has united tores urbani twelve were the provincial Rosianus Geminus to me by the closest quaestores, and the remaining four were bonds. As quaestor he was most respect- the consular or Italian quaestores. Previ. ful to me in my consulship: and he has ous to 38 B.C. the consuls had had one since then tightened our public connection quaestor each, but Dio Cassius 48, 43, bý private acts of friendship. § 2. I beg Says “ επί δ' 'Αππίου τε Κλαυδίου και Γαϊου therefore that you will, in answer to my Νωρβάνου υπάτων, οίς πρώτους δύο εκατέrequest grant him your special favour. ροις ταμιείαι συνεγένοντο κ.τ.λ.) While I am more sparing in my praise of him the provincial quaestors were assigned to because I feel sure that you are well their provinces by sortitio Vell. Paterc. acquainted with his honesty and zeal, both 2, III; Dio Cass. 53, 28, the consuls had from the offices he has held in the city, the right of selecting theirs for themselves. and from the campaigns in which he has See Plin. Ep. iv 15, 'optamus enim tibi served under you. § 3. I fear that my (i.e., Fundanus) ominamurque in proxirecommendation is inadequate to my mum annum consulatum . affection for him, but I again beseech you autem ut sit eodem anno quaestor, maxi. by advancing my quaestor to increase my mus ex liberis Rufi.. hoc solum dico, dignity in his person.

dignum esse iuvenem quem more maiorum § 1. Rosianum Geminum. His full in filii locum adsumas. For consular title is given Wilm. 1174 and 1175 T. quaestors see also Tac. Ann. xvi 34, Prifernius Sex. fil. Paetus Rosianus quaestor consulis,' and Plin. Ep. viii 23 Geminus, where he is mentioned as one of 5, qua modestia quaestor consulibus suis the patroni lenunculariorum Ostiensium (et plures habuit). As in some respects (boatmen of Ostia); see also Wilm. 1180. the consuls were in Italy what the pro

Pliny writes the following letters to him consuls were in the provinces, their vii 1, 24, viii 5, 22, ix II, 30. He pro- quaestors had certain functions in the bably served as military tribune under administration of Italy. They were jat Trajan in Germany, see below 'ex com- one time stationed (1) at Cales, Tac. Ann. militio'; he was quaestor in 100 A.D. and iv 27 •Curtius Lupus quaestor, cui proin about 108 A. D. (the probable date of vincia vetere ex more Cales evenerant : the publication of Book ix) was probably (2) at Ostia, Vell. Paterc. 2, 94, Suet. holding some office at Lugdunum, Ep. Claud. 24, (3) in Padane Gaul, Suet. ix II.

1. c. 'Collegio quaestorum pro stratura artissimo vinculo; see below on the viarum gladiatorum munus iniunxit, et relations between consul and quaestor. detracta Ostiensi et Gallica provincia,

tua in me beneficia, with special curam aerarii Saturni reddidit.' Plut. reference to the consulship.

Sert. 4 ταμιάς αποδείκνυται της περί quaestorem in consulatu. The Πάδον Γαλατίας ;' (4) possibly at Lilynumber of quaestors under the empire was

See also Dio Cass. 35, 4, 'of twenty. In their election the emperor had Augustus και ταμίας εν τε τη παραλία certain candidati, usually two, who when τη τρός τη πόλει και εν ετέροις τισί της appointed were quaestores principis or Ιταλίας χωρίοις άρχειν εποίησε.' Their Caesaris or Augusti and had special Italian administration was put an end to duties. Of the rest two were the quaes- by Claudius, Suet. Claud. 24, and Dio


2 pignera privatis cumulat officiis. Rogo ergo ut ipse apud te

pro dignitate eius precibus meis faveas, cui et, si quid mihi credis, indulgentiam tuam dabis. Dabit ipse operam ut in iis quae ei mandaveris maiora mereatur. Parciorem me in laudando facit quod spero tibi et integritatem eius et probitatem et industriam

non solum ex eius honoribus, quos in urbe sub oculis tuis gessit, 3 verum etiam ex commilitio esse notissimam.

Illud unum, quod propter caritatem eius nondum mihi videor satis plene fecisse, etiam atque etiam facio teque, domine, rogo gaudere me exornata quaestoris mei dignitate, id est per illum mea, quam maturissime velis.

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Cass 6ο, 24 τοις μεν ούν ταμιείαις την διοίκησιν αντί των αρχών των εν τη Ιταλία έξω της πόλεως αντέδωκε,' and since that time they seem to have assisted the consuls in the urban business. The quaestors were always regarded as in a semi-filial relation to their consuls or proconsuls, see Plin. Ep. iv 15, quoted above, and Cic. ad fam. xiii 10 ‘hanc quaestura coniunctionem liberorum necessitudini proxi. mam esse.

tantam=tantamdem, quite as much.

privatis cumulat officiis. Pliny's letters show that they were on intimate terms. Geminus tells Pliny that his books are sold in Lugdunum, somewhat to his surprise bibliopolas Lugduni esse non putabam' Ep. ix 11.

§ 2. ut ipse apud te... indulgentiam tuam dabis. There are several difficul. ties in this passage, and probably the reading may be partly corrupt. 'Apud te' and 'cui et'are especially hard to explain. Döring supposes a strong antithesis between 'ipse apud te precibus meis faveas and 'cui et indulgentiam tuam dabis,' the former being a request for Trajan's good opinion of Rosianus, the latter for some positive promotion, the 'et' having a heightening force. But 'ipse apud te' is a very awkward expression for in your own mind' and the 'preces' are certainly not for Trajan's good opinion, but for his 'indulgentia'; 'pro dignitate' again does not mean 'as his worth deserves,' but' in a manner commensurate with his station.' Precibus meis faveas, and indulgentiam tuam dare, must be taken as synonymous expressions, the latter serving somewhat clearly to define the former. I should prefer to take 'ipse apud te'as by your personal intervention’; the 'et'I should

join to 'tuam'; and translate 'I beg you therefore personally to attend to my petition, and if you attach any weight to my recommendation, you will also grant him the favour as your own.'

ut maiora mereatur to deserve still higher promotion. ex eius honoribus, quos in urbe

gessit. Rosianus was quaestor 100-101 ; he would then be either tribune or aedile, in either case after a full year's interval ; he may also possibly have been praetor during the interval before the date of this letter, and Pliny may be asking for some praetorian appointment for him such as 'legatio legionis.'

verumetiamexcommilitio. Mommsen supposes that Rosianus was tribunus militum in the Dacian wars; but the military tribuneship was held before and not

after the quaestorship, cf. the case of Trajan himself and Pliny. See also Plin. Ep. vi 3!, 4, and therefore it seems best to refer the commilitium to Trajan's command in Upper Germany. Or Rosianus may have served in the Dacian wars as praefect of an auxiliary cohort.

$ 3. illud unum, explained by rogo.

propter caritatem eius qualifies nondum videor.

etiam atque etiam, not again and again,' but most urgently;' cf. Cic. Verr. ii 5, 72, 'haec quamquam nihilo meliora sunt

nunc etiam atque etiam multo desperatiora,' and Lucret. I, 295,

quare etiam atque etiam sunt venti corpora caeca.'

exornata ; cf. Pliny h. n. vii 43,‘L. Fulvius . . . eodem honore exornatus.'

id est per illum mea ‘in other words, mine in his person.'

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De militibus Maximo procuratori adsignandis


Maximus, libertus et procurator tuus, domine, praeter decem beneficiarios, quos adsignari a me Gemellino, optimo viro, iussisti, sibi quoque confirmat necessarios esse milites sex, Tres interim, sicut inveneram, in ministerio eius relinquendos ex4 Ex his interim sicut inveneram, B. The reading in the text is Mommand Ald.

sen's conjecture.

Your procurator Maximus declares that in addition to the ten beneficiarii, whom by your orders I assigned to Gemellinus, he also must have six. Meanwhile I have left the three he already had in his service, especially as he is going to procure corn in Paphlagonia. Indeed I have added two horsemen as an escort. I beg you to send out word what your wishes are for the future.

Maximus. M. Ulpius Maximus was sub-procurator to Gemellinus; see Ep. 28; he is mentioned Ep. 89.

libertus. The more important procurators were usually taken from the equestrian order, but the inferior and less important posts were filled by freedmen; see Friedländer, vol. i p, 98.

procurator tuus. One class of procurators was concerned with the collection and settlement of all money paid into the fiscus, both in the imperial and senatorial provinces ; cf. Tac. Ann. iv 6; res suas Caesar spectatissimo cuique, quibusdam ignotis ex fama mandabat ; cf. also Tac. Ann. xiii 1, Ministri fuere P. Celer, eques Romanus, et Helius libertus, rei familiari principis in Asia impositi.' Of procurators in senatorial provinces we have examples in Tac. Ann. iv 15, ‘procurator Asiae,' Tac. Hist. iv 50; 'Baebius Massa e procuratoribus Africae.' Orell. 3570, proc. prov. Baeticae. Henz. 5456 proc. prov. Narbonensis Orell. 485, proc. Ciliciae, etc., etc. In Bithynia there was a procurator since the province became senatorial, in 27 B.C., to manage the royal domains which had passed into the emperor's possession. See Dio Cass. 50, 33, and Tac. Ann. xii 21, for Iunius Cilo, who was for four years procurator Bithyniae, or as Tacitus says, proc. Ponti.' Other procurators of the pro.

vince are C. Iulius Aquila under Nero, C. I. Gr. 3743. L. Antonius Naso under Vespasian Eckhel 11. 404 : and Terentius Maximus under Domitian Plin. ad Trai. 58. After Bithynia became an imperial province (see Introd.) there were several procurators in the province; (I) the procurator Ponti et Bithyniae who took the place of the proconsul's quaestor; (2) a procurator of the emperor's estates. Henz. 5530, proc. tam patrimonii quam rationum privatarum ;' (3) a proc. ad vectig. xx hered. per Pontum et Bithyniam,' i.e. of the vicesima hereditatum ; (4) a proc. xx lib. C. I. L. iii 249 (vicesima libertatis); and (5) a procurator for the import duty of 2} per cent. Henz. 5530. Pliny had at least three procurators under him, Gemellinus, Maximus, his adjutor, and Epimachus ; see Ep. 84. These procuratores rei privatae, etc., must be distinguished from (1) the procurators who had the sole financial administration of the imperial provinces and who on occcasions even had some military power, Tac. Ann. iv 32; and (2) those procurators who were placed by the emperors over the smaller imperial provinces which had no legions quartered in them, such as Judaea, Thrace, etc., see Tac. Hist. i 11; duae Mauretaniae, Raetia, Noricum, Thracia, et quae aliae procuratoribus cohibentur,' Ann. xv 44. See Mommsen Staatsrecht ii 235; Marquadt Staatsverw i p. 555.

beneficiarios. See supra on Ep. 21.

Gemellino. Virdius Gemellinus was a procurator of Bithynia ; see infra, Ep. 28 and 84.

optimo viro. Gemellinus was probably not a freedman, as is also implied in Ep. 84, 'adhibitis Virdio Gemellino et Epimacho liberto meo procuratoribus.

istimavi, praesertim cum ad frumentum comparandum iret in Paphlagoniam. Quin etiam tutelae causa, quia ita desiderabat, addidi duos equites. In futurum quid servari velis rogo rescribas.

necessarios esse milites sex. Tres sis et Liguriae,' and Henz. 6522 quoted interim sicut inveneram. This is above. Wilm. 1063. In many of the Mommsen's emendation for the reading provinces, however, and especially those of the Aldine ed., 'milites, ex his interim which were not especially corn - growing sicut inveneram?' Keil supposes that countries, the governors themselves had to a numeral has dropped out both after attend to the corn-supply both for their milites and after interim ; but 'ex his own armies, the provincials, and Rome. would still be very awkward, and may Thus Orell. 750 'we hear of Ti. Plautius well represent 'sex. tris' of the M.s. The Silvanus leg. Aug. prov. Moesiae,' that he previous arrangement, therefore, had been 'primus ex ea provincia magno tritici that Gemellinus had ten soldiers, and modo populum Romanum adlevavit'; Maximus three, which Pliny, awaiting and similarly here Pliny sends one of his Trajan's instructions made up to five from procurators to collect corn from Paphlahis own cohorts. After Trajan's rescript gonia. All payments for corn to supply in Ep. 28, 'cum ad pristinum actum re. the capital or the army were made from versus fuerit,' he was to keep the duo the fiscus; Plin. Panegyr. 29, ‘Emit fiscus equites,' and to have two of the ten quidquid videtur emere, inde copiae, soldiers of Gemellinus, while the other inde annona.' For the abuses and three which Maximus had had when oppression in connection with the exacPliny arrived were restored to their head- tion of corn in the provinces, see Cic. quarters.

Verr. ïïi 82; Tac. Agric. 19. ad frumentum comparandum. in Paphlagoniam. Paphlagonia was Trajan had from the very beginning of originally a district intermediate between his reign laid special stress on facilitating Bithynia and Pontus. It was bounded the corn trade throughout the empire. on the north by the Euxine, on the south He established corn factories in various by the mountain-chain of Olgassys, on places ; and thus guarded against the the east by the Halys, and on the west possibility of famine, not only in Rome, by the Parthenius. After the conquest but in every part of the empire, Plin. of Mithridates, Pompeius joined the seaPanegyr. 29 ‘Instar ego perpetui congi- coast of Paphlagonia to the new province arii reor affluentiam annonae ;' so that of Pontus, while the interior of the Egypt itself was on one occasion assisted country he gave back to native dynasts, by the capital, Panegyr. 30. The magis. Strabo. xii p. 541. The strip of coast trate who had the supreme direction of land belonged permanently to Pontusthe corn supply of Rome was the 'prae- Bithynia, but the interior was, during the fectus annonae ; Tac. Ann. i. 7, 13, 22. first century, made a part of Galatia; see See Wilm. 691, 1271, 1252, 641, etc. Henz. 6912 and Marquadt i p. 358. He was the representative of the emperor, Paphlagonia was generally a mountainand it was his special duty to provide ous district, and it was only in the plains the Roman market with corn, and in later along the coast, i.e. in the part belonging times with the necessaries of life, Henz. to Bithynia, and so under Pliny's com6522 ; adiutori Ulpii Saturnini praef. mand, that any corn was grown. Amasannon. ad oleum Afrum et Hispanum re- tris, Aboniteichos and Sinope (see Ep. censendum,' etc. The praefectus had 98, 99, 90, 91) were all in the coast-strip agents and assistants in the various pro- of Paphlagonia. vinces, see Orell. 3655,. procurator duos equites. See supra on Ep. 21. Augg. ad annonam provinciae Narbonen




Nunc quidem proficiscentem ad conparationem frumento

rum Maximum, libertum meum, recte militibus instruxisti. Fungebatur enim et ipse extraordinario munere. Cum ad pristinum actum reversus fuerit, sufficient illi duo a te dati milites et totidem a Virdio Gemellino, procuratore meo, quem adiuvat.

You were right to supply Maximus with a military escort while he is engaged in procuring corn. But when he returns to his usual duties, your two soldiers and two more from Virdius Gemellinus will be quite sufficient.

frumentorum. This is especially used of standing corn; cf. Caes. Bell. Gall. i 16, 2. Sall. Hist. iii 67, 20. Hor. Ep. i 16, 72. It cannot, however, have this meaning here, as the letter must have been written at least as late as November; cf. Ep. 25.

et ipse, i.e., as well as Gemellinus, to whom he was usually an adjutor.

extraordinario munere. A special mission’; here almost "an independent command,' as, the procurators being concerned with the fiscus, there was nothing extraordinary in their being sent to procure corn ; see supra.

ad pristinum actum. On actus' in the sense of munus, see Suet. Claud. 15 and 23; and the phrase in the Digest ab actu removeri.'

duo a te dati milites. Cf. supra, 'addidi duos equites.

De servis inter tirones inventis

C. PLINIUS TRAIANO IMPERATORI Sempronius Caelianus, egregius iuvenis, repertos inter I tirones duos servos misit ad me; quorum ego supplicium distuli, ut te conditorem disciplinae militaris firmatoremque con

§ 1. Sempronius Caelianus reports that two slaves have been discovered among the enlisted soldiers. I have postponed their punishment until I have consulted you ; § 2. 'and the more so, as though they have taken the military oath, they have not yet been assigned to any legion. As the matter is important as a precedent, I should be glad of your guidance.

§ 1. Sempronius Caelianus, egregius iuvenis. Probably a military tribune, or a praefect of some military cohort.

repertos inter tirones duos servos. Slaves were never allowed to serve in the army. The rule was: 'ab omni militia servi prohibentur : alioquin capite puniuntur'; cf. Livy xxii, 33; 'servi quinque et viginti in crucem acti quod in campo Martio coniurassent,' where 'coniurare' means to take the military oath. On occasions of necessity, however, slaves were sometimes enlisted, as after the battle of Cannae, Livy xxii 56, II. In the civil wars, too, slaves were enlisted : by Marius, Plut. Mar. 41 and 43: by Pompeius, Caes., Bell. Civ.

i 24, 2: by Labienus, Caes. Bell. Afri. 19, 3, by Cn. Pompeius App. Bell. Civ. ii, 103, etc. Even libertini were properly excluded from military service, for which ingenuitas was a necessary condition. The emperor, however, could always in particular cases evade this by the fictitious

natalium restitutio,' and in serious crises freedmen were enrolled in considerable numbers. Suet. Aug. 25, libertino inilite bis usus est : semel ad praesidium coloniarum Illyricum contingentium: iterum ad tutelam ripae Rheni fluminis.' With regard to the recruiting system generally Mommsen has shown in Hermes xix ; (1) that in imperial provinces recruits were enrolled both for the legions and for the auxilliary forces; (2) that in senatorial provinces only legionaries were recruited ; and (3) that the oriental legions were usually supplied from the oriental provinces, and the western from Gaul, Spain, Italy, and Germany. With regard to Bithynia we know that in the time of Trajan a large number of its recruits were sent to the African legion, III Au

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