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tuum in provincia celebrare. Nunc rei publicae Prusensium 3 inpendia reditus debitores excutio ; quod ex ipso tractatu magis

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natalem tuum celebrare. From ii, p. 236 R, πρώτον μεν ώ άνδρες το κραthe time of Iulius Caesar the birthday of τίστω Ουαρίνω δεί χάριν ημάς ειδέναι ότι the princeps was observed as a public βουλομένοις ημίν εκκλησιάσαι πάλιν έφηκεν.' holiday. Dio Cass. 44, 4, tá te yevodca inpendia reditus debitores excuαυτού δημοσία θύειν εψηφίσαντο.So Suet. tio. From the time of Trajan the indeAug. 57, ‘Equites Romani natalem eius pendence of the municipal towns, whether sponte atque consensu biduo semper

cele- liberae or not, both in Italy and the probrarunt.' Dio Cass. 51, 19, ‘ěv Te tois vinces,

was increasingly interfered with by γενεθλίοις αυτού (i.e. Augustus)

the central authority, and this particularly ιερομηνίας είναι (εψηφίσαντο).’ So the in respect of their finances, which in too German legions (Dio Cass. 56, 25), many cases fell into disorder. To revise “ου πάνυ πόρρω του Ρήνου προήλθον, αλλ' and arrange these, curatores rei publicae αυτού που μέχρι του μετοπώρου μείναντες were sent out to particular towns Henz. Kal Toll Aůyovotov qevélca èoptáoavtes, 6484, Wilmann, 2167 and 2479, or someκαί τινα ιπποδρομίαν εν αυτοίς διά των εκα- times to a group of towns, Henz. 5126. τοντάρχου ποιήσαντες επανήλθον.'. On Occasionally, however, a whole province the birth of young Caius Caesar (Dio was so embarrassed that the financial Cass. 54, 8) βoυθυσία τις τοις γενεθλίοις oversight of all its communities was put αυτού αίδιος εδόθη.' Tiberius took it as a into the hands of a nominee of the emsign that Sejanus was aiming at the first peror. Thus, under Trajan, Sex. Quinplace (Suet. Tib. 65) 'quum iam et tilius Maximus (Plin. Ep. viii 24) was natalem eius publice celebrari... videret.' missus in provinciam Achaiam ad ordinSee also Dio Cass. 60, 12, 'kal yev- andum statum liberarum civitatum': so έθλια τα της Μεσσαλίνης δημοσία ετίμων.' Henz. 6483, 'legatus divi Hadriani ad The birthdays of the emperors were also rationes civitatum Syriae putandas,' observed after their death, Dio Cass. Henz. 6506, 'curator civitatum univer59, 24, και εψηφίσθη άλλα τε και να τους sarum provinciae Siciliae,' Henz. 6484, TOŮ Tißnplou kai toîs rîs Apovoimansyeved- logista Syriae.' Sometimes the financial λίοις τα αυτά άπερ και τους του Αυγούστου duties of the curator or logista (Cod. Iust. giyuntai.' So Domitian forbade the cele- 1, 54, 3) were united to a more general bration of Titus's birthday, Dio Cass. authority. Thus, C. I. Gr. 4033, Tiberius 67, 2, και την ιπποδρομίαν τήν τών Iulius Severus was προς πέντε ράβδους γενεθλίων αυτού κατέλυσε.'

πεμφθείς εις Βιθυνίαν διορθωτής και λογισreipublicae Prusensium. Prusa, της υπό θεού 'Αδριανού.Pliny (for whose the birthplace of Dio Chrysostom, was formal title see inscr. p. 16) probably situated at the foot of the Olympus united the offices of loyiotýs and range. According to Pliny, Nat. Hist. διορθωτής. See De la Berge, p. 119; v 32, it was founded by Hannibal. It, Mommsen, Staatsrecht., ii p. 1037 ; however, more probably owed its origin Marquadt Staatsverw. i p. 162. We find to Prusias himself. It formed one of him regulating or considering the finances the dolKÝgels into which Pompeius of Sinope (Ep. 90), Nicomedeia (Ep. 37) divided Bithynia, and was also a con- Nicaea and Claudiopolis (Ep. 39), Byzanventus or administrative district of the tium (Ep. 43), Apamaea (Ep. 47), Amisus province; Dio Chr. ii p. 199 R, 'kal (Ep. 92). μην το νυν συμβεβηκός περί την ημετέραν tractatu, an emendation of Ritterπόλιν το μεν αληθες άπτεται πολλών και husius for the Aldine reading 'tractu.' κνίζει τους άλλους πάντας, ότι δή τας δίκας, It is now confirmed by the Bodleian MS., υμείς αποδέχεσθε και παρ' υμίν αυτούς which has tractatu in the scribe's hand in åváykn kplveo dai.' It did not, however, the margin. For a similar doubt cf. Ep. attain to the rank of a libera civitas, for 96 $ 4. Dio says, ii p. 199, Tallra ydp (i.e. the multae enim pecuniae... a privatis tribunals of the Conventus) υμάς πλέον detinentur. Money so detained either ονήσει της ελευθερίας αυτής, εάν άρα και by magistrates or private individuals was τούτου τύχητέ ποτε, and it was necessary called 'residuae pecuniae.' A Lex Iulia to obtain leave from the proconsul to of Augustus brought this offence under the hold the public assembly Dio Chr. Or. 48, head of peculatus, Dig. 48, 13, 2, ‘lege

ac magis necessarium intellego. Multae enim pecuniae variis

ex causis a privatis detinentur : praeterea quaedam minime 4 legitimis sumptibus erogantur. Haec tibi, domine, in ipso

ingressu meo scripsi.
Iulia de residuis tenetur qui pecuniam to make grants of public money for oil for
delegatam in usum aliquem retinuit neque the baths, quam ipsi erogare in oleum
in eum consumpsit : qui pecuniam publi- soliti.' Trajan allows them by a special
cam in usus aliquos retinuerit nec ero- favour (indulgentia) to divert this to the
gaverit : apud quem pecunia publica re- 'instructio novi balinei,' but neither of
sedit : qui in tabulis publicis minorem these applications of money was strictly
pecuniam scripserit, aliud ve quid simile legitimate: nor again was the grant of

commiserit.' The punishment was resti- 12,000 HS. by the Byzantines for sending * one third tution of the money pluk half of its

amount

. a legatus every year to the emperor with See Pauly, Real Encylop. vii p. 456. a complimentary psephisma : nor that of The investment of the money so called in 3000 HS. for sending a legatus to the placed Pliny in soñe embarrassment; see governor of Moesia (Ep. 43). Extravagant Ep.53, ' pecuniae publicae, domine, provi- expenditure of this kind left insufficient dentia tua et ministerio nostro et iam money for legitimate and necessary objects. exactae sunt et exiguntur ; quae vereor ne erogantur, the technical word for otiosae iaceant.'

grants of public money. minime legitimis sumptibus. These in ipso ingressu meo. These words would be all not included in what are called must not be too closely pressed, as Pliny (Ep. 35) the 'erogationes necessariae.' had already had time to look into the Thus the Prusenses had been accustomed finances of Prusa.

XVII B

C. PLINIUS TRAIANO IMPERATORI

mensorem.

Quinto decimo Kalendas Octobres, domine, provinciam intravi, quam in eo obsequio, in ea erga te fide quam de genere 5 humano mereris inveni. Dispice, domine, an necessarium

I entered my province, sire, on 17th the completion of his journey to the proSeptember and found it well-affected and vince. loyal. Would it not be well to send here a de genere humano. See on Ep. 1. land surveyor ? Considerable sums of

The mensores or agrimoney might probably be recovered from mensores under the empire formed an the contractors of public works if the important college with considerable privimeasurements were accurately taken. I leges and handsome pay. On the practiam already convinced of this from my in- cal side they were concerned with all spection of the financial state of Prusa. boundary questions, whether of public or

The Aldine edition joins this letter to the private land. They had to mark out preceding one. The repetition of the boundaries in the first instance, and were date of entry into the province makes this called upon either as judges or experts in almost impossible, while the frequent all disputed cases. Theoretically their occurrence of 'domine' would increase art was based on an abstruse or special the difficulty. After Pliny had despatched application of mathematical geometry. the former letter, the advisability of get- Subordinate to but connected with the ting a 'mensor' occurred to him. He agrimensores there were bodies of specialthereupon wrote this short letter and sent ists concerned (1) with machine construcit by a different tabellarius, and in case tion, mensores machinarii’Orell. 1567 it might by any chance arrive before the and 4107 (2) camp measurements, 'menother letter, hé more briefly announced sores castrorum 'Or. 3473, and (3) archi

putes mittere huc mensorem. Videntur enim non mediocres pecuniae posse revocari a curatoribus operum, si mensurae fideliter agantur.

Ita certe prospicio ex ratione Prusensium, quam cum maxime tracto. 3 aguntur B. agantur, Ald. 3 quam cum maxime, B. quam cum Maximo, Ald.

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rarum

tectural measurements 'mensores ædifici- .. dona atque ornamenta templorum orum Or. 3223. It was one of these surripuisse et commutasse quaedam fere. latter that Pliny required. They were batur proque auro et argento stannum et probably identical with the architecti. aurichalcum supposuisse.' Cf. Dig. 11, 6, 7, 3.

agantur. Döring points out that the revocari. Cf. Ep. iii 9, 17,

ut word is used specially of land-surveyors pecuniae quas creditoribus solverat revo- and architects, and cites Ov. Ars Am. carentur' Suet. Ner. 44, \a delatoribus iii 558, limes agendus erit,' and Tac. potius revocanda praemia' Suet. Galb. Germ. 29, limite acto.' Cf. also 15 ' liberalitates Neronis . . . revocandas Plin. h. n. xv, 3, 14, 'amurcae mensuram curavit.'

nemo agit.' The agrimensores were curatoribus operum.

At Rome called 'agentes 'Hyg. Lim. p. 179. there were two curatores aedium sac- ex ratione ; in the sense of accounts.'

et operum locorumque publi- This word is used either in the sing. (Cic. corum'; briefly 'cur. op. pub.' They Verr. ii 1, 41, § 106) or in the plur. performed a portion of the censors' Cic. ad Fam. v 20, 2, and infra, Ep. 18. duties; see Cic. de leg. agrar. iii 3, quam cum maxime tracto. Another ?; had the charge of public build- repetition of the former letter, which ings, oversight over temples and the makes it impossible to consider the two custody of the sacred offerings and as one, but it is quite consistent with the gists, Wilmann, 1224, 1273, 1181, 1142. view taken above. In municipal towns like Prusa, where cum maxime: at this present moment. offices were less subdivided, they would tracto, see above, tractatu. also have the duty of settling contracts The Aldine edition followed by all later for the construction of public buildings, editions till 1709, has cum Maximo' (see in which, in the absence of trustworthy Ep.27 and 28). Döring retains this, but it mensores, there was room for jobbery and has little to recommend it, and most dishonesty of all sorts. An example of modern editions have followed the conthe dishonesty often practised by these jecture of Perizonius in the edition of curatores is given by Suetonius Vitell

. 5, Cortius, cum maxime.' This is now 'curam operum publicorum administravit confirmed by the Bodleian MS.

XVIII [XXVIIII]

TRAIANUS PLINIO S.

Cuperem sine querella corpusculi tui et tuorum pervenire i in Bithyniam potuisses ac simile tibi iter ab Epheso ei navigationi 2 ei navigationi, Cat.

B.

Ald.

et nav.,

ut nav.,

§ 1. I wish your journey from Ephesus in confusion. As for surveyors, I have had been as favourable as your previous not enough for my own building operavoyage. § 2. I note the date of your tions here, but there are trustworthy arrival in Bithynia. The provincials will, experts in every province to be found I am sure, appreciate my care for them, with a little inquiry. and you must make it quite clear that you § 1. querella corpusculi tui. Cf. Sen. are sent to represent me. $ 3. Be particu- Qu. Nat., iii 1, 3, “pulmonis ac viscerum larly careful in scrutinising the financial querellas levare. For the humorous use position of the towns : they evidently are of the diminutive 'corpusculum' cf.

2 fuisset, quam expertus usque illo eras. Quo autem die pervenisses

in Bithyniam cognovi, Secunde carissime, litteris tuis. Provinciales, credo, prospectum sibi a me intellegent. Nam et tu

dabis operam ut manifestum sit illis electum te esse, qui ad 3 eosdem mei loco mittereris. Rationes autem in primis tibi

rerum publicarum excutiendae sunt : nam et esse eas vexatas satis constat. Mensores vix etiam iis operibus quae aut Romae aut in proximo fiunt sufficientes habeo : sed in omni provincia inveniuntur quibus credi possit, et ideo non deerunt tibi, modo velis diligenter excutere. 8 sufficientes, B.

sufficienter, Ald.

Juv. x 173, 'mors sola fatetur Quantula the repair and improvement of the roads sint hominum corpuscula.' See Prof. in Italy, Dio Cass., 68, 15, kai katà tous Mayor's list of the diminutives used in αυτους χρόνους τά τε έλη τα Ποντίνα Juvenal ad loc.

ωδοποίησε λίθω και τας οδούς παροικοδοsimile iter ei navigationi. The true μήμασι και γεφύραις μεγαλοπρεπεστάταις reading 'ei' conjectured by Catanaeus, I &čenolnoev.' Eckhel Doc. Num. vi p. 421; now restore as proved by the Bodleian and especially the construction of a new MS., which has . et navigationi. Aldus, road from Beneventum to Brundisiumnot understanding the et,' changed it the via Traiana-in 109 A.D., Henz. 5169, against all grammar into 'ut.'

'Imp. Cæsar divi Nervae f. Nerva usque iilo. Juvenal has usque adeo, Traianus Aug. Germ. Dac. Pont. Max. iii 84, v 129, xv 82. Cicero has usque Tr. pot. xiii, Imp. vi, Cos. v. P. P. viam istinc, ad Att. i 14.

et pontes Benevento Brundisium pecunia 2. pervenisses ; pluperf. because sua.' (2) The new hexagonal basin above previous to the date of Pliny's letter. the Claudian harbour at Ostia, the

provinciales sometimes used in op- 'portus Traiani,' Cohen, ii 365-6. Juv. position to Italians as Plin. Ep. ix 23, 2, Sat. xii 75 ff. (3) The new harbour at Italicus es an provincialis ?' and Suet. Centum Cellae (Civita Vecchia) Plin. Ep: Vesp. 9; often, however, as here for the vi 31. This was begun in 106 A.D. with inhabitants of a particular province : Cic. Trajan's villa close by 'villa pulcherrima ad Quint. fr. i 1, 5.

cingitur viridissimis agris, imminet litori.' electum te esse qui ... mittereris, (4) The harbour of Ancona, which was that you were chosen to receive a special probably in the course of construction at mission to represent me.

See the inscr. this time, as the inscription on the arch p. 16. The words are not really redund- dates from 115; Orell. 792. (5) The conant for 'mei loco missum esse.' The struction of the Aqua Traiana (now acqua electum ’implies a special appointment. Paola) Dierauer zur Geschi. Trajans, p. Cf. Ep. 117, sed ego ideo prudentiam 132. (6) the Thermae Traianae on the tuam elegi.

Esquiline; and (7) the splendid Forum of § 3. rationes in primis . . . ex- Trajan with its Basilica, libraries, triumcutiendae. For Pliny's execution of this phal arch and column. This was cominjunction see note on Ep. 17a 3.

pleted in the 6th consulship i.e. 112-113; iis operibus quae aut Romae aut Cohen ii 95. in proximo fiunt. These would be (1)

XVIIII [XXX]

De custodiis

C. PLINIUS TRAIANO IMPERATORI

on

Rogo, domine, consilio me regas haesitantem utrum per i publicos civitatum servos, quod usque adhuc factum, an per milites adservare custodias debeam. Vereor enim ne et per servos publicos parum fideliter custodiantur et non exiguum militum numerum haec cura distringat. Interim publicis servis 2

§ 1. I should be glad of your advice, 2; Mommsen, Staatsrecht, i 306 ff.; Pauly, sire, as to whether the prisoners should Real Encyclop. vi p. 1102. be guarded by public slaves as hitherto, an per milites. The point of Pliny's or by soldiers. I distrust the fidelity of question was not whether it was legal to the slaves, and yet I hesitate to employ employ soldiers, on which Gierig cites as many soldiers as would be required. Tac. Ann. iii 22, 'cum militari custodia § 2. At present I use some of both, but haberentur,' and Hist. iv II; but whether I fear that this arrangement may enable in a province like Bithynia soldiers could each to throw any blame incurred on be spared for this purpose ; see the others.

Ep. 21. § 1. publicos civitatum servos. custodias, the prisoners. For this The publici servi, usually briefly 'pub- use of the abstract for the concrete lici,' were distinguished from ordinary Döring cites Suet. Nero, 31, 'quod ubique slaves in several points-(1) they had esset custodiae'; Tib. 61, 'in recognosdwellings assigned on public ground; cendis custodiis'; Calig. 27, Dom. 14, lex Tul. Municip. 82, 'quae loca serveis solus plerasque custodias audiebat'; publiceis ab cens(oribus) habitandei Sen. Ep. v 7, eadem catena et custodiam utendei caussa adtributa sunt,' etc. ; (2) et militem copulat.' Cf. operae=workthey received an annual sum of money men; inquisitio = inquisitores, Ep. 30; for food, cibaria, see Ep. 31, 2, ut amicitia=friends, Tac. Ann. ii 27, 2; publici servi, annua accipiunt'; (3) they consilia=advisers, Tac. Ann. iv 40, 2;

a special dress, the limus; and matrimonia=wives, Tac. Ann. ii 13, 3. hence are often spoken of as limo non exiguum militum numerum. cincti, Orell. 3219; (4) they were allowed Bithynia as a senatorial province had no to dispose of half their property by will, legions stationed in it. Pliny, however, Ulpian, 20, 16. They might be acquired had several auxiliary cohorts under his by communities through capture in war, command ; see Ep. 21; one of which or sale, or beques by individuals. They was a 'cohors sexta

questris’; Ep. 106. were employed to forward despatches, Nicomedeia was the chief 'statio,' Ep. Plut. Galb. 8; as attendants in the tabu- 74. Trajan's instructions

that larium, Liv. xliii 16; as executioners, Cic. soldiers should be as little as possible Phil. viii 8; Val. Max. ii 10, 6; Vell. away from their headquarters. Ep: 22; Paterc. ii 19; as temple servants, Tac. curandum ne milites a signis absint'; see Hist. i 43; Orell. 2470, 'publicus ab Ep. 20. sacrario divi Augusti'; as public auc- distringat. Cf. i 10, 9, 'distringor tioneers, Plin. Ep. vii 18, agrum ex officio’; v 5, 3, 'quamvis agendis causis meis publico actori mancipavi,' Tac. distringeretur. Ann. ii 30; in connection with the aque- § 2. dum. For this semi-causal use of ducts under the 'curatores aquarum,' dum see Tac. Ann. ii 84, Romanis Frontinus, de Aquaed. 100; as library haud perinde celebris, dum vetera extol. attendants, publici a bybliotheca Latina limus recentium incuriosi.' porticus Octaviae,' Orell. 2853, Henz. culpam regerere. Cf. convicia 6270; the inferior slaves were assigned regerere,' Hor. Sat. i 7, 29; “invidiam 'ad balineum, ad purgationes cloacarum, regerere,' Tac. Hist. iii 78. munitiones viarum et vicorum,' Ep. 32,

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