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dignitati ad quam me provexit indulgentia tua vel auguratum vel septemviratum, quia vacant, adicere digneris, ut iure sacerdotii precari deos pro te publice possim, quos nunc precor pietate privata. 2 quia vacant, Cat.

quia vacat, Ald.

and 773.

recht, vol. ii pp. 28 ff., and pp. 1053 ff.; and Pauly, Real-Encyclop. sub voc. 'Divinatio.'

The epulones were at first three in number, and were first appointed 196 B.C. Livy, xxxiii 42, 'Romae eo primum anno triumviri epulones facti, . . . his triumviris, item ut pontificibus, datum togae praetextae habendae ius. They were afterwards increased to seven, and called 6 septemviri epulones ;' Aul. Gell. i 12; Lucan, i 602.

Under the emperors the number was increased to ten, Dio Cass. 43, 51, but the old name remained; Tac. Ann. iii 64, and Orelli, 2255, 2259, 590,

Their original function was to arrange the 'epulum Iovis in Capitolio,' Mart. xii 48, 12, on the 13th November, in connection with the ludi plebeii;' later, a second epulum Iovis was added on 13th September in connection with the ludi Romani ;' and lastly, all festivals, dedications, triumphs, birthdays, which were accompanied by a public meal on the Capitol, fell to the department of the epulones. See Marquadt, Staatsverw. vol. iii pp. 347 ff.

Up to 105 B.C. vacancies in these bodies were filled by the cooptatio of the collegia themselves; but in that year the lex Domitia was passed, according to which the collegia nominated a list of candidates, out of which a 'quasi comitia' formed of seventeen out of the thirty-five tribes, drawn by lot, made a selection, as in the case of the pontifex maximus, and the person thus elected by the seventeen tribeş was then formally coopted by the collegium ; Suet. Nero 2, Atavus eius (Neronis) Cn. Domitius in tribunatu pontificibus offensior, quod alium quam se in patris locum cooptassent, ius sacerdotum subrogandorum a collegiis ad populum transtulit,' and Cic. De leg. agrar. ii 7, 18, `Hoc idem de ceteris sacerdotiis Cn. Domitius tribunus plebis tulit ut minor pars populi vocaretur, ab ea parte qui

esset factus, is a collegio cooptaretur,' and Vell. Paterc. ii 12, 3. Each member of the collegium could nominate one candidate; Cic. Phil. xiii 5, 12. So Verginius Rufus used to nominate Pliny each year till his death, ii 1, 8, Illo die quo sacerdotes solent nominare quos sacerdotio dignissimos iudicant, me semper nominabat;' and, after his death, Frontinus seems to have done the same, iv 8, 3, 'Qui me nominationis die per hos continuos annos inter sacerdotes nominabat ;' but not more than two could nominate the same person ; Cic. Phil. ii 2, 4, 'me augurem a toto collegio expetitum Cn. Pompeius et Q. Hortensius nominaverunt; nec enim licebat a pluribus nominari.' Under the empire three changes took place : (1) After 14 A.D. the election passed from the seventeen tribes to the senate; Tac. Ann. iii 19, •Caesar auctor senatui fuit Vitellio atque Veranio et Servaeo sacerdotia tribuendi ;' (2) the collegia, instead of nominating a list on the occasion of a vacancy, did so on a fixed day every year, Pliny, ii 1, and iv 8, quoted above ; (3) the emperor seems to have had a right of commendatio for the sacerdotia, as for the other magistracies, cf. Tac. Ann. iii 19, supra, and Dio Cass. 51, 20. As he also had the right of making extraordinary appointments, even when there was no vacancy, Tac. Hist. i 77, ‘Otho pontificatus auguratusque honoratis iam senibus cumulum dignitatis addidit ;' Ann. i 3; Suet. Claud. 4; Dio Cass. 55, 9, and 58, 8; he is said to have sometimes appointed the majority in the colleges ; Dio Cass. 53, 17: (τους αυτοκράτορας) εν πάσαις ταις ιερωσύναις ιερώσθαι και πρόσετι και τοις άλλοις τας πλείους σφών διδόναι.

quia vacant. The augurship, by the death of Sex. Iulius Frontinus: see above, iv:8.


Gratulatoria ob victoriam


Victoriae tuae, optime imperator, maximae pulcherrimae antiquissimae et tuo nomine et rei publicae gratulor deosque inmortales precor ut omnes cogitationes tuas tam laetus sequatur eventus, ut virtutibus tantis gloria imperii et novetur et augeatur.

i imperator Maxime, Ald.

I congratulate you, most noble emperor, on your glorious victory, and I pray the gods that similar success may crown all your designs, and so the glory of the empire be restored and increased by your achievements.

Victoriae tuae. No doubt over Decebalus and the Dacians; but whether the letter was written after the first war, at the end of 102, or after the second war in 106 (see life of Trajan), there seems to be no means of deciding. The epithets maximae, pulcherrimae, antiquissimae, would seem to point to the second war, but Pliny's use of exaggerated superlatives must modify the force of this inference.

et tuo nomine et rei publicae : cf. Ep. I, et privatim et publice.'

cogitationes. For the use of cogitatio in the concrete sense of design, see Suet. Calig. 48, 'vix a tam praecipiti cogitatione revocatus.'

novetur, after the unsuccessful policy of Domitian in Dacia : see life of Trajan, p. 7.

augeatur : possibly by the annexation of Dacia as a province.

optime imperator. Cf. Panegyr. $2, Iam quid tam civile, tam senatorium quam illud additum a nobis optimi cognomen,' and see life of Trajan, p. 5,

note II.

De itinere suo in Bithyniam


Quia confido, domine, ad curam tuam pertinere, nuntió tibi You will, I know, be glad to learn that mately by the following considerations : I safely passed Cape Malea, and arrived (1) The other nine books of Letters cover, at Ephesus. I now intend to proceed as Mommsen, Hermes iii, has pointed out, partly by coasting vessels, partly by car- the period between 96 and 108. In them riage. For the heat makes a land journey he mentions all the offices he had held oppressive, and the Etesian winds will up to that time, and all the important prevent my sailing all the way.

advocationes' which he had undertaken, This and the following letters all relate and the fact that no allusion is made to to Pliny's appointment in Bithynia and this, his most important appointment, is Pontus. On the nature of this post and proof positive that up to 108 he had not the circumstances which led to it, see received it. (2) His wife Calpurnia's introduction, pp. 25 and 48. The date grandfather, Calpurnius Fabatus, was of Pliny's governorship is fixed approxi- alive in 107 or 108, Ep. iv 10; II, 3;

me Ephesum cum omnibus meis útèp Maléav navigasse, quamvis contrariis ventis retentum. Nunc destino partim orariis 2 retentum, H. Stephanus.

retentus, B. and Ald.

20, 3, according to the date assigned by Mommsen to Book viii ; but we hear of his death during Pliny's governorship : see Ep. 120, • Uxori enim meae audita morte avi volenti ad amitam suam excurrere usum eorum (diplomatum)

negare durum putavi.' (3) Calpurnius Macer is several times mentioned (Epp. 41, 61, 62, and 77), in the correspondence with Trajan, in a manner implying that he was the governor of a neighbouring province to Pliny's. An inscription found in Moesia Superior, C.I.L. iii 777, 'Imp. Caes. Div. Fil. Nervae Traiano Aug. Germ. Dacico Pont. max. trib. Pot. xvi Imp. vi Cos. vi p. p. P. Calpurnio Macro Caulio Rufo Leg. Aug. Pro Praet, proves that in 112 Calpurnius Macer was Legatus of Moesia Superior, which especially agrees with the reference in Ep. 77. It seems, therefore, most probable that Pliny was appointed in the middle of 111, and remained till early in 113.

During the whole correspondence Trajan was evidently at Rome, which also suits this date, since he did not leave Rome for the Parthian war till 113.

me Ephesum navigasse. Ephesus, with its honorary titles, πρώτη πασών και μεγίστη, πρώτη και μεγίστη, μητρόπολις της Ασίας, was by far the most important seaport on the coast of Asia Minor, and the one at which Pliny would naturally land on arriving by way of Cape Malea. But from Ulpian, Dig. 1, 16, 4, § 5, it appears that it was a special privilege belonging to Ephesus that the proconsuls of Asia should land first at this port, and the custom may probably have extended to the governors of other provinces in the neighbourhood, who would land first in Ephesus, and from there pass on to . their several commands. 'Quaedam provinciae etiam hoc habent, ut per mare in eam provinciam proconsul veniat, ut Asia, scilicet usque adeo, ut imperator noster Antoninus Augustus ad desideria Asianorum rescripserit proconsuli necessitatem impositam per mare Asiam applicare kai των μητροπόλεων "Έφεσον primam attingere.' So there are coins with the legend ΕΦΕCΙΩΝ Α ΚΑΤΑΠΛOYC, i.e. prima navigatio; Marquadt, Staatsverw. i. p. 337.

υπέρ Μαλέαν, “to sail round Malea, came to be a proverbial expression from

the dangers of its rocky coast and the piratical habits of its inhabitants ; Livy, xxxiv 32; Polyb. v 95; Symmach. viii 60, “Μαλέαν δε κάμψας επιλάθου των οίκαδε.' The most usual route from Italy to Greece or Asia Minor was by way of the Gulf of Corinth to Lechaeum, where the isthmus was crossed and a fresh ship taken at Cenchrea; Propert. iii 21, 9-24; Ovid, Trist. i 10, 9-10; Tac. Hist. ii. 1. Sulpicius tells Cicero, Epp. ad Fam. xii 4, that his colleague Marcellus,

υπέρ Μαλέας, in Italiam versus navigaturus erat,' and Flavius Zeuxis, a merchant of Hierapolis in Phrygia, has left it on record, C. I. G. 3920, that he had sailed 'ÚTèp Μαλέαν είς Ιταλίαν πλόας εβδομήκοντα dúo. See Friedländer, vol. ii. p. 23.

quamvis contrariis ventis retentum. Both Avantius and Aldus read ' retentus,' which would make it necessary to begin a fresh sentence at 'quamvis.'

It seems better, with H. Stephanus, to read retentum,' as the concessive force evidently relates to the previous clause.

vehiculis. This was a word specially used in connection with the imperial post - system established by Augustus. Suet. Aug. 49, 'Et quo celerius ac sub manum adnuntiari cognoscique posset quid in provincia quaque gereretur, iuvenes primo modicis intervallis per militares vias, dehinc vehicula disposuit. The couriers were called speculatores, and were a regularly organised body, some of which were assigned to the emperor's retinue, Suet. Aug. 74; Claud. 35; Tac. Hist, ii II; others to the Praetorian cohorts, Tac. Hist. i 29; others to the legions. The system was used (1) by the emperors themselves in travelling, Pliny, Panegyr. 20, 'nullus in exigendis vehiculis tumultus, nullum circa hospitia fastidium

quam dissimilis nuper alterius principis transitus'; (2) by the magistrates and provincial governors; and (3) by any to whom the diplomata' were given, either by the emperor himself or the provincial governors in his name ; see Epp. infra, 45, 48, 64, 120; also Tac. Hist. ii 65. Along theroads were at certain intervals mutationes, where horses were changed, and mansiones, where shelter was provided for the night. In later times socalled palatia were added to the latter

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navibus partim vehiculis provinciam petere. Nam sicut itineri graves aestus ita continuae navigationi etesiae reluctantur. for the entertainment of the governors or xv Augustas Kalend. est. Huius exortum the emperor. The various districts were diebus octo ferme Aquilones antecedunt, under the charge of praefecti vehicu- quos Prodromos appellant. Post biduum lorum : see C. I. L. passim. The expense autem exortus iidem Aquilones constanwas borne by the local governments, tius perflant diebus quadraginta (i.e. from until Nerva for Italy at least put part of Aug. 17 to Sep. 26) quos Etesias vocant. it upon the fiscus; hence the coins, Molliri iis creditur solis vapor geminatus Eckhel, vi 408, vehiculatione Italiae re- ardore sideris : nec ulli ventorum magis missa.'

stati sunt.' Cic. ad Fam. ii 15, writes : graves aestus. Ep. 17, 6, states ' Ego nisi quid me Etesiae morabuntur that he arrived in his province on Sep- celeriter, ut spero, vos videbo;' Lucret. tember 22.

• Is (Nilus) rigat Aegyptum etesiae. See Pliny, Nat. Hist. ii 47, medium per saepe calorem, Aut quia • Ardentissimo autem aestatis tempore sunt aestate aquilones ostia contra Anni exoritur Caniculae sidus . . . qui dies tempore eo quo Etesia flabra feruntur.'

vi 714:



Recte renuntiasti, mi Secunde carissime. Pertinet enim ad animum meum quali itinere in provinciam pervenias. Pruden

You are right, my dear Secundus, to the suffix-anus, being taken as an addisend me news. It concerns me nearly

tional cognomen.

Thus T. Pomponius to hear how you reach your province. Atticus, Cicero's friend, when adopted Your intention to proceed partly by land, by the testament of his uncle Q. Caepartly by sea, is a wise one.

cilius, became Q. Caecilius Q. f. Pommi Secunde. Up to 79 A.D. Pliny's ponianus Atticus; Cic. ad Att. iii 20. full name was probably P. Caecilius L. f. But though this was his legal title, he Ouf(entina) Secundus. Mommsen cites continued in ordinary social intercourse an interesting inscription from Gruter, to be known by his original name ; and p. 376, 5, probably relating to the father from the first years of the empire this of Pliny and his two sons : 'L. Caecilius testamentary adoption came to be little L. f. Cilo iïïi vir a(edilicia)p(otestate) xxxx more than a change of name on inherit(milia) municipibus Comensibus legavit, ing property by will. Thus one of the ex quorum reditu quotannis per Neptun- brothers adopted by the will of Cn. Doalia oleum in campo et in thermis et ba- mitius Afer in 50 A.D. was called Cn. lineis omnibus quae sunt Comi praebe- Domitius Sex. f. Afer Titius Marcellus retur, t(estamento fieri) i(ussit), et L. Curvius Lucanus, i.e. he remained the Caecilio L. f. Valenti et P. Caecilio L. f. son of his natural father Sextus, and reSecundo,' etc. etc. In 79 A.D. he was tained his former nomen unchanged as adopted by his mother's brother, C. one of his cognomina. Manifestly testaPlinius Secundus, by the process of testa- mentary adoption could not involve submentary adoption. Mommsen points out, jection to the potestas of the adoptive Hermes, iii, that testamentary adoption, father, and it came to involve no more which did not come into operation until than a mere change of gens, the original after the death of the adoptive father, Gentile name being retained as a coghad under the republic all the force of a nomen. Thus Pliny's name after adopstrict and regular adoption, i.e. the tion became C. Plinius L. f. Ouf. Cae. adopted son passed into the tribe of his cilius Secundus. Martial speaks of Pliny adoptive father, assumed his praenomen, as Secundus (v 80): 'Quid si legeris ipse and was formally designated as his son : cum diserto. Secundo,' but in x 19 his original Gentile name, modified by as Plinius, libellum Facundo


ter autem constituis interim navibus interim vehiculis uti, prout loca suaserint.

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Sicut saluberrimam navigationem, domine, usque Ephesum expertus, ita inde, postquam vehiculis iter facere coepi, gra

vissimis aestibus atque etiam febriculis vexatus Pergami sub2 stiti.

Rursus, cum transissem in orarias naviculas, contrariis ventis retentus aliquanto tardius quam speraveram, id est XV Kal. Octobres, Bithyniam intravi. Non possum tamen de mora queri, cum mihi contigerit, quod erat auspicatissimum, natalem

$ 1. My voyage, sire, was favourable Mysia, formerly the capital of the Attalidae, as far as Ephesus, but when I began to use and enriched and beautified by Eumenes the post - service, I was troubled with II. It was afterwards one of the μητροπόfever brought on by the heat, and com- dels of the province of Asia, C. I. Gr. 3538. pelled to rest at Pergamum. § 2. I then It was situated on the main road from had recourse to coasting vessels, but Ephesus and Sardis to the Hellespont, owing to contrary winds did not reach Xen. Anab. vii 8, 8. was on the Bithynia till September 17: I must not northern bank of the navigable Kaikus, however complain, since it was an excel- 120 stades from the sea. Two smaller lent omen to celebrate your birthday in streams, the Selinus and Cetius, flowed remy province. $ 3. I am now examining spectively through and by it, Plin. Nat. the financial matters of the Prusensians, a Hist., v 126, longe clarissimum Asiae task which I find more necessary the more Pergamum, quod intermeat Selinus, praeI look into them. Many sums of money fluit Cetius." It was about 700 stades are in the hands of private individuals, from Ephesus by way of Smyrna. It is and some grants have been made for mentioned as the head of a conventus by illegal purposes. I write this immediately Cic. pro Flacc. 29, 71, ‘ubi et multi cives on my arrival.

Romani sunt, et ius a nostro magistratu The date of the letter (17th Sept. 111) dicitur,' and by Pliny, loc. cit., 'Peris fixed by the last sentence. See also gamena vocatur eius tractus iurisdictio.' note on Ep. 15.

§ 2. Bithyniam intravi. In all proba§ 1. usque Ephesum. For usque bility Pliny coasted round as far as Cyzicus with names of towns, cf. Cic. Verr. iv where he would take the main road 49 (quoted by Roby. 1108) usque through Miletopolis and Apollonia to Hennam profecti sunt,' and Cic. ad Qu. Prusa. That he should have proceeded Frat. i 1, 14 'ut usque Romam signifi- through the interior of Mysia, and over cationes vocesque referantur.'

the Olympus range is impossible. febriculis vexatus. Cf. Cic. ad Fam. auspicatissimum, cf. Quint. x 1, x 21'qui ex labore in febriculam incidit 85, auspicatissimum exordium; Tac. assiduam et satis molestam.

Germ. i1, 'nam agendis rebus hoc Pergami substiti. Pergamum in auspicatissimum initium credunt.'

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