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of the framework, such as sitting height, length of arms and feet, and the breadths, which are determined by the bones as a basis of measurement. Of eighteen bony measurements, twelve give no greater difference than a single millimetre, or one hundredth of one per cent between the two. Of eleven of the soft or muscular measures, including the variable and developmental parts of the body, the range of difference is from five to forty-seven millimetres, or 3:3 per cent differences between the two. And of the tests of strength and capacity we find an average of 7.2 per cent in favor of the athletic man.
“Or we may group the items as in the graphic form. Here we find the increase in favor of the athletic student in weight is 6.92 per cent; in lengths, 0.14 per cent; in breadths, 1:42 per cent; in girths, 2:56 per cent; and in tests, 10:24 per cent.
“ The grain of truth derived from these pages seems to be that athletism does not seem to depend so much on physical gifts, accidents, or circumstances, as in the energy of will which is put into the muscles. The long arm and leg and the big muscle do not insure the feat, but the skill in using them. It is the intelligent training, and not the big measures, which determine the standards of excellence in our athletic feats and sports.
“President Garfield said : 'There is no way in which you can get so much out of a man as by training ; not in pieces, but the whole of him; and the trained men, other things being equal, are to be the masters of the world.'”
At no college in the land is more careful attention given to physical development by means of gymnastic exercises than at Amherst. If, therefore, Dr. Sargent's statements were true with respect to partial development by athletics, the fact ought to show in these averages, and specially against the athletic student. The contrary fact appears.
Notice Dr. Hitchcock's conclusion, that "athletism does not seem to depend so much on physical gifts, accidents, or circumstances, as in the energy of will which is put into the muscles. ... It is the intelligent training, and not the big measures, which determine the standard of excellence in our athletic feats and sports." This willpower, guided by intelligence, makes not only successful athletes, but successful men. The training which young men receive in their sports possesses its highest value by virtue of the fact that it brings forth some of the best powers of mind and character, not because it develops mere bone and muscle.
Whether averages conceal or prove facts depends upon the interpretation of them. Dr. Sargent's charts would be more valuable to the public if he would give his data. The figures, by means of which the measurements of the "typical or normal standard” are derived, furnish the key to the chart. No man can test himself by the standard till he knows the standard measurements. The charts may be
interesting and profitable as a private study, but can be of no benefit or authority to a single individual till Dr. Sargent discloses the measurements of the "typical man.”
The real question with regard to athletics in the colleges, as far as measurements are concerned, is this : “ What effect do atbletics have upon the growth of athletes, as compared with the growth of those who are not athletes, but who are otherwise under similar conditions ?"
To throw light on this question, the writer obtained from Dr. Seaver, of Yale College, two sets of measurements of members of one class, so as to ascertain the growth for one year. The first set of measurements was made soon after the class entered college, and the second set was taken in its sophomore year. Complete double measurements were procured from one hundred and two men, the remainder of the class—between twenty and thirty men-having neglected to submit to the second measurement. Of these, twenty-two were out-of-door athletes, and eighty were not, though they were under instruction in light gymnastics during a large part of their freshman year. The question, therefore, was considered under conditions as favorable as possible to Dr. Sargent's point of view. The results are presented graphically on page 729 and in numbers on page 730.
In the table, the items of strength of back and legs, and of weight, are given in pounds. Capacity of lungs is given in cubic inches. The other figures denote millimetres and tenths of millimetres.
The chart gives the average growth of the athletes as compared with the growth of the non-athletic men. The lighter parts of the chart indicate the excess of growth of one class above the growth of the other.
Of the twenty-two athletes two were base-ball players, six foot-ball players, six rowing-men, and eight were track-athletes. Of the football men five were also rowing-men. The averages are given for the four sets of men, as well as for the two classes (non-athletic and athletic), that the reader may see for bimself how each kind of exercise has affected those taking it. The figures for the special athletes are derived from so small a number of men that they can hardly be taken as conclusive. They are merely significant. The small gain in the average of “strength of legs ” of the foot-ball men was due to the loss of strength on the part of one man. Without him the remaining five gained an average of forty-eight pounds.
The growth of girth of neck of the athletes, in comparison with the same item for the non-athletic men, is worthy of attention. The gain in strength of back of the track-athletes, and their gain in strength of arm, ought to be noticed.
To test the question of symmetry of growth, the differences between the sizes of right arm and left arm, of right forearm and left forearm, of right thigh and left thigh, of right calf and left calf, were
taken for each year. The sum of the differences of the second year (being less in both classes of students) was subtracted from the sum of the differences of the first year. The remainder was a gain in symmetry. This remainder, divided by the sum of the differences of the first year, gave the percentage of "gain in symmetry.”
For One Clu88: Average Measurements of Growth during One Year.
72 mm. 8 mm.
7.5 mm. 11:3 mm. 5.76 mm. Girth of neck.
11:3 57 7 Girth of chest (normal).. 16:1 321 11
35.3 31.3 35.2 Girth of chest (inflated). 11.7 36.2 15-5 33.8 40-7 39.7 Girth of waist 10:1 13:3 23
15.8 11.9 Girth of thigh
15.7 15.2 21:2 Girth of calf
7.9 Girth of arm
9.2 Girth of forearm
9.5 67 6.9 Breadth of shoulders 10:1 138 12:5 11.5 11.7 17.4 Breadth of waist.
513 811 Capacity of lungs 5.9 cu. in. 9:7 cu. in. 122 cu, in. 7.6 (1. in. 10.2 cu. in. 10-3 cu. in. Weight ...
7.1 lbs. 8.7 lbs. 73 lbs. 9 lbs. 9.6 lbs. 82 lbs. Gain in symmetry
48 p. ct. 15 p. ct. 34 p. ct. 24 p. ct. 54 p. ct. 44 p. ct.
It must not be forgotten that the conditions of American life have changed so greatly in the last century that, in order to view education aright, it is necessary to take counsel of new considerations. To be sure, the material to be worked on seems to be the same. The youthful mind and character are unchanged. Yet there are influences at work in these modern times which are destined to sap the physical strength of our young men, and thus impair the vigor of their minds and emasculate their characters, unless these influences be clearly recognized and continually counteracted. We will mention two of these influences :
1. CONCENTRATION OF POPULATION INTO CITIES.- According to
3:3 In 1850....
But these figures do not tell the whole story. Towns bave grown into cities, and cities have added to their population enormously in the thirty years from 1850 to 1880, as will be seen from the following figures, showing the number of cities of various grades :
At the last census fifty cities held 1540 per cent of the aggregate population of the country. Whatever may be said in favor of city life for adults, nothing can be said in favor of its influence upon the vigor or morals of young men.
Life in the cities is faster than in the country. The incentives to excess in mental work are greater. The wear and tear of the nervous system is more intense. At the same time the opportunity or necessity of physical effort for the young men of the well-to-do classes is reduced to a minimum.
2. INCREASING KNOWLEDGE DEMANDING MORE BRAIN-CULTURE.Thus increasing demands are made upon the brain and nerves by the faster life of the cities, and by the need of a better culture to meet the competitions of that life, while the opportunities are lessened for strengthening the body against these demands. When the population was extensively engaged in rural or mechanical pursuits, without the division of labor which now obtains, the bodies of our young men were hardened by toil and invigorated by life in the open air.
That the concentration of population is reflected in the attendance at our colleges can be established by an examination of catalogues. The fact is certainly evident at Yale University, as will be seen from the accompanying figures. Of every one hundred students in the catalogue, there were registered as coming from cities of thirty thousand inhabitants and upward
Anything that will help to counteract the disintegrating forces of city life, that will help to strengthen our city young men against the insidious forces of ill-health, against the forces of low-living, that will tend to keep young men out of disorders, out of crimes against self and society, is to be welcomed as an ally of the best education. I maintain that the system of athletics existing at our colleges and in our athletic clubs in all the cities of the land does this. It does more. Its work is not only to save but to form men. It helps our schools and colleges to send out into the world not merely scholarly ascetics, but men full of force and energy, men of strong fiber, physical and moral.