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VOL. XXXII.] ESTABLISHED BY EDWARD L. YOUMANS.

THE

POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.

APRIL, 1888.

EDITED BY W. J. YOUMANS.

SINGLE NUMBER, 50 CENTS.

CONTENTS.

721

I. College Athletics and Physical Development. By Professor EUGENE L. RICHARDS. (Illustrated.).... II. The Struggle for Existence. By Professor T. H. HUXLEY.. ... 732 III. Forms and Failures of the Law. By PHILIP SNYDER.. 751 IV. Hypnotism in Disease and Crime. By A. BINET and C. FÉRÉ.. 763 V. Californian Dry-Winter Flowers. By Prof. BYRON D. HALSTED. 770 VI. The Family-Life of Fishes. By KARL HENNINGS. (Illustrated.). 777 VII. A Paper of Candy. By WILLIAM SLOANE KENNEDY......... 782 VIII. The Earliest Plants. By Sir WILLIAM DAWSON. (Illustrated.). 787 IX. Chinese Superstitions. By ADÈLE M. FIELDE...

796

X. The Present Status of Mineralogy. By Prof. F. W. CLARKE.. 799 XI. Uniformity of Social Phenomena. By F. NEUMANN-SPALLART.. 806 XII. The Chemistry of Underground Waters. By Prof. G. A. DAUBRÉE. 813 XIII. The Cause of Character. . . . .

821

XIV. Sketch of David Ames Wells. (With Portrait.)...

832

XV. Correspondence.

841

848

XVI. Editor's Table: Scientific Habits of Thought.-Death of Professor Gray, etc.. 842 XVII. Literary Notices... XVIII. Popular Miscellany... XIX. Notes....

[No. 6.

NEW YORK:

AND COMPANY, 1, 8, AND 5 BOND STREET.

D. APPLETON

....

PAGE

856

863

YEARLY SUBSCRIPTION, $5.00.

COPYRIGHT, 1888, BY D. APPLETON AND CO. Entered at the Post-Office at New York, and admitted for transmission through the mails at second-class rates.

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THE

POPULAR SCIENCE

MONTHLY

APRIL, 1888.

COLLEGE ATHLETICS AND PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT.

BY PROFESSOR EUGENE L. RICHARDS,

OF YALE COLLEGE.

IN

N an article on "The Physical Proportions of the Typical Man,"* Dr. Sargent has taken occasion to speak of athletics in connection with the general subject of physical development. In the following pages I wish to show that neither in that article nor in the subsequent article, on the "Physical Characteristics of Distinguished Athletes,"† did he do justice to the influence of athletics in "reminding the individual of the ultimate aim of every kind of physical exercise"; that his remarks on the loss resulting to athletics from "making excellence in achievement the primary object" of them would have had more force if they had been more discriminating; and, finally, to present some statistics which lead to conclusions favorable to athletics.

"Every writer on education, from Plato to Herbert Spencer, has advocated physical activity as a means of attaining that full-orbed and harmonious development of all parts of the human economy so essential to robust, vigorous health." Theorists, then, are agreed upon this) as the "ultimate aim of every kind of physical exercise." But we all know how difficult it is to get the best theories put into practice. They may commend themselves as the very best, but they fall far short of their good to men till they can be made working theories. In this respect the "harmonious-development " theory, whether mental or physical, forms no exception to other theories. But once get hold of some motive by which to induce even a few individuals to put a theory into practice, and half the battle is won. If it is a really good theory, its own practical examples prove the fact. "Wisdom is justified of her

† Ibid., November, 1887.

*"Scribner's Monthly," July, 1887.

VOL. XXXII.-46

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