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paucos milites addidi. Video tamen periculum esse ne id ipsum utrisque neglegentiae causa sit, dum communem culpam hi in illos, illi in hos regerere posse confidunt. 3 regerere, B. and Cat.

regere, Avant, and Ald.

XX [XXXI]

TRAIANUS PLINIO S. Nihil opus est, mi Secunde carissime, ad continendas custodias plures commilitones converti. Perseveremus in ea consuetudine quae isti provinciae est, ut per publicos servos custodiantur. Etenim ut fideliter hoc faciant in tua severitate ac diligentia positum est In primis enim, sicut scribis, verendum est ne, si permisceantur servis publicis milites, mutua inter se fiducia neglegentiores sint: sed et illud haereat nobis, quam paucissimos milites a signis avocandos esse. I opus est, Cat.

opus sit, B. and Ald.

There is no need, my Pliny, to employ more soldiers to guard the prisoners ; better to abide by the custom of the province and use the public slaves. Their loyalty must be your care.

As you say, by employing both, you will make both careless, and I am particularly anxious that the soldiers should not be called away from their standards.

commilitones. Augustus in his desire to restore military discipline never used this term of the soldiers. Suet. Aug. 25,

neque post bella civilia aut in concione aut per edictum ullos militum commili. tones appellabat sed milites : ac ne a filiis quidem aut privignis suis, imperio praeditis aliter appellari passus est: ambitiosius id existimans quam aut ratio militaris aut temporum quies aut sua domusque suae maiestas postularet.' After the Julio-Claudian line, however, the emperors were much more dependent on

Galba twice addresses his soldiers in this way (Suet. Galb. 20): 'quid agitis commilitones? ego vester sum, et vos mei'; and (Tac. Hist. i 35)

to the soldier who boasted that he had
killed Otho, 'commilito, inquit, quis
iussit?' Trajan, whose early life had been
spent in the camp, took especial pains to
win the confidence and affection of his
soldiers. See Plin. Panegyr. § 13, 'cum
tecum inediam, tecum ferrent sitim;
non tibi moris tua inire tentoria, nisi
commilitonum ante lustrasses, nec requiem
corpori nisi post omnes dare'; 'in prae-
sentia quidem, quisquis paulo vetustior
miles, hic te commilitone censetur.
Quotus enim quisque cuius tu non ante
commilito quam imperator?' Dio Cass.

68, 23.

in ea consuetudine quae isti provinciae est. For this observance of local customs see Ep. 68 109, 115, 113, 48, 93.

mutua inter se fiducia, by each relying on the other.

illud haereat nobis, let us abide by the general rule.

quam paucissimos milites a signis avocandos. Cf. Ep. 22.

the army.

XXI [XXXII]
De numero militum Gabio Basso praefecto adsignatorum

C. PLINIUS TRAIANO IMPERATORI
Gabius Bassus, praefectus orae Ponticae, et reverentissime

et officiosissime, domine, venit ad me et conpluribus diebus fuit mecum ; quantum perspicere potui, vir egregius et indulgentia tua dignus. Cui ego notum feci praecepisse te ut ex cohortibus quibus me praeesse voluisti contentus esset beneficiariis decem, equitibus duobus, centurione uno. Respondit non sufficere sibi hunc numerum idque se scripturum tibi. Hoc in causa fuit quo minus statim revocandos putarem quos habet supra numerum.

Gabius Bassus, the praefect of the Pontic compluribus diebus. For the ablacoast, has been with me for some days. tive in the sense of duration see Roby, As far as I could see, he is well worthy Lat. Gr. 1184, 1185. It is only found in of your favour.

I told him that he must post-Augustan Latin ; cf. Tać. Hist. i be content with the number of soldiers 53, quatuordecim annis exilium toleryou specified. He declares that they are avit'; and the common phrase on sepul. insufficient, and promises to write to you. chral inscriptions 'vixit annis xx.' etc. Meanwhile I have not recalled those ex cohortibus quibus me praeesse whom he has in excess of the number. voluisti. We have no means of know

§ 1. Gabius Bassus. Mentioned again ing what cohorts they were, except that in Ep. 86.

one was a cohors sexta equestris ; see praefectus orae Ponticae. Gener- Ep. 106. The auxiliary cohorts were ally speaking, a praefectus was one ap- either quingenariae with 500 men; or pointed as a deputy for another. In the miliariae with 1000; either of these again provinces the praefecti were, compared might be equitata.' The cohors miliaria with the governor, permanent officials, equitata had 240 cavalry and 760 infantry; under the republic appointed by the the coh. quinq. eq. had 120 cavalry and governors themselves from the number of 380 infantry. Marquadt, Staatsverw ii. their friends, Corn. Nep. Attic. 6; Cic.

p. 470. ad Attic. vi 3, 6, under the empire, pro- beneficiariis decem. All soldiers bably by the emperors.

Of these some below the rank of centurion who were were appointed to civil, others to military raised above the position of common duties. The latter were usually taken soldiers either by exemption from the from the praefecti or tribuni of auxiliary munera of the camp, or by any special cohorts. They had separate commands, duty, were called principales; hi sunt generally at outlying stations, or to pro- milites principales qui privilegiis munitect a particular frontier. The number untur,' Vegetius 2, 7. The conferment of troops under them naturally depended of any of these privileges was a benefion the danger and importance of the cium; and the recipients were the benepost. Thus (Tac. Hist. iv 65) Iulius ficiarii of those superiors who granted the Tutor was 'ripae Rheni a Vitellio prae- privileges. Cf. Tac. Hist. i 25, 'primores fectus,' i.e. he was entrusted with the militum per beneficia Nymphidii suspecprotection of the Rhine frontier, and tos.' Each of the higher officers had a would need considerable troops. Again certain number of beneficiarii whom he we find a praefectus ripae Auminis could himself select and employ for special Euphratis,' Henz. 6943, which would purposes. Cf. Tac. Hist. iv 48, 'aequatus also be an important post; and a 'prae- inter duos beneficiorum numerus’; and fectus ripae Tibisci Danuvii,' Orell. 3234. we find in inscrip. bf. of the legatus ; The 'praefectus orae maritumae conven- the praefectus legionis : the praefectus tus Tarraconensis' Wilmann, 1611, and praetorio; and of the procuratores; see the 'praefectus orae Ponticae' would Marquadt, ii, p. 549; see Wilmann, have a less important charge, and may 98, 1727, 1566, etc. The beneficiarii, probably have had to look after the im- therefore, were picked soldiers, from port duties, and to act as coast-guard whom promotions to superior appointofficers. Cf. the Praefectura Nymphaei ments were made. portus in Sardinia, Bormann Bullett. dell' equitibus duobus, belonging to a Inst. 1869, p. 182, and cf. Cagnat, de cohors equitata or equestris. Municipalibus et Provincialibus Militiis, hoc in causa fuit quominus = hac

causa prohibitus sum quominus.

6

p. 16 ff.

XXII [XXXII]

TRAIANUS PLINIO S. Et mihi scripsit Gabius Bassus non sufficere sibi eum militum numerum qui ut daretur illi mandatis meis complexus sum. Cui quae rescripsissem ut notum haberes, his litteris subici iussi. Multum interest in tempus poscat an hoc munere uti latius velit. Nobis autem utilitas demum spectanda est, et quantum fieri potest, curandum ne milites a signis absint. 3 cui quae rescripsissem, Keil.

res poscat an homines imperare latius quid quaeris scripsisse me? B. and Ald. velint, Cat. 4 Keil's conjecture in the text.

tempus poscat an homines iure uti te poscat an homines in se ut latius latius verint. Orell.

velint. B. and Ald.

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Gabius Bassus has written to me that old editions,—te poscat an homines in the number of soldiers which I assigned se ut latius velint.' Catanaeus conjechim is insufficient. My answer I have tured, 'res poscat an homines imperare ordered to be annexed for your informa- latius velint'; imperare, however, as tion. It is important to distinguish Döring points out, is inapplicable to a between a temporary demand and a petty, official like the praefectus orae permanent increase of forces. We must Ponticae ; Orelli reads 'tempus poscat look to the general advantage, maintain- an homines iure uti latius velint,' which, ing as far as possible the rule to keep though generally accepted, seems hardly soldiers by their standards.

satisfactory. Homines is hardly a suitmandatis meis complexus sum. able expression; and the phrase iure uti For this sense of complecti, to sum up in latius is vague and indefinite. I have speech or writing, cf. Cic. Phil. xiv II, adopted Keil's suggestion, in tempus 29. causas complectar ipsa sententia.' poscat an hoc munere uti latius velit,' as Lewis and Short cite also Quintil. iii 6, 13. at least giving a clear antithesis between cui quae rescripsissem.

This is

the two clauses. For the omission of Keil's emendation for the unsatisfactory utrum, cf. Ep. 30. reading of the Aldine edition : 'quid demum, exclusively. This is a purely quaeris scripsisse me?' which Döring and post - Augustan use of the word; cf. J. C. Orelli retain. Gebauer's conjec- Quintil. ii 15, I, 'adeo suis demum ture was 'quoi quae rescripserim.'

oculis credidit,' and i 4, 29, quaedam his litteris subici iussi. Trajan sends verba tertiae demum personae figura dicunPliny a copy of his rescript to Gabius tur, ut licet, piget'; Suet. Oth. 6, ‘nihil Bassus.

magis testatus est quam id demum se multum interest ... latius velit. habiturum quod sibi ipsi reliquissent,' This passage is very corrupt, and modern and Aug. 16, 'uno demum navigio.' editors have attempted in various ways ne milites a signis absint. Cf. to make something out of the text of the supra, Ep. 20.

XXIII [XXXIIII]
De balineo Prusensium

I

C. PLINUS TRAIANO IMPERATORI Prusenses, domine, balineum habent et sordidum et vetus. § 1. The people of Prusa, sire, have an your permission they wish to restore. My old and dilapidated bath-house, which with own opinion is that a new one should be

Idque tam inutile aestimant ut novum fieri debeat quod videris mihi desiderio eorum indulgere posse. Erit enim pecunia ex 2 i itaque tamen aestimamus novam

tuere desiderant: ego tamen aestifieri quod B.

mans novum fieri debere videris, Id itaque indulgentia tua resti

Ald.

built, and I think you may safely grant has long been considered hopelessly cortheir request. § 2. Money will be forth- rupt. Aldus read ‘Id itaque indulgentia coming for the work. I am already tua restituere desiderant : ego tamen aesbeginning to recover certain sums from timans novum fieri debere videris,' etc., private individuals, and the town is which Keil prints in his edition with a prepared to spend on a bath-house the lacuna after aestimans, remarking in his grants which they have hitherto made for note, ' lacuna quam indicavi pretium oil. Besides the rank of the community quanti balneum restituendum Plinius and the prestige of your reign demand that aestimavit cum

verbo finito ex quo the work should be carried out.

reliqua pendebant, excidisse videtur.' 'In § 1. balineum. Few towns either in this case, however, we should surely Italy or the provinces were without their expect' posse 'rather than 'debere.' Now public bath or baths. The vicus near the Bodleian MS. reads after sordidum Pliny's Laurentine villa had three, Ep. et vetus,' 'itaque tamen aestimamus ii 17, 26. These were sometimes built novum fieri quod videris.' This, I think, at the publicexpense, Henz. 6985, 'colonis proves that the sentence 'Id itaque . incolis peregrinis lavandis gratis D.D. desiderant,' is an interpolation of Aldus, P.P. (i.e., decreto decurionum publica while it seems to me capable of being pecunia); sometimes by private munifi- restored as I have printed it in the text cence, Orell. 2287, `qui lavationem gra- without any very violent alteration ; tuitam municip. incoleis hospitib. et desiderio eorum

would of course be adventorib. uxorib. serveis ancilleisque ablative not dative after indulgere. eor. in perpetuom dedit,' Henz. 6625. desiderio, petition. For this postThey were sometimes free from pay- Augustan sense cf. Tac. Ann. i 19, ment, as in the cases above ; some- desideria militum ad Caesarem ferenda times 'meritoria.' At Rome the usual Suet. Aug. 17, donec desideria militum charge was a quadrans ; cf. Juv. vi ordinarentur,' Plin. Panegyr. 79, 'videmus 447, 'quadrante lavari,' and Hor. Sat, i ut provinciarum desideriis occurrat.' 3, 137 ; in smaller places it was rather quam revocare a privatis. See

The baths were leased to a supra. Ep. 17. manager who had to comply with certain quam ipsi erogari in oleum coliti. set conditions ; cf. Juv. vii 4, 'balne- It was no uncommon thing for individuals olum Gabiis ... conducere,' and Hübner to leave bequests to provide oil graand Momms. Lex Metalli Vipascensis, tuitously at the baths on certain annivercited by Friedländer III, p. 133. An saries, cf. Wilm. 2080 d, 'Caesiae Sabinae interesting inscr. is Orell. 3890, ‘T. Varius Cn. Caesi Athieti. Haec sola feminarum Rufinus . balineum p(ecunia) omnium matribus ē vir. et sororibus et p(ublice) +(ributa) factum quod respublica filiab. et omnis ordinis mulieribus municip. a novo refecerat incendio maxima ex parte epulum dedit diebusque ludorum et epuli consumptum operibus ampliatis pec. sua viri sui balneum cum oleo gratuito dedit.' restituit,' also Orell. 2222, 3982, 'balneum Orell. 748. hic ob dedicationem refectum dec. decr. pecun. public.' A statuarum equestris et pedestris oleum splendid idea of the public baths of a plebei utriusque sexui dedit;' Wilm. 309 municipal town may be gained from the et eadem die ex denariis cc oleum in therThermae Stabianae at Pompeii. The Baths mas publicas populo praeberi.' See also of Caracalla at Rome are the best example Gruter, p. 376, 5. “L. Cecilius HS.N. of the magnificent baths of the capital. xxx municipibus Comensibus legavit,

The forms balneum and balineum are quorum reditu quotannis per Neptunalia both found; the latter being most usual oleum in campo et in thermis et balineis in the prose writers of the post-Augustan omnibus quae sunt Comi populo praeage and in inscr. Juvenal, however, has beretur.' It is possible, however, that balnea. In the plur. the word is usually the oil was provided not for the baths, but heteroclite balneae, balineae.

for the home consumption of the people. idque tam inutile etc. This passage

At Rome distributions of oil among

more.

qua fiat, primum ea quam revocare a privatis et exigere iam coepi, deinde quam ipsi erogare in oleum soliti, parati sunt in opus balinei conferre ; quod alioqui et dignitas civitatis et saeculi tui nitor postulat. the people were common in republican down the price of oil, cf. Plin. h. n. 15, times, cf. Liv. XXV 2, 8; Suet. Caes

. 38, 2, and Plut. Caes. 55. and measures were taken for keeping saeculi tui. Cf. on Ep. 1.

XXIIII [XXXV]

TRAIANUS PLINIO S.

Si instructio novi balinei oneratura vires Prusensium non est, possumus desiderio eorum indulgere ; modo ne quid ideo aut intribuatur aut minus illis in posterum fiat ad necessarias erogationes.

3, intribuantur, B. and Ald.

If the construction of a new bath will not cripple the resources of Prusa, we may grant their request, only let no special tax be levied, and nothing must be taken from necessary expenses.

ne quid ideo intribuatur. Let no tax be levied for that purpose; a rare legal expression found in no other author.

ad necessarias erogationes ; see on Ep. 17, 3.

XXV [X]
De adventu Servilii

C. PLINIUS TRAIANO IMPERATORI

Servilius Pudens legatus, domine, VIII Kal. Decembres Nicomediam venit meque longae expectationis solicitudine liberavit.

Servilius Pudens, my legate, arrived on praetorii) τρείς δε οι υπατευκότες 'the 24th Nov. at Nicomedia and relieved (consulares),' cf. also Cic. ad fam. i 1, 2, my long suspense.

4, and ad Quint. fr. I 3, 10, where Servilius Pudens. See Momms. Gabinius and Quintus, governors of Syria Hermes, iii 99.

and Asia respectively, each have three legatus. The proconsuls of the sena. legati. Cf. also the republican libera torial provinces had under them as asses- legatio.' Marquadt. Staatsverw, i p. 551. sores, legati pro praetore. The proconsuls Nicomediam venit. On Nicomedeia of Africa and Asia had three each ; the the capital of the province see Ep. 31. rest only one. They were solely employed Pliny has by Nov. 24 passed from Prusa in judicial and administrative business. to Nicomedeia. Their Greek title was usually παρεδρεύον- longae expectationis. Pliny's legate

Pliny, as holding the place of the seems to have followed him from Rome, proconsul of Bithynia, would have one and owing to some delays on the road not legatus. See Dio Cass., 53, 14, “TO'S to have arrived till two months later. δε δή παρέδρους αυτός εαυτώ έκαστος Pliny would naturally be both anxious and αίρειται, ένα μεν οι εστρατηγηκότες (i.e. inconvenienced.

TES.

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