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Mr. WERDEL. I enjoyed your statement. That is all. Mr. KELLEY. You made this statement in your written paper: The need for additional trained personnel to render specialized rehabilitation service is even more acute now than it was 3 years ago.

I remember 3 years ago that question came up before the committee and was very strongly emphasized. Will you tell the committee the reason for that shortage now after 3 years!

Mr. WHITTEN. I think 3 years ago, Mr. Chairman, there was a feeling that a good deal of the personnel that was needed would come out of the armed services. For instance, the Army had trained a lot of people in so-called connected medical types of work, and there was a while when there were applications for a large number of those. They were quickly absorbed. When I was in Mississippi I tried to hire a specialist for the rehabilitation of the deaf. I never did find one. I wanted a man who was a specialist in the rehabilitation of the mentally retarded, to lead our staff. I was not able to find one at all.

Mr. KELLEY. Where are these people trained ?

Mr. WHITTEN. The training facilities are not as plentiful as they ought to be. However, there are several universities in the country, 10 or 15, that train occupational therapists and physiotherapists. The American Medical Association approves certain colleges for that, but the colleges are not turning out enough people to do the job.

Mr. KELLEY. I wonder if this is true: It is so difficult now for the young men to get into the medical schools because the facilities are not available. Does the same thing apply to this? Are there more applicants than can be cared for?

Mr. WHITTEN. No. There are not many people who are attempting to enter some of these fields. The American Foundation for Infantile Paralysis is having to pay the expenses of workers, pay all their costs, to get them trained as physiotherapists, to take care of their polio cases. They are having to give scholarships that amount to almost 100 percent of the cost of training. It is a situation that is a little hard to understand, but it is a very pressing one, and unless there is some incentive for people to enter these fields right now they will not be entering them in sufficient number.

We feel that a good many people who want to be doctors but cannot get into the medical schools may eventually end up in some of the related fields. We hope that will be true.

Mr. KELLEY. Is the remuneration for specialists in here ample?

Mr. WHITTEN. No, sir; I would not say it is. There has been a considerable increase in the wage paid physicotherapists and occupational therapists in recent years, but it is still not attractive enough to attract large number of people. Of course, in the State agencies, for instance, they are mostly confined to schedules that are set by State civil service commissions or by State plans, and very frequently those State salaries are not as high as the infantile paralysis foundation pays from its own funds. The burden falls unusually heavily upon State agencies in attempting to hire specialists in various fields.

Mr. KELLEY. You feel that you could have rehabilitated more than 53,000 if you had had sufficient specialists?

Mr. WHITTEN. I do not doubt it at all. On my staff in Mississippi, when I was down there, I did not have a person who could talk intelligently to a person who was deaf. You had to go through an interpreter or write out. I did not have anybody who could speak the sign language. That is true in State after State. You can imagine a person trying to work out a rehabilitation program with deaf persons just to use that as an illustration-without the benefit of language. That is particularly true of the severly disabled, such as the mental cases, where you really require somebody with unusual ability and unsual training to get at the heart of the troubles of those people.

Mr. BAILEY. Is the situation so acute that it would warrant offering scholarships by the Federal Government?

Mr. WHITTEN. I believe it is, Mr. Bailey. The legislation that is proposed here does give the Federal Security Administrator the authority to go further with that than he has been able to go in the past. The Public Health Service has been doing this for years, giving scholarships to train people in various phases of public health, but under the rehabilitation statutes it has not been possible to do that. This would open up that avenue.

Mr. BAILEY. There is sufficient authority in the aet for the Administrator to do it?

Mr. BAILEY. If he cares to do it.
Mr. WHITTEN. That is right.

Mr. KELLEY. In this field is there much demand or necessity for orthopedic surgeons?

Mr. WHITTEN. That is one of the main medical specialists used in the program. The orthopedic surgeon is not as scarce as he was for a while. A large number of them came back from the Army. There is not as great a shortage as there was 3 years ago in that particular line

Mr. WERDEL. I would like to say this: It is the experience in all of our States, I think, that whenever the State constructs a new mental institution the facilities are immediately and entirely exhausted. I think that results, and is agreed to result, from the fact that our States are beginning to move in that field where they did not move before, and our people are demanding attention to that field. When the facilities are available more and more doctors recommend their use. Now, our professional men who operate those institutions are in a terrible shortage today.

Mr. WHITTEN. That is right.

Mr. WERDEL. From what you have said as to your accomplishments in this field in the last 3 years, I think that you can look forward in the next 10 years to being able to move ahead by multiples of five, say, each year. Would you agree to that?

Mr. WHITTEN. I would not agree to that proportion. I do agree that each year, from now on out, you ought to see an increasing number of people rehabilitated, and not only that, a better job done on those who are rehabilitated.

Mr. WERDEL. And a more plentiful staff being built up each year?

Mr. WHITTEN. If the money is made available to support the program, I think so.

Just to illustrate: This year has been a cramped year in the StateFederal program for money, but there were, nevertheless, more people rehabilitated than in the year before. We think the cause of that was better-trained staffs. You see, most of the staffs in vocational rehabilitation are new staffs; people that have been trained in the last 3 or 4 years; and, as they get the know-how themselves, the average number that a counselor can rehabilitate increases.

So we predict that the numbers will continue to go up; in fact, I think it is predicted that the 63,000 will go to 75,000 next year. That is the plan right now, the goal.

Mr. WERDEL. I recently read an article by the head of the medical department of one of our leading universities who made the startling statement that the work of rehabilitation in the last 3 or 4 years has so affected the desires of the completely handicapped from the standpoint of speech and blindness and hearing that the percentage of people that desire to rehabilitate has increased terrifically. Do you find that is true?

Mr. WHITTEN. That is true.
Mr. KELLEY. We thank you very much.
We will now hear from Col. Melvin J. Maas.


MARINE CORPS RESERVE OFFICERS' ASSOCIATION Colonel Maas. Mr. Chairman and members of the committee, I am happy to testify in favor of H. R. 3095 because I believe it is good for the country. What is good for the country is also good for Reserve officers and all members of the military, both Regular and Reserve. I think there is often too much emphasis upon what we call veterans' bills or military bills. I am thus happy to endorse what might be called a public bill, because it will also result in great service being rendered our veterans and our military personnel.

This paradox is simply explained, for the provisions of this bill will greatly aid the families and loved ones of those who now wear or who once wore the uniform of thir country. We hear a lot about fringe

. benefits in labor contracts today. This bill holds great promise of substantial fringe benefits to our military people, Regular and Reserve. And, although I officially represent the Marine Corps Reserve Officers Association, I can also speak for the Marine Corps League and the Reserve Officers Association, with whose officials I have spoken on this matter. We feel that we are citizens first and soldiers, sailors, airmen, or marines second in this matter of greater aid to the Nation's handicapped.

In all my years in the Congress, I have seldom seen a piece of legislation with a more businesslike approach. I have seldom seen such a bill which promises so much for so little and is so drawn as to provide a reasonable certainty that this promise will be well kept. This is no hand-out, no soft touch, but a common-sense attempt to step into the breach in certain areas of our social structure where reinforcements, equipment, and supplies are needed to regain lost ground and sieze a desired objective.

As a military man, I recognize the tactics here of a strong offensive in backing the Nation-wide program to help the handicapped help themselves and the country. I have been privileged to serve on the President's Committee on National Employ the Physically Handicapped Week along with the man who originally sponsored this bill, Paul Strachan. From this vantage point I have seen how much can be accomplished on a shoestring only by utilizing the inherent good will of our Nation's organizations and leaders. How much more you

will accomplish by favorable action upon the bill now before you rests with history.

But, just as Guadalcanal represented the turning of the tide during the recent hostilities, the slow and dangerous shifting to the offensive, just so will this bill help to put teeth into today's offensive for the handicapped. We learned much about rehabilitation during the war. We would be missing our rendezvous with destiny if we didn't elevate our sights and build a rehabilitation program for the future which will ever stand as a monument to those young men and women through whose blasted and burned bodies modern rehabilitation came of age to the tune of atomic power, jet propulsion, and guided missiles.

It is not my intention to discuss this bill before you item by item. Your many professional, technical, and medical witnesses will do that. I wish to register my approval of its breadth of imagination, its simplicity of operation, and its most unusual building upon and use of already existing personnel, facilities, and programs to which it intends to inject a strong plasma.

If the President's reorganization plan creating a Department of Welfare is approved, then it would seem to me logical that this Federal Commission should be tied in closely with the responsibilities of the Secretary of Labor. This is not, never has been, and should not in the future be a welfare matter. I never have understood why civilian rehabilitation for employment should be bound tightly with the ivy of academic educational supervision, as is the present situation with our civilian vocational rehabilitation program.

Much of what this bill provides for is not new, but has already proved successful. The Advisory Council is a splendid burr in the saddle or spur in the side of any agency. Outside of a congressional investigating committee, I know of no more effective way of keeping an Administrator on the target than by providing him with experienced side-line coaches to report his near misses, suggest windage, and elevation corrections, and to make sure that the ammunition is "ready, fire." In the Marine Corps, when a shooter misses the target completely, the men working in the rifle range butts wave a red-flannel cloth slowly across the horizon. This red eyesore is called a “Maggie's drawers” because of its resemblance to the old red flannels. But it is also a danger sign that if the rifleman doesn't watch out he may some day be a statistic when the "target" may be shooting back at him.

We don't have enough waving of red flags in our expanded Government today, and hence we who have grown old in the service warmly applaud these provisions for people who will not only blow the whistle on bad shots but take constructive and cooperative steps to correct any programs which go wide of the mark.

My good friend Marine Maj. Gen. Graves Erskine formed up an Interagency Committee such as is recommended by this bill during the days when he had the difficult job-Bernard Baruch called it impossible—of Retraining and Reemployment Administrator. Many agency heads were shocked into action when Erskine cracked the whip or asked embarrassing questions. And, too, many officials both here and in the States got to know each other better and profited greatly after the first shock of being told to sit down with their associates and eliminate areas of conflict and utilize each other's facilities and information. These sections of the bill before you make so much good sense to an

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old Marine that I am reminded of an old service remark, "I doubt if they'll approve this plan, it's too logical.'

In an age where logic is frequently told to wait outside while expediency has his everlasting day in court, we can use the logic of H. R. 3095. În a day which has seen the Red shadow of the anti-Christ grow ever longer, we can use more legislation of this type which reaffirms in positive social action the dignity of the individual as a child of God. In a day when billions are being spent in the name of every kind of "rehabilitation" under the sun, I am happy to stand before this committee of Congress and ask you gentlemen not to consider whether we can afford to pass this legislation, but whether we can afford not to take a bold new step such as this bill makes possible.

Marines, both on the ground and in the air, are no strangers to death and suffering. We expect it as part of a day's work in wartime or on

a special missions in peacetime. But, there is no necessity for needless suffering, either physical or mental, when such suffering can be eliminated largely by such legislation as is now before you. But more important even than the elimination of suffering is the hope you will give to millions; the faith you will reaffirm in the American system and the charity of social justice you will perform by your speedy and unanimous approval of H. R. 3095.

Gentlemen, it would appear that the handicapped are besieged on all sides. Here is a weapon ready-made for use in routing their enemies and in relieving this brave garrison of handicapped men and women which has been holding the fort too often and too long with too little.

Mr. KELLEY. A good statement, Colonel Maas. We thank you very much.

Mr. BAILEY. I think the statement speaks for itself, Mr. Chairman. I want to compliment the gentleman upon his comments.

Mr. WIER. I ought to let the colonel know, knowing Minnesota as he does, no Congressman from Minnesota would turn a deaf ear to this legislation. Colonel Maas. Thank you. Mr. KELLEY. Thank you very much, Colonel.

The committee has a statement from Dr. Robert B. Irwin, executive director for the American Foundation for the Blind; a statement from Mrs. Alice A. Dunnigan, representative, Associated Negro Press; a statement by Corbett Reedy, supervisor, vocational rehabilitation, Commonwealth of Virginia; a letter from Representative Helen Gahagan Douglas, and without objection they will be inserted in the record.

(The statements and letter referred to are as follows:)

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We have studied H. R. 3095 very carefully and while we are of the opinion that certain modifications in the present vocational rehabilitation act are overdue, we believe that the best interests of the blind would not be served by enacting into law H. R. 3095.

We believe that if a Federal commission servicing the blind is to be set up, it should be one limited in scope to meeting the peculiar needs of the blind. The blind always run a grave risk of being overlooked or at least overshadowed by other handicapped persons when their care and treatment are thrown into the same agency which is dealing with less seriously handicapped persons. The blind

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